Anglais Juridique L1 S1

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    PARTIEL DE FIN DE SEMESTRE : QCM de 45 minutes coefficient 4

    Introductory lecture: Defending basic rights

    1. Histor ofMagna Carta

    !" #$$ e!rs of %i&erties

    &" '( is it sti%% )o)u%!r tod!*

    c" T(e inf%uence ofMagna Carta

    2. +!c,-round to t(e En-%is( +i%% of Ri-(ts

    !" Protest!nts !nd C!t(o%ics

    &" Limits on t(e ) of t(e cro.n

    c" /o(n Loc,e

    3. T(e En-%is( +i%% of Ri-(ts

    4. T(e Americ!n Dec%!r!tion of Inde)endence

    5. T(e Americ!n +i%% of Ri-(ts !nd some ot(er Amendments to t(e 01S1 Constitution

    Lecture 4: e!arate but e"ual#

    Plessy v. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

    Lecture 5: $"ual !rotection of the la%

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 3!7 U.S. !83 (195!)

    Lecture &: the right to free s!eech

    Texas v. Johnson !91 U.S. 397 (1989)

    Lecture ': the right to bear ar(s

    McDonald v. hicago561 U.S. ___ (010)

    Lecture ): the right to (arriage!"ergefell v. #odges576 U.S. ___ (015)!/01!_1!_556

    Lecture *: the right to counsel

    $ideon v. %ainwright37 U.S. 335 (1963)

    Lecture 1+: the right to be !rotected against against cruel or unusual !unish(ent

    $lossip v. $loss015

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    1 Histor ofMagna Carta

    Magna Carta Libertatum(Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter which will later beconsidered as the base of the human rights.

    a, T(e mt( of #$$ e!rs of %i&erties

    Which was not true

    The rule of Law = un Etat de droit

    b, '( is it sti%% )o)u%!r tod!-

    the Magna Cartawas signed b the !ing after the oulation made him do it in #$#% because he had&iolated the rights. This document lists out what will later be called the human rights. 'ts considered asone of the most imortant udicial documents of modern democrac since it mar!s a huge twist in the*ght to ensure liberties.

    "&o free'an shall "e taken or i'prisoned or outlawed or exiled or in anyway destroyed( except "y the

    lawful )udge'ent of his peers or "y the law of the land. To no one will we sell( to no one will we deny ordelay right or )ustice.#

    'ts still oular toda because a mth was created about the origin of indi&idual rights inEngland

    c, T(e inf%uence ofMagna Carta

    This document in+uenced the English re&olutionaries in the -''th centur and the merican re&olutionaries in the -'''th centur.

    61 +!c,-round to t(e En-%is( +i%% of Ri-(ts 78d9c%!r! de droit"

    a, rotestants and Catholics

    List the di/erent 0ings and 1ueens resented during the lecture and for each one, tell if he2she was3rotestant or Catholic.

    4ame of the 0ing or 1ueen 5eligion

    6enr -''' (7 the eighth 8) Catholic at *rst, then3rotestant

    Edward -' (6enrs son) who died after 9 ears 3rotestant:ar ' (Edwards sister) Catholic

    Eli;abeth ' (:ars sister) 3rotestant

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    b, li(its of the !o%er of the cro%nGlorious 5e&olution (#9AAD#9AB) = from then on, the decided that it was the 3arliament whowas now going to decide whether the !ing2ueen was going to be a catholic or a rotestant For 3rotestants, the 5oman Catholic Church meant hierarch and authoritarianism,

    which the mistrusted. This is the root of democratic ractice. The 3rotestant 3arliament in England alied the same logic to roal ower, which the

    also mistrusted. The wrote the ill of 5ights as a !ind of contract between

    o The arliament and the citi;ens, on the one hand@o nd the !ing on the other.

    't was a guarantee that certain indi&iduals liberties could not be ta!en awa

    b, /ohn Loc0e

    $%tracts &ro' *nd Treatise:

    There +is, nothing 'ore evident than that creatures of the sa'e species and rank( +..., "orn all to the sa'e

    advantages of nature and the use of the sa'e faculties( should also "e e-ual +..., without su"ordination orsu")ection. ( !)it seems ob&ious that all human beings shall all be eual to one another.

    *t peop+e +ea,e the state o& at*re a &or' socetes "to preserve their lives( li"erties and fortunes( and "ystated rules of right and property to secure their peace and -uiet.# (137)eole organi;e themsel&es in di/erent societies to reser&e their rights and ossessions.

    f a long train of a"uses( prevarications /0 excuses found to turn away fro' a task1( and artifices( all

    tending the sa'e way( 'ake the design visi"le to the people( and they +..., feel what they lie under and

    whither /0where1 they are going( it is not to "e wondered that they should then rouse /0awaken1 the'selves

    and endeavor /0atte'pt1 to put the rule into such hands which 'ay secure to the' the ends for whichgovern'ent was first erected. (5)if the eole reali;e that their g&t does not roerl ful*ll its role, the can2will tr their bestat transferring the ower the go&ernment has to a more reliable source who will better ful*llthe go&ernments role.When the go&ernment becomes oressi&e and does not rotect the eoles rights, theha&e the right to rebel and ma!e a new go&ernment

    ;1 T(e En-%is( +i%% of Ri-(ts

    W'0'3E'H EF'4'T'?4 ?F T6E 'LL ?F 5'G6TH ?F #9AB I

    The ill of 5ights is an ctof the 3arliament of Englandthat deals with constitutional mattersand las out certain basic ci&il rights. 3assed on #9 ecember #9AB, it is a restatementin statutor formof the eclaration of 5ight resented b the Con&ention3arliamentto William and :arin Februar #9AB, in&iting them to become oint so&ereignsof England. The ill of 5ights las down limits on the owers of the monarchand sets out therights of 3arliament, including the reuirement for regular arliaments, free elections, andfreedom of seech in 3arliament. 't sets out certain rights of indi&iduals including therohibition of cruel and unusual unishmentand reestablished the libert of 3rotestantstoha&e arms for their defense within the rule of law. Furthermore, the ill of 5ights describedand condemned se&eral misdeeds of

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    constitutional reuirements of the Crownto see! the consent of the eole, as reresented in3arliament.

    $ : $ $6LI 7ILL 89 I6 ;1&)* 1''&

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    () 'e (o%d t(ese trut(s to &e se%f=e t(!t !%% men !re cre!ted e?u!%> t(!t t(e !reendo.ed78dou9" & t(eir Cre!tor .it( cert!in un!%ien!&%e ri-(ts> t(!t !mon- t(ese !re %ife> %i&ert

    !nd t(e )ursuit of (!))iness1 T(!t to secure t(ese ri-(ts> -o

    deri .i%% dict!te t(!t -o .(i%e e t(!n to ri-(t t(emse% )ursuin- in

    o&@ect e it is t(eir ri-(t> it is t(eir dut> to

    t(ro. off suc( -o !nd to )rohe hstory o& the preset ?g o& ;reat rta s a hstory o& repeate*res a *s*rpatos a++ ha,g rect o4ect the esta4+sh'et o& a a4so+*te tyray o,er thesestates. >o pro,e ths +et &acts 4e s*4'tte to a ca wor+.

