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The Journal of Business Inquiry 2010, 9, 1, http:www.uvu.edu/woodbury/jbi/volume9 ISSN 2155-4056 (print)/ISSN 2155-4072 (online)
Compulsive Buying: A Theoretical Framework
By LETTY WORKMAN and DAVID PAPER
For the nearly 18 million Americans suffering from compulsive buying (Bragg, 2009), the process of shopping and buying has caused their lives to go out of control (Magee, 1994; Black, 2007). In an era of social responsibility (Kerin et al., 2011), marketers should understand the negative outcomes of this disease and ensure that marketing practices are not contributing to this social and economic problem. A theoretical framework of compulsive buying is presented, incorporating constructs/data themes from previous research in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and marketing. Personality antecedents and short and long term consequences describe the addictive consumer disease. Marketing implications and future research directions are discussed. Keywords: Compulsive Buying, Compulsive Buying Theory, Compulsive Buying Framework, Compulsive Buying Antecedents, Compulsive Buying Consequences, Shopping Addiction JEL Classification: D1
Over the years many jokes, expressions, and sales of specialty merchandise have made light of consumers who shop and buy frequently e.g., When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping, I need some Retail Therapy, or I am a shopaholic. Yet, for 18 million Americans suffering from compulsive buying, the process of shopping and buying has caused their lives to literally go out of control (Magee, 1994; Black 1996; 2007). These consumers are similar to substance abusers because they are unable to control their buying behavior, and they experience a high by buying merchandise (Magee, 1994; Black 1996; 2007). Only recently have researchers (e.g., McElroy et al. 1991; 1994; Christenson et al., 1992; Magee, 1994; Faber et al. 1995; Black 1996; 2007) begun to investigate the various negative social, psychological and financial consequences associated with the estimated 18 million compulsive buyers (Bragg, 2009).
In a marketing era of social responsibility (Kerin et al., 2011), if marketers either knowingly or unknowingly encourage increased consumption among compulsive buyers who cannot pay for their purchases, potential negative outcomes stand to impact others well beyond the span of the personal psychological and financial situations of individual consumers. Financial institutions providing retailer and customer credit, retail institutions, all other consumers, as well as the nations economy become subject to the increasing costs realized by compulsive buyers mounting and non-collectable debt (Bragg, 2009).
Workman: Assistant Professor of Marketing, Department of Marketing, Woodbury School of Business, Utah
Valley University, 800 West University Parkway, Orem, UT 84058. (Email: Letty.Workman@uvu.edu), Phone: (801) 863-8855, Fax: (801) 863-7218; Paper: Professor of Management Information Systems, Department of