    This aragrah sas wh there ha&ing a re&olution

    There are P truths (which are self-evident truths, this means that e&erbod !nows the eNist andwhat the are) I ll men are eual ll men ha&e rights, but not an !ind of rights@ the are unalienablerights@this mean ou cant

    ta!e them awa. Among( eole ha&e rights minimum) these are Io Lifeo Liberto The ursuit of hainess

    :en ma!e go&ernment to rotect their rights When a go&ernment doesnt rotect the eoles rights, the eole can destro it and ma!e a

    new one (5ight to re&olution)

    Where does the go&ernment get its ower fromOWhen it is ajust governmentit gets it ower from the eoleThe agreement is I it is the eole that are go&erned who gi&e the ower the to go&ernmentUnjust governmentha&e owers but these owers dont come from the eole who are beinggo&erned

    When the eole ma!e a new go&ernment, must it be a democracO4o laying its foundingQou can do whate&er ou want as long as the eole agreeThere is no necessit to be democratic

    6ow do ou !now when its time to change go&ernmentOPrudence, indeed, will dictate (its the same words as in

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    51 T(e Americ!n +i%% of Ri-(ts !nd some ot(er Amendments to t(e 01S1 Constitution

    TET C: $ 9I $ M$DM$ ? 15th of Dece(ber 1'*1, 8 $ M$IC

    C8I=I8 ?1')'@1')*,> C8MM8LA B8 $ M$IC 7ILL 89 I6.

    There are $ !inds of amendmentsI The ones which imose a right

    The ones which sa how a right is alied

    ut amendment #P for eNamle does both

    Amendment 765G"

    Congress shall (a0e no la% res!ecting an establish(ent of religion> or !rohibiting the free eercise

    thereofE or abridging the freedo( of s!eech> or of the !ressE or the right of the !eo!le !eaceably to

    asse(ble> and to !etition the 6oFern(ent for a redress of grieFances.Amendment 1 guarantees:

    reedom of religion no state religion, the go&ernment cannot sto ou from racticing ourreligion

    reedom of spee"h reedom of the press which is ulled to the eNtent in the RH (socialist newsaer, California

    Catholic newsaer and e&en 4a;i newsaer)

    reedom to assemble reedom to "riti"i#e the government $ ou ha&e the right to tell the go&ernment something

    is wrong and the need to change it.

    Amendment 6 = 65G1

    %ell regulated Militia ?G(ilice,> being necessary to the security of a free tate> the right of the !eo!le to

    0ee! and bear r(s> shall not be infringed.mendment $ secures the right to bear arms in a wellDguarded militia>he rght to 4ear ar's oes@t 'a

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    Amendment = 65G1

    In all cri(inal !rosecutions> the accused shall enoy the right to a s!eedy and !ublic trial> by an i(!artial

    ury of the tate and district %herein the cri(e shall haFe been co((itted> %hich district shall haFe been

    !reFiously ascertained by la%> and to be infor(ed of the nature and cause of the accusationE to be

    confronted %ith the %itnesses against hi(E to haFe co(!ulsory !rocess for obtaining %itnesses in his

    faFor> and to haFe the ssistance of Counselfor his defence.mendment 9 guarantees the rights toI

    Fast and ublic trial b imartial ur 0now what the accusation is 0now who is testifing (tSmoigner) against ou Call witness to testif for ou 6a&e a lawer hel ou

    Amendment G = 65G1

    In uits at co((on la%> %here the Falue in controFersy shall eceed t%enty dollars> the right of trial by

    ury shall be !reserFed> and no fact tried by a ury> shall be other%ise reJea(ined in any Court of the

    =nited tates> than according to the rules of the co((on la%.

    Amendment # = 65G1

    $cessiFe bail shall not be re"uired> nor ecessiFe fines i(!osed> nor cruel and unusual !unish(ents

    inflicted.eNcessi&e bail or *ne that is too high to a and no cruel or unusual unishment

    Amendment = 65G1

    he enu(eration in the Constitution> of certain rights> shall not be construed to deny or dis!arage others

    retained by the !eo!le.

    Amendment $ = 65G1

    he !o%ers not delegated to the =nited tates by the Constitution> nor !rohibited by it to the tates> are

    reserFed to the tates res!ectiFely> or to the !eo!le.

    8$ M$DM$ 8 $ =.. CK $II6 8 IDIID=L I6 ?date changes,

    Amendment ; = 6#51

    either slaFery nor inFoluntary serFitude> ece!t as a !unish(ent for cri(e %hereof the !arty shall haFe

    been duly conFicted> shall eist %ithin the =nited tates> or any !lace subect to their urisdiction.4o more sla&er, the sla&es are freed

    Amendment 4 = G##1

    ll !ersons born or naturaliHed in the =nited tates> and subect to the urisdiction thereof> are citiHens of

    the =nited tates and of the tate %herein they reside. o tate shall (a0e or enforce any la% %hich

    shall abridge the !riFileges or i((unities of citiHens of the =nited tatesE nor shall any tate de!riFe any

    !erson of life> liberty> or !ro!erty> %ithout due !rocess of la%E nor deny to any !erson %ithin its

    urisdiction the e"ual !rotection of the la%s.Hla&es become citi;ens. 6ow are the rights aliedO With due rocess of law


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    Amendment 5 = 6;#G$1

    he right of citiHens of the =nited tates to Fote shall not be denied or abridged by the =nited tates or by

    any tate on account of race> color> or !reFious condition of serFitude.Hla&es ha&e the right to &ote

    Amendment = ##6$1

    The right of citi2ens of the 3nited 4tates to vote shall not "e denied or a"ridged "y the 3nited 4tates or "yany 4tate on account of sex.Women can &ote

    Amendment 6; = ;61

    The District constituting the seat of $overn'ent of the 3nited 4tates shall appoint in such 'anner as the

    ongress 'ay direct5 6 nu'"er of electors of President and 7ice President e-ual to the whole nu'"er of

    4enators and 8epresentatives in ongress to which the District would "e entitled if it were a 4tate( "ut in no

    event 'ore than the least populous 4tate9 they shall "e in addition to those appointed "y the 4tates( "ut they

    shall "e considered( for the purposes of the election of President and 7ice President( to "e electors

    appointed "y a 4tate9 and they shall 'eet in the District and perfor' such duties as provided "y the twelfth

    article of a'end'ent.3eole who li&e in Washington C ha&e the right to &ote for resident

    Amendment 64 = 6;41

    The right of citi2ens of the 3nited 4tates to vote in any pri'ary or other election for President or 7ice

    President( for electors for President or 7ice President( or for 4enator or 8epresentative in ongress( shall

    not "e denied or a"ridged "y the 3nited 4tates or any 4tate "y reason of failure to pay any poll /0urnes1 tax

    or other tax.Qou cant &ote if ou dont a, it was a wa to eNclude eole from &oting

    Amendment 6 = GG1

    The right of citi2ens of the 3nited 4tates( who are eighteen years of age or older( to vote shall not "e denied

    or a"ridged "y the 3nited 4tates or "y any 4tate on account of age.E&erone who is #A ears old can &ote

    3H I The in"orporation of the %ill of &ights(or in"orporationfor short) is the rocess bwhich mericancourts ha&e alied ortions of the R.H. ill of 5ightsto the stateswhen itwas held onl to al to the federal go&ernment. 't comes with the #Pthamendment (Bthof

    ul #B9A)

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    LECT0RE 4:Plessy v. Ferguson7#"*rg 2ecostr*cto the &eera+ go,er'et e%pae the ,ote to 4+ache 'aorty a opo a*thore 4y G*stce Aery++gs row *phe+ state-'pose raca+ segregato. >he *stces 4ase ther ecso o the separate-

    4*t-e*a+ octre that separate &ac+tes &or 4+ache phrase Hseparate 4*t e*a+H was ot part o& the opo.) G*stce row coceethat the 1!th a'e'et tee to esta4+sh a4so+*te e*a+ty &or the races 4e&ore the +aw. *t rowote that H the at*re o& thgs t co*+ ot ha,e 4ee tee to a4o+sh stctos 4ase *po co+or orto e&orce soca+ as stg*she &ro' po+tca+ e*a+ty or a co''g+g o& the two races *sats&actoryto ether.H C short segregato oes ot tse+& costt*te *+aw&*+ scr'ato.

    Astory o& s+a,ery

    Dred Scott C!se

    Ae was a s+a,e the 4eco'es &ree 4eca*se he 'o,es p+aces the hs 'aster ca'e 4ac< so he 4eca'e as+a,e aga.

    Ae goes to co*rt 4eca*se he 4e+e,es that & he was oce &ree he w++ a+ways 4e

    >he *ge says (the 'ost racst ecso o& the 'erca hstory)


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    K.Scott s ot a ctze so ha ca@t co'e to co*rt

    Ae s 4+ac< so he s so'eoe@s property

    T(ree )oints to remem&er !&out t(e (istoric!% contet of t(is c!se1

    1) >he hstory o& race re+atos 'erca was 'ore tha 300 years +og whe ths case was arg*e

    ) C the so*ther states o& the U.S. a seres o& +aws ca++e "G' crow# +aws were passe to e&orce segregato

    3) eca*se o& ths +og a ,o+et hstory the st*ato +aws e%tre'e+y ,o+at+e a 'ay peop+e were a&ra o&a soca+ chage that 'ght res*+t co&rotato

    So a++ are ow e*a+ 4*t they o@t ha,e to stay together e*a+ 4*t separate

    Ho. t(e c!se mo

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    B+essy +ost the tra+

    Etr!ct from t(e m!@orit o)inion

    1) e coser the *er+yg &a++acy o& the p+at&&s arg*'et to cosst the ass*'pto that thee&orce separato o& the two races sta'ps the co+ore race wth a 4age o& &erorty. C& ths 4e so t sot 4y reaso o& aythg &o* the act 4*t so+e+y 4eca*se the co+ore race chooses to p*t thatcostr*cto *po t. >he arg*'et ecessar+y ass*'es that & as has 4ee 'ore tha oce the case as ot *+he arg*'eta+so ass*'es that soca+ pre*ces 'ay 4e o,erco'e 4y +egs+ato a that e*a+ rghts caot 4esec*re to the egro e%cept 4y a e&orce co''g+g (La'a+ga'e) o& the two races. e caotaccept ths proposto. C& the two races are to 'eet *po ter's o& soca+ e*a+ty t '*st 4e the res*+t o&at*ra+ a&&tes a '*t*a+ apprecato o& each others 'erts a a ,o+*tary coset o& ,*a+sM...N

    egs+ato s power+ess to eracate raca+ stcts or to a4o+sh stctos 4ase *po physca+&&ereces a the atte'pt to o so ca o+y res*+t accet*atg the &&c*+tes o& the presetst*ato. C& the c,+ a po+tca+ rghts o& 4oth races 4e e*a+ oe caot 4e &eror to the other c,++yor po+tca++y. C& oe race 4e &eror to the other soca++y the costt*to o& the Ute States caot p*tthe' *po the sa'e p+ae.

    ccorg to the *ge separatg two races oes ot ecessar+y 'ea that oe s s*peror a oe s&eror. C& 4+ac< peop+e &ee+ that "separate# 'eas &eror# the pro4+e' s ther heas ot the +aw.

    >hs s the 'aorty@s opo

    >hs s a &cto 4eca*se whe yo* +oo< at the cars o& the whtes a the 4+ache peop+e who are agast segregato who are agast segregato th< that +aws ca e+'ate racs'e (the 'aortyL the 9 *ges) th< that yo* ca@t 'aC$ A2D ssetg. C ey that ay +egs+at,e 4oy or *ca+ tr4*a+ 'ay ha,e regar tothe race o& ctzes whe the c,+ rghts o& those ctzes are ,o+,e. M...N


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    GUS>C$ A2D s a whte 'a who sho*+ 4e racst 4*t was@t.

    5) Ct was sa arg*'et that the stat*te o& o*saa oes ot scr'ate agast ether race 4*tprescr4es a r*+e app+ca4+e a+here s o caste here. 2ur constitution is co%or=&%ind>a ether

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    hat are the cose*eces o& ths ecsoJ

    Segregato was +ega+>hs po+cy wo*+ cot*e &or 60 years


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    LECT0RE 5:7ro%n F. 7oard of $ducation /0 rectorat1754"

    9acts of the case

    +ac< ch+re were ee a'sso to p*4+c schoo+s attee 4y whte ch+re *er +aws re*rg or per'ttgsegregato accorg to the races. >he whte a 4+ac< schoo+s approache e*a+ty ter's o& 4*+gs c*rrc*+a*a+&catos a teacher sa+ares. >hs case was ece together wth rggs ,. $++ott a a,s ,. o*ty Schoo+oar o& Brce $war o*ty.


    oes the segregato o& ch+re p*4+c schoo+s so+e+y o the 4ass o& race epr,e the 'orty ch+re o& the e*a+protecto o& the +aws g*aratee 4y the 1!th 'e'etJ


    0 N A N I M 2 0 S D E C I S I 2 N F 2 R + R 2 ' N E T A L 1

    Separate 4*t e*a+ e*catoa+ &ac+tes &or raca+ 'ortes s heret+y *e*a+ ,o+atg the $*a+ Brotecto+a*se o& the Fo*rteeth 'e'et

    Oes. espte the e*a+zato o& the schoo+s 4y Ho4ect,eH &actors tag4+e ss*es &oster a 'ata e*a+ty.2aca+ segregato p*4+c e*cato has a etr'eta+ e&&ect o 'orty ch+re 4eca*se t s terprete as a sgo& &erorty. >he +og-he+ octre that separate &ac+tes were per'ss4+e pro,e they were e*a+ was reecte.Separate 4*t e*a+ s heret+y *e*a+ the cote%t o& p*4+c e*cato. >he *a'o*s opo so*e the eath-

    heMason?Dickson line*se to separate the orth o& the US &ro' the so*th.

    >he schoo+s are segregate too sce the whte schoo+s a whte hgh schoo+s are '*ch 4etter


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    cotos they ha,e e+ectrcty ce 4*+gs whereas 4+ac< schoo+s are ,ery poor cotos they arecrowe a rty.

    >heseparated "ut e-ualpo+cy s a4so+*te+y ot tr*e.

    C the 50@s

    +ac< peop+e re&*se to st the co+ore secto o& the 4*s to &orce the cty to e-segregate the so*th

    &a'o*s e%a'p+e o& that s 2osa Bar< who was &e &or re&*sg to o4ey 4*s r,er@s orer to g,e *p herseat the co+ore secto to a whte passeger.

    hte peop+e as we++ starte to get sc< o& ths syste'.

    T(ree )oints to remem&er !&out t(e (istoric!% contet of t(is c!se1

    1. Separate 4*t e*a+ was the o&&ca+ po+cy 'ost co*tres o& the so*ther state. >he syste' was c+ear+y separate 4*t ot e*a+3. +ac< peop+e starte re&*sg to co&or' to the syste' thro*gh c,+ so4eece.

    Ho. t(e c!se mohe co*rt &o* that segregato has a egat,e e&&ect o 4+ach*rgoo Karsha++ was the geera+ co*se+ &or the DB. Ae was 4or 1908= he was reecte &ro' the


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    *,ersty "+aw schoo+# 4eca*se he was 4+achey are

    pre'se o &&eret &acts a &&eret +oca+ cotos 4*t a co''o +ega+ *esto *st&es thercoserato together ths coso+ate opo.

    Kr. AC$F GUS>C$ 22$D e+,ere the opo o& the co*rt. >hese cases are *'ero*s= he says thatwe sho*+ 'ahs segregato was a++ege to epr,e the

    p+at&&s o& the e*a+ protecto o& the +aws *er the Fo*rteeth 'e'et. C each o& the casesother tha the e+aware case a three-*ge &eera+ strct co*rt ee re+e& to the p+at&&s o theso-ca++e Hseparate 4*t e*a+H octre ao*ce 4y ths o*rt Plessy v. Fergson 163 U.S. 537.Uer that octre e*a+ty o& treat'et s accore whe the races are pro,e s*4stata++y e*a+&ac+tes e,e tho*gh these &ac+tes &e separate. C the e+aware case the S*pre'e o*rt o&e+aware ahere to that octre 4*t orere that the p+at&&s 4e a'tte to the whte schoo+s

    4eca*se o& ther s*perorty to the Degro schoo+s.

    A%% t(ese c!ses de!% .it( se-re-!tion on sc(oo%s

    >hese 3 F$$2 strct co*rt are correct they ha,e to app+y the segregato 4*t e*a+ po+cy 4eca*sethey ca@t chage the +aw a o+y the S*pre'e o*rt has the rght to o t. >he segregate 4*t e*a+schoo+s sho*+ 4e e*a+ 4*t they are ot ee the 4+ac< a whte p*p+s o ot ha,e the sa'e &ac+testhey are way 4etter &or the whte peop+e.

    >he p+at&&s cote (Lass*'e) that segregate p*4+c schoo+s are ot He*a+H a c!nnot &e m!de

    e?u!%>a that hece they are epr,e o& the e*a+ protecto o& the +aws. MQN

    >he p+at&&s th< that@s segregate p*4+c schoo+s "c!nnot &e m!de e?u!%a that segregato epr,ethe' o& e*a+ e*catoa+ rghts.

    C approachg ths pro4+e' we caot t*r the c+oc< 4ac< to 1868 whe the 'e'et was

    aopte or e,e to 1896 whePlessy v. Fergusonwas wrtte. e '*st coser p*4+c e*cato the +ght o& ts &*++ e,e+op'et a ts preset p+ace 'erca +&e thro*gho*t the Dato. E+y ths way ca t 4e eter'e & segregato p*4+c schoo+s epr,es these p+at&&s o& the e*a+

    protecto o& the +aws. >oay educ!tion is )er(!)s t(e most im)ort!nt functiono& state a +oca+go,er'ets. o'p*+sory schoo+ atteace +aws a the great e%pet*res &or e*cato 4othe'ostrate o*r recogto o& the 'portace o& e*cato to o*r e'ocratc socety. Ct s re*re

    the per&or'ace o& o*r 'ost 4asc p*4+c respos4+tes e,e ser,ce the ar'e &orces. Ct s


  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    the ,ery &o*ato o& goo ctzeshp. >oay t s a prcpa+ str*'et awahe 'pact s greater whe t has the sacto o& the +aw &or the po+cy o&separatg the races s *s*a++y terprete as eotg the &erorty o& the egro gro*p. sese o&&erorty a&&ects the 'ot,ato o& a ch+ to +ear. Segregato wth the sacto o& +aw there&orehas a teecy to MretarN the e*catoa+ a 'eta+ e,e+op'et o& egro ch+re a to epr,ethe' o& so'e o& the 4ee&ts they wo*+ rece,e a raca+M+yN tegrate schoo+ syste'.

    Ae says separato R e,e wth e*a+ cotos R s 4a &or ch+re@s psycho+ogca+ we++-4eg.(Aere he s tahe res*+t practce s that t 'a

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    hat s the 'a +ega+ prcp+e ,o+,e ths caseJ


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    LECT0RE :J!#&4!& 7. TE@647#4"

    9acts of the case

    C 198! &rot o& the a++as ty Aa++ ;regory ee Gohso 4*re a 'erca &+ag as a 'eas o& protest agast2eaga a'strato po+ces. Gohso was tre a co,cte *er a >e%as +aw o*t+awg &+ag esecrato. Aewas setece to oe year a+ a assesse a 000 &e. &ter the >e%as o*rt o& r'a+ ppea+s re,erse theco,cto the case wet to the S*pre'e o*rt.


    Cs the esecrato o& a 'erca &+ag 4y 4*rg or otherwse a &or' o& speech that s protecte *er the Frst'e'etJ


    C a 5-to-! ecso the o*rt he+ that Gohsos 4*rg o& a &+ag was protecte e%presso *er the Frst'e'et. >he o*rt &o* that Gohsos actos &e++ to the category o& e%press,e co*ct a ha astct,e+y po+tca+ at*re. >he &act that a a*ece tahe o*rt a+so he+ that state o&&ca+s ot ha,e the a*thorty to esgatesy'4o+s to 4e *se to co''*cate o+y +'te sets o& 'essages otg that HMN& there s a 4eroc< prcp+e*er+yg the Frst 'e'et t s that the ;o,er'et 'ay ot proh4t the e%presso o& a ea s'p+y 4eca*sesocety &s the ea tse+& o&&es,e or sagreea4+e.H

    et@s +oo< at the 1sta'e'et aga

    Amendment = 65G1

    Congress shall (a0e no la% respecting an esta"lish'ent of religion( or prohi"iting the free exercise

    thereof9 orabridging the freedo( of s!eech> or of the !ress 9 or the right of the people peacea"ly to

    asse'"le( and to petition the $overn'ent for a redress of grievances.

    >he 'erca te%t says &reeo' o& "speech#>he $*ropea says &reeo' o& "e%presso#

    >he 'erca te%t oes ot e%press +'ts a4o*t &reeo' o& speech. >her terpretato s '*ch wer thathe $*ropea oe.

    *t what s "speech#: sggJ Ao+g *p sgsJ

    hat s the act*a+ +ega+ &&erece wth a sgh &ro' gay pre a a sg &or a az partyJCt@s the cotetT

    >hose peop+e who whst+e *rg the atoa+ athe' sgg Frace were setece to 6'oths sprso a assesse wth a 7500 &e whch s a pretty hea,y p*sh'et.


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    C the protests that happe the US *rg 2eaga@s 'aate oe o& the Brotestats stea+s a &+ag &ro' ap*4+c 4*+g a g,es t to Gohso who eces to p*t o es*re sec*rty to socety

    o++ect,e staars

    GEADSED : ctze@s rght to e%press eas

    C a partc*+ar way

    C,*a+ &reeo'

    T(ree )oints to remem&er !&out t(e (istoric!% contet of t(is c!se1

    1. >here were po+tca+ protests a e'ostratos crtczg the 2eaga a'stratoCt@s ot at &+ag t@s at 2eaga= the &+ag s a way to e%press ther crtcs'. Gohso 4*ree a 'erca &+ag to e%press hs sagree'et wth the go,er'et@s po+ces. Do oewas h*rt= the o+y thg a'age was the &+ag whch was tae%as stat*te wasJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ.


    Te!s Court of Crimin!% A))e!%s

    >he o*rt o& r'a+ ppea+s _______ that Gohsos rghts *er the Frst 'e'et were

    __________ a re

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    Johnson,. 4tate(1988)

    Court of A))e!%s for t(e Fift( District of Te!s

    >he o*rt o& ppea+s &or the &&th strct _________hs co,cto.

    $regory Aee Johnson,. 4tate(1986)

    Count Crimin!% Court Num&er Ei-(t in D!%%!s Count> Te!s

    ;regory ee Gohso was ___________ o& ________ a >e%as stat*te proh4tg esecrato o&the &+ag. Ae was sentencedto oe year prso a !ssessed000.

    4tate,. $regory Aee Johnson(198!)

    Questions !&out t(e c!se

    %hat in)ustice does the original plaintiff seek to rectify

    Ae wats to 4e &ree+y a4+e to e%press hs pot o& ,ew&reeo' o& speech

    >he *stce s the +aw whch says we ca@t 4*r &+ags 4eca*se t goes agast hs &reeo' o& speechAe c+a's the >e%as +aw 4ag &+ag-4*rg ,o+ates hs rght to &ree speech.

    $tract fro( the (aority o!inion

    G*stce 2$DDD e+,ere the opo o& the o*rt.

    >hs s the ecso o& the co*rt

    1) >he Frst 'e'et +tera++y &or4s the a4rg'et o+y o& HspeechH 4*t we ha,e +og recogzethat ts protecto oes ot e at the spohe 1sta'e'et g*aratees &&eret &or's o& speech: t@s o4,o*s+y te%t wors 4*t a+so &or's o& protestor co''*cato c+*g e%press,e co*ct.Freeo' o& speech s 4asca++y ay OE)ressi

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    ) Ct re'as to coser whether the States terest preser,g the &+ag as a sy'4o+ o& atohooa atoa+ *ty *st&es Gohsos co,cto. M...N Gohso was ot we a prosec*te &or thee%presso o& *st ay ea= he was prosec*te &or hs e%presso o& ssats&acto wth the po+ceso& ths co*try e%presso st*ate at the core o& o*r Frst 'e'et ,a+*es. M...N If t(ere is !&edroc, )rinci)%e under%in- t(e First Amendment> it is t(!t t(e -o$VS s that so'e eas are so o&&es,e that they ca*se ,o+et reactos*t the S*pre'e o*rt thhe 1sta'e'et whch g*aratees &reeo' o& e%presso a 'ore partc*+ar+y &reeo' o& speech

    e%presso o& &ree speech caot 4e proh4te o the 4ass that socety &s t o&&es,e. Ct@s ot ce4*t t@s +ega+.

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    %hat was the decision

    Kr. Gohso was ot co,cte 4eca*se they cosere that he ha the rght to 4*r that &+ag sce t@s a&or' o& &reeo' o& e%presso a ths rght s g*aratee 4y the 1sta'e'et.

    Gohso@s co,cto &or &+ag esecrato s cosstet wth the 1sta'e'et

    %hat are the conse-uences of this decision

    US ctzes ha,e the rght to 4*r &+ags to e%press ther po+tca+ ,ew= &+ag 4*rg s cosere a &or' o&po+tca+ speech.


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    LECT0RE G :MCD8LD . CIC68 76$$"


    >hs case s co'p+cate a har to ea+ wth= t oes@t rea++y &t the s*4ect

    For oce ths s ot a "&ght#.Ct@s ot rea++y a4o*t the rght to 4ear ar's.>he rea+ *esto s: ca we app+y &eera+ +aws to statesJe '*st stg*sh &eera+ *rsctos &ro' state *rsctos

    >o pro,e sec*rty the US the 18thcet*ry they @t ha,e a ar'y 4*t '+tas>he peop+e ha,e the rght to ow a *se g*s so that they ca 4e part o& '+tas.

    e ha,e the rght to ha,e ar's accorg to the a'e'et 4*t ths rght s %imited

    he Ae++er ashe S*pre'e o*rt re,erse the Se,eth rc*t ho+g that the Fo*rteeth 'e'et 'a

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    'e'et "rght to he o*rt reasoe that 4eca*se o& ts ho+g #eller theSeco 'e'et app+e to the states. Aere the o*rt re'ae the case to the Se,eth rc*t to eter'ewhether hcagos hag* 4a ,o+ate a ,*a+s rght to ho'as coc*rre a coc*rre the *g'et. Ae agree that theFo*rteent( Amendment incor)or!tes t(e Second Amendment !-!inst t(e st!tes 4*t dis!-reed t(!t t(e DueProcess C%!use .!s t(e !))ro)ri!te mec(!nism. Cstea G*stce >ho'as a,ocate that the Br,+eges orC''*tes +a*se was the 'ore approprate a,e*e &or rghts corporato. G*stce Goh Ba*+ Ste,es ssete. Aesagree that the Fo*rteeth 'e'et corporates the Seco 'e'et agast the states. Ae arg*e that

    owg a persoa+ &rear' was ot a H%i&ertH terest protecte 4y the *e Brocess +a*se. G*stce Stephe ;.reyer oe 4y G*stces 2*th aer ;s4*rg a Soa Soto'ayor a+so ssete. Ae arg*e that there s othg the Seco 'e'ets Hte%t hstory or *er+yg ratoa+eH that characterzes t as a H&*a'eta+ rghtHwarratg (Lg*aratees) corporato thro*gh the Fo*rteeth 'e'et.

    T(ree )oints to remem&er !&out t(e (istoric!% contet of t(is c!se1

    1t the org the rght to 4ear ar's was protecte 4y the a'e'et a ,ew to a++ow peop+e topartcpate state-reg*+ate '+tas

    61>he strct o& o+*'4a has +aws to reg*+ate the regstratos a owershps o& g*s &or4gresets to ha,e hag*s at ho'e *+ess ther g*s were here was a case a4o*t ths p4);1 district of olu'"ia v. #eller( the s*pre'e co*rt str*c< ow the .. +aws. Ct a&&r'e the ,*a+rght to possess a &rear's &or se+&-e&ese wth o re+ato to ser,ce a '+ta. *t the r*+g app+e o+yto the &eera+ ec+a,es s*ch as ashgto.

    >he state o& ashgto ha a tota+ 4a o& 4earg ar's so they too< the case to hcagoKr Kcoa+ a 3 other peop+e say the proh4to to p*rchase a hag* &or persoa+ e&ese wascosere a ,o+ato o& ther seco a'e'et rght to 4ear ar's

    Ho. t(e c!se mohe o*rt grate (a accorX)JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJaJJJJJJJJJJJJJ5 to ! thata ,*a+s rght to

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    JJJJJJJJ Court of A))e!%s> JJJJJJJJJ Circuit

    >he o*rt o& ppea+s &or the Se,eth rc*tJJJJJJJJJJJJJJthe ctys orace

    McDonalds v. hicago

    0S District Court for t(e JJJJJJJJJJJ District of JJJJJJJJJJJJ

    >he co*rt ______________ a s*t ___________ 4y Ets Kcoa+ a 3 otherp+at&&s agast hcago c+a'g that the cty orace 4ag hag*s was

    a ,o+ato o& ther Seco 'e'ets rght to ______________

    McDonalds v. hicago

    Questions !&out t(e c!sehat s the 'a +ega+ prcp+e ,o+,e ths caseJCDE2BE2>CED.! 'e'4ers o& the 'aorty sa that the a'e'et a the rght to 4ear ar's +aws were "corporate#thro*gh the 1!tha'e'et@s g*aratee whch says that the states '*st ot "epr,e ay perso o& +&e+4erty or property wth o*ght *e process o& +aw#.

    hat was the ecsoJKc oa+ wo.>he US co*rt re,erse the ecso os the 7thcrc*t.>hey he+ that the a'e'et protects the rght to 4ear ar's &ro' &rge'et (attete) 4y +oca+go,er'et.

    hat are the cose*eces o& ths ecsoJMc Do vs hicagoc+ar&e the scope o& g* rghts regar to the states.

    $tract fro( the (aority o!inion

    ED 2C> EF $2>CE22C >E >A$ UDC>$ S>>$S EU2> EFBB$S FE2 >A$ S$P$D>A C2UC>

    GUS>C$ C>E ao*ce the *g'et o& the o*rt a e+,ere the opo o& the o*rt

    . >wo years ago District of olu'"ia v. #eller 55! U. S. ___ (008) we he+ that the Seco'e'et protects the rght to

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    >he respoet arg*es that the hcago@s orace sho*+ sta (ot 4e stoppe) 4eca*se the Ae++er ecsoo+y app+es to &eera+ *rsctos ot states.

    *. M...N we ow t*r rect+y to the *esto whether the Seco 'e'et rght to he rght to e&e yo*rse+& s a cetra+ part o& the rghts sec*re 4y the seco a'e'et. Aag*s are the'ost pop*+ar &or' o& se+& e&ese &or 'ercas who wat to 4ear ar's

    >he rght to

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    $,e & the a'e'et rght to 4ear ar's has 4ee corporate t oes ot 'ea that states or ctes arepre,ete &ro' reg*+atg &re'a.$V: proh4tos &or cr'a+ +*atcs or schoo+s a tows ha++s are st++ +ega+.

    G. C#eller we he+ that the Seco 'e'et protects the rght to possess a (!nd-un the (ome&orthe p*rpose o& se%f=defense. U+ess coseratos o&stare decisisco*se+ otherwse a pro,so o& the++ o& 2ghts that protects a rght that s &*a'eta+ &ro' a 'erca perspect,e app+es e*a++y to

    the Feera+ ;o,er'et a the States. See *ca 391 U. S. at 1!9 a . 1!. e there&ore ho+ thatt(e Due Process C%!use of t(e Fourteent( Amendment incor)or!tes t(e Second Amendment ri-(trecogze #eller. >he *g'et o& the o*rt o& ppea+s s re,erse a t(e c!se is rem!nded forfurt(er )roceedin-s.


  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    LECT0RE #:8bergefell F odges 7@une 6$5"

    o we ha,e the rght to 'arry a perso o& the sa'e-se%J.oo< *p the 'ap o& "the sate o& gay 'arrage# the US

    C ths case : two 'a were 'arre a 'o,e to a state where sa'e se% 'arrage s ++ega+. Ee o& the 'agot ++ hs h*s4a was ot a++owe to go ,st h' 4eca*se he was ot hs &a'+y they say he was ot'arre ths state.

    >he &&eret states are tahe U.S. o*rt o& ppea+s &or the S%th rc*t re,erse a he+ that the states 4as o sa'e-se% 'arragea re&*sa+ to recogze 'arrages per&or'e other states ot ,o+ate the co*p+es Fo*rteeth 'e'et rghtsto e*a+ protecto a *e process.


    (1) oes the Fo*rteeth 'e'et re*re a state to +cese a 'arrage 4etwee two peop+e o& the sa'e se%J

    () oes the Fo*rteeth 'e'et re*re a state to recogze a 'arrage 4etwee two peop+e o& the sa'e se% that

    was +ega++y +cese a per&or'e aother stateJ


  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1



    5 4 D E C I S I 2 N F 2 R 2 + E R E F E L L

    >he Fo*rteeth 'e'et re*res 4oth 'arrage +cesg a recogto &or sa'e-se% co*p+es.


    Oes yes. G*stce thoy K. ?eey e+,ere the opo &or the 5-! 'aorty. >he o*rt he+ that the *e Brocess+a*se o& the Fo*rteeth 'e'et g*aratees the rght to 'arry as oe o& the &*a'eta+ +4ertes t protects athat aa+yss app+es to sa'e-se% co*p+es the sa'e 'aer as t oes to opposte-se% co*p+es. G*ca+ preceet hashe+ that the rght to 'arry s a &*a'eta+ +4erty 4eca*se t s heret to the cocept o& ,*a+ a*too'y t

    protects the 'ost t'ate assocato 4etwee two peop+e t sa&eg*ars ch+re a &a'+es 4y accorg +ega+recogto to 4*+g a ho'e a rasg ch+re a t has hstorca++y 4ee recogze as the he $*a+ Brotecto +a*se o& the Fo*rteeth 'e'et a+so g*aratees the rght o& sa'e-se% co*p+es to 'arry as the ea+ o& that rght wo*+ ey sa'e-se% co*p+es e*a+ protecto *er the +aw. Karragerghts ha,e tratoa++y 4ee aresse thro*gh 4oth parts o& the Fo*rteeth 'e'et a the sa'e terre+ate

    prcp+es o& +4erty a e*a+ty app+y wth e*a+ &orce to these cases= there&ore the ostt*to protects the

    &*a'eta+ rght o& sa'e-se% co*p+es to 'arry. >he o*rt a+so he+ that the Frst 'e'et protects the rghts o&re+go*s orgazatos to ahere to ther prcp+es 4*t t oes ot a++ow states to ey sa'e-se% co*p+es the rght to'arry o the sa'e ter's as those &or opposte-se% co*p+es.

    he& G*stce Goh ;. 2o4erts Gr. wrote a sset whch he arg*e that wh+e sa'e-se% 'arrage 'ght 4e goo a

    &ar po+cy the ostt*to oes ot aress t a there&ore t s 4eyo the p*r,ew o& the o*rt to ece whether

    states ha,e to recogze or +cese s*ch *os. Cstea ths ss*e sho*+ 4e ece 4y ,*a+ state +egs+at*res

    4ase o the w++ o& ther e+ectorates. >he ostt*to a *ca+ preceet c+ear+y protect a rght to 'arry a

    re*re states to app+y +aws regarg 'arrage e*a++y 4*t the o*rt caot o,erstep ts 4o*s a egage

    *ca+ po+cy'ahe preceets regarg the rght to 'arry o+y strho'as oe the sset. C hs

    separate sset G*stce Sca+a wrote that the 'aorty opo o,ersteppe the 4o*s o& the o*rt@s a*thorty 4oth 4y

    e%ercsg the +egs+at,e rather tha *ca+ power a 4y og so a rea+' that the ostt*to reser,es &or the

    states. G*stce Sca+a arg*e that the *esto o& whether sa'e-se% 'arrage sho*+ 4e recogze s oe &or the state

    +egs+at*res a that &or the ss*e to 4e ece 4y *e+ecte *ges goes agast oe o& the 'ost 4asc precepts o& the

    ostt*to: that po+tca+ chage sho*+ occ*r thro*gh the ,otes o& e+ecte represetat,es. C taho'as a+so wrote a separate

    sset whch he arg*e that the 'aorty opo stretche the octre o& s*4stat,e *e process rghts &o*

    the Fo*rteeth 'e'et too &ar a og so storte the e'ocratc process 4y taho'as a+so

    arg*e that the 'aorty opo 'per'ss4+y &rge o re+go*s &reeo' 4y +egs+atg &ro' the 4ech rather

    tha a++owg the state +egs+at*re to eter'e how 4est to aress the co'petg rghts a terests at sta

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    'aorty opo agero*s+y straye &ro' the e'ocratc process a great+y e%pae the power o& the *cary

    4eyo what the ostt*to a++ows. G*stce Sca+a a G*stce >ho'as oe the sset.

    hat happee :

    ++ states co*rts &o* &a,o*r o& the p+at&&s (s t &arJ)

    >he US o*rt o& ppea+s &or the S%th rc*t r,erse. (what@s the +awJ)

    >he co*p+es appea+ to the US S*pre' o*rt (s the +aw *costt*toa+J)

    Ho. t(e c!se mo EF >A$ UDC>$ S>>$S!"ergefell v. #odges (015)

    >A$ EBCDCED:G*stce thoy K. ?eey e+,ere the opo &or the 5-! 'aorty.


  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    1. (p.8) Fro' ther 4egg to ther 'ost recet page the aa+s o& h*'a hstory re,ea+ thetrasceet 'portace o& 'arrage. >he +&e+og *o o& a 'a a a wo'a a+ways has pro'seo4+ty a gty to a++ persos wtho*t regar to ther stato +&e. Karrage s sacre to thosewho +,e 4y ther re+gos a o&&ers **e &*+&++'et to those who & 'eag the sec*+arrea+'. Cts ya'c a++ows two peop+e to & a +&e that co*+ ot 4e &o* a+oe &or a 'arrage

    4eco'es greater tha *st the two persos. 2sg &ro' the 'ost 4asc h*'a ees 'arrage sesseta+ to o*r 'ost pro&o* hopes a aspratos.

    Karrage s ,ery 'portat. C& yo*@re poor rght t oes@t 'atter yo* st++ ca get 'arrage 4eca*se t hasto o wth gty. hether or ot yo*@re re+go*s 'arrage s 'portat. Karrage s ecessary to othgs.

    Kay 'e a wo'e re+go*s a ot re+go*s th< that 'arrage p*ts gty *po ther re+atoshp

    . (p.15) >he &*a'eta+ +4ertes protecte 4y the *e Brocess +a*se o& the rghts e*'erate the++ o& 2ghts. See *ca ,. o*saa 391 U. S. 1!5 1!7R1!9 (1968). C ato these +4ertese%te to certa persoa+ choces cetra+ to ,*a+ gty a a*too'y c+*g t'atechoces that e&e persoa+ etty a 4e+e&s.

    >here are +4ertes that are the 4++ o& rghts 4*t there are other +4ertes>he 1!tha' o4+ges the states to corporate the 4asc rghts e*'erate the ++ o& 2ghts to state +aw

    *t other rghts whch are ot e%p+ct+y wrtte o*t are a+so protecte 4* ths a'e'et s*ch as the+4erty to ha,e a pr,ate +&e &or e%a'p+e.

    3. (p.16) >he at*re o& *stce s that we 'ay ot a+ways see t o*r ow t'es. ($% : s+a,ery was@tsee as a 4a thg at the t'e) >he geeratos that wrote a rat&e the ++ o& 2ghts a theFo*rteeth 'e'et ot pres*'e to he ya'c o& o*r costt*toa+syste' s that ,*a+s ee ot awat +egs+at,e acto 4e&ore assertg a &*a'eta+ rght. >he

    Dato@s co*rts are ope to *re ,*a+s who co'e to the' to ,cate ther ow rectpersoa+ sta

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    erta eas are ot e4ata4+e. >here ca@t 4e e'ocracy e,erywhere.

    Dor'a++y s*ch *estos are +e&t to the +egs+at,e 4rach

    *t ctzes ha,e the rght to as< the co*rts to ter,ee rect+y & they &ee+ ther 4asc rghts ha,e 4ee,o+ate.

    5. (p.33) Do *o s 'ore pro&o* tha 'arrage &or t e'4oes the hghest ea+s o& +o,e &e+ty

    e,oto sacr&ce a &a'+y. C &or'g a 'arta+ *o two peop+e 4eco'e so'ethg greatertha oce they were. s so'e o& the pettoers these cases e'ostrate 'arrage e'4oes a +o,ethat 'ay e*re e,e past eath. Ct wo*+ 's*ersta these 'e a wo'e to say theysrespect the ea o& 'arrage.

    +ot o& these re&ere*' were sayg that 'arrage s tratoa+ a there&ore we sho*+ respect&

    * tt@s ot a *esto o& srespect accorg to the *ge

    Sa'e-se% co*p+es respect 'arrage a as< &or e*a+ gty

    >her p+ea s that they o respect t respect t so eep+y that they see< to & ts &*+&++'et &orthe'se+,es. >her hope s ot to 4e coe'e to +,e +oe+ess e%c+*e &ro' oe o&c,+zato@s o+est stt*tos. >hey as< &or e*a+ gty the eyes o& the +aw. >he ostt*tograts the' that rght.

    >he c[ grats e,eryoe the rgt to 4e trate wth gty a e*a+ty

    eyg ho'ose%*a+ access to the stt*to o& 'arrage epr,es the' o& ths rght

    CSS$D>CD;(L >he oe who oes ot agree) G*stce 2o4erts

    6. (p. !1) *t ths o*rt s ot a +egs+at*re. hether sa'e-se% 'arrage s a goo ea sho*+ 4e o& ococer to *s. Uer the ostt*to *ges ha,e power to say what the +aw s ot what t sho*+

    4e. >he peop+e who rat&e the ostt*to a*thorze co*rts to e%ercse "ether &orce or w++ 4*t'ere+y *g'et.# >he Feera+st Do. 78 p. !65 (. 2osster e. 1961) (. Aa'+to) (capta+zatoa+tere).

    Aa says we o@t ece a4o*t gty we *st app+y the +aw.

    Ae s acc*sg the other *ges to 4e act,st.

    >he ss*e sho*+ ha,e 4ee +e&t to the states ot ece 4y the S*pre'e o*rt

    BS : G*stce 2o4erts s ot at-ho'ose%*a+ he s at co*rt-act,s'

    eca*se o& the c[toa+ prcp+e o& separato o& powers

    >he +egs+at,e 4rac passes +aws

    >he e%ec*t,e 4rac< e&orces the'

    >he *ca+ 4rach says wat the +aw s

    7. (p.!) >he 'aorty@s ecso s a act o& w++ ot +ega+ *g'et. >he rght t ao*ces has o

    4ass the ostt*to or ths o*rt@s preceet. >he 'aorty e%press+y sc+a's *ca+


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    "ca*to# a o'ts e,e a pretese o& h*'+ty ope+y re+yg o ts esre to re'ahe co*rt s wrog &or st

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    hat are the cose*eces o& ths ecsoJ

    >he ecso 'a

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    LECT0RE : 6ideon F. ain%right7;">he rght to a &ar tra+


    Etr!ct from Mir!nd! he rght to ha,e a +awyer.

    Mir!nd! KS Arion! 7"


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    $resto was arreste a&ter a cr'e ,ct' recogze h'

    Ae was charge wth rape a he po+ce o&&cers who *estoe h' ot &or' h' o& what we ow ca++ hs "Kraa 2ghts# :;Kou have the right to re'ain silent. 6nything you say can and will "e used against you in a court of law. Kou

    have the right to an attorney. f you cannot afford an attorney( one will "e provided for you. ;


    >he po+ce 'ae h' sg a co&esso whch sa that

    Ae co''tte the cr'es

    he hey ca@t p*t h' to a+ *t+ he@s act*a++y a4+e to get a +awyer.


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    oes the S%th 'e'ets rght to co*se+ cr'a+ cases e%te to &e+oy e&eats state co*rtsJ



    Oes. G*stce A*go . +ac< e+,ere the opo o& the 9-0 'aorty. >he S*pre'e o*rt he+ that the &ra'ers o& theostt*to p+ace a hgh ,a+*e o the rght o& the acc*se to ha,e the 'eas to p*t *p a proper e&ese a the stateas we++ as &eera+ co*rts '*st respect that rght. >he o*rt he+ that t was cosstet wth the ostt*to to re*restate co*rts to appot attoreys &or e&eats who co*+ ot a&&or to reta co*se+ o ther ow.

    G*stce ++a' E. o*g+as wrote a coc*rrg opo whch he arg*e that the Fo*rteeth 'e'et oes otapp+y a watere-ow ,erso o& the ++ o& 2ghts to the states. Sce costt*toa+ *estos are a+ways ope &orcoserato 4y the S*pre'e o*rt there s o ee to assert a r*+e a4o*t the re+atoshp 4etwee the Fo*rteeth'e'et a the ++ o& 2ghts. C hs separate opo coc*rrg *g'et G*stce >o' . +ar< wrote that

    the ostt*to g*aratees the rght to co*se+ as a protecto o& *e process a there s o reaso to app+y thatprotecto certa cases 4*t ot others. G*stce Goh K. Aar+a wrote a separate coc*rrg opo whch hearg*e that the 'aortys ecso represete a e%teso o& ear+er preceet that esta4+she the e%stece o& asero*s cr'a+ charge to 4e a Hspeca+ crc*'staceH that re*res the appot'et o& co*se+. Ae a+so arg*e thatthe 'aortys opo recogze a rght to 4e ,a+ state co*rts as we++ as &eera+ oes= t ot app+y a ,ast 4oyo& &eera+ +aw to the states.

    C a+ ;eo as

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    _____________________________ (court)Decision:


    _____________________________ (court)Decision:



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    Etr!ct from t(e o)inion of t(e Court

    K2. GUS>C$ ? e+,ere the opo o& the o*rt.

    1 Sce 19! wheBetts v. Brady 316 U.S. !55 was ece 4y a ,e o*rt the pro4+e' o& ae&eats &eera+ costt*toa+ rght to co*se+ a state co*rt has 4ee a cot*g so*rce o&cotro,ersy a +tgato 4oth state a &eera+ co*rts.

    61 >reatg *e process as Ha cocept +ess rg a 'ore &+* tha those e,sage other spec&ca partc*+ar pro,sos o& the ++ o& 2ghtsH the o*rt he+ that re&*sa+ to appot co*se+ *erthe partc*+ar &acts a crc*'staces the etts case was ot so Ho&&es,e to the co''o a&*a'eta+ eas o& &aressH as to a'o*t to a ea+ o& *e process.

    ;1 e accept etts ,. rays ass*'pto 4ase as t was o o*r pror cases that a pro,so o& the ++o& 2ghts whch s H&*a'eta+ a esseta+ to a &ar tra+H s 'ae o4+gatory *po the States 4ythe Fo*rteeth 'e'et. e th< the o*rt etts was wrog howe,er coc+*g that theS%th 'e'ets g*aratee o& co*se+ s ot oe o& these &*a'eta+ rghts.

    41 Qthe o*rt Betts v. Brady'ae a a4r*pt 4rea< wth ts ow we++ cosere preceets. Cret*rg to these o+ preceets so*er we 4e+e,e tha the ew we 4*t restore costt*toa+

    prcp+es esta4+she to ache,e a &ar syste' o& *stce. Dot o+y these preceets 4*t a+so re!son

    !nd ref%ection> re?uire us to reco-nie t(!t> in our !d !n)erson (!%ed into court> .(o is too )oor to (ire ! %!.er> c!nnot &e !ssured ! f!ir tri!% un%ess

    counse% is )rohat go,er'et hres +awyers to prosec*te a e&eats who ha,e the 'oey hre +awyers to

    e&e are the strogest catos o& the wesprea 4e+e& that +awyers cr'a+ co*rts areecesstes ot +*%*res.

    G1 e&eats ee &or a +awyer s owhere 4etter state tha the 'o,g wors o& Kr. G*stceS*ther+a Powell v. 6la"a'a: H>he rght to 4e hear wo*+ 4e 'ay cases o& +tt+e a,a+ & t ot co'prehe the rght to 4e hear 4y co*se+. $,e the te++get a e*cate +ay'a hass'a++ a so'et'es o s

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    >he states o@t ha,e ay terest to he+p peop+e get +awyers 4eca*se & they pay &or peop+e@s +awers they+oose 'oey sce the perso s st++ gog to go to a+.

    Ho. does it .or,*

    Ct wor

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    LECT0RE $: $lossip v. $ross76$5">hs case re&ers to the 8th a'e'et

    Amendment # = 65G1

    Excessive "ail shall not "e re-uired( nor excessive fines i'posed( nor cruel and unusual punish'ents


    hat oes cr*e+ a **s*a+ 'easJhe we ha,e a cr'a+ cr'e t@s the *rors who ece s we get the eath pea+ty

    C 197 F*r'a ,s ;eorga : e%stg eath pea+ty +aws were str*c< ow as *costt*toa+

    C 1976 ;regg ,s ;eorga : the eath pea+ty was ot per se (e so) *costt*toa+

    t ths pot the *esto s ot s the eath pea+ty o

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  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    ;s4*rg a G*stce $+ea ?aga oe the sset.

    T(ree )oints to remem&er !&out t(e (istoric!% contet of t(is c!se1

    1. the 8th a'e'et to the US costt*to pro,es a protecto agast cr*e+ a **s*a+ p*sh'et. there ha,e 4ee se,era+ ecso o& the US S*pre'e o*rt a&&r'g the costt*toa+ty o& the eath

    pea+ty as we++ as the costt*toa+ty o& the states@ 'ethos o& e%ec*to3. so'e states s*4stt*te the 1str*g 4y the Kazo+a'. *t there was a pro4+e' se,era+ cases o&4otche e%ec*tos whch the prsoer ta++y appeare to +ose cosco*sess 4*t the they woC$ C>E wrtg &or the 'aorty ao*ce the *g'et o& the o*rt MQN B2E $>A B$D>O


  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    1) E*r &rst gro* &or a&&r'ace s 4ase o pettoers@ &a+*re to sats&y ther 4*re o& esta4+shg that ay rs< o&har' was s*4stata+ whe co'pare to a 'e a aga the Beop+e ha,e ,ote to e%act the eath pea+ty as p*sh'et &or the 'ost sero*s o& cr'es.>'e a aga ths o*rt has *phe+ that ecso. t'e a aga a ,oca+ 'orty o& ths o*rt has sste

    that thgs ha,e "chage raca++y# post at a has so*ght to rep+ace the *g'ets o& the Beop+e wth therow staars o& ececy. apta+ p*sh'et presets 'ora+ *estos that ph+osophers theo+ogas astates'e ha,e grapp+e wth &or '++ea. >he Fra'ers o& o*r ostt*to sagree 4tter+y o the 'atter. Forthat reaso they ha+e t the sa'e way they ha+e 'ay other cotro,ersa+ ss*es: they +e&t t to the Beop+e toece. p. !0.

    So'e peop+e say o or say to the eath pea+ty.

    >he &o*g &athers recogze the eath pea+ty as a +egt'ate &or' o& p*sh'et

    *t the costt*to a++ows *res (the peop+e) to ece & capta+ p*sh'et s approprate &or each case.

    So ts to the co*rt to ece

    GUS>C$ SE>EKOE2ssetg!) >he o*rt appears to re+y o a &+awe sy++ogs'. C& the eath pea+ty s costt*toa+ the o*rt reasos the there

    '*st 4e a 'eas o& acco'p+shg t a th*s so'e a,a+a4+e 'etho o& e%ec*to '*st 4e costt*toa+.

    G*st 4eca*se a 'etho o& e%ec*to s the 4est chose a,a+a4+e at the t'e oes ot 'ea s ot cr*e+

    Q C& a State wshes to carry o*t a e%ec*to t '*st o so s*4ect to the costrats that o*r ostt*to 'poses o tc+*g the o4+gato to es*re that ts chose 'etho s ot cr*e+ a **s*a+.

    h+e the eath pea+ty s +ega+ cr*e+ e%ec*to s ot

    erta+y the coe'e has o *ty to e,se or pc< a costt*toa+ str*'et o& hs or her ow eath. For thesereasos the o*rt@s a,a+a4+e-a+terat,e re*re'et +eas to patet+y a4s*r cose*eces. Bettoers cote thatE

  • 7/24/2019 Anglais Juridique L1 S1


    raw a *artere s+ow+y tort*re to eath or act*a++y 4*re at the staEKOE2) s sayg that s the pahe aswer s that the 'atters C ha,e sc*sse s*ch as +ac< o& re+a4+ty the ar4trary app+cato o& a sero*s a

    rre,ers4+e p*sh'et ,*a+ s*&&erg ca*se 4y +og e+ays a +ac< o& peo+ogca+ p*rpose are*tesseta++y *ca+ 'atters. >hey cocer the &+cto ^ ee the *&ar cr*e+ a **s*a+ &+cto ^ o&a sero*s p*sh'et *po a ,*a+. C recogze that 197 ths o*rt a sese t*re to ogress a the

    state +egs+at*res ts search &or staars that wo*+ crease the &aress a re+a4+ty o& 'posg a eathpea+ty. >he +egs+at*res respoe. *t the +ast &o*r ecaes cosera4+e e,ece has acc*'*+ate that thoseresposes ha,e ot worh*s we are +e&t wth a *ca+ respos4+ty. >he $ghth 'e'et sets &orth there+e,at +aw a we '*st terpret that +aw. Q For the reasos C ha,e set &orth ths opo C 4e+e,e t hgh+y+he 'ates +ost5 to ! ecsoCt *phe+ the seat,e *se Ehe e%ec*to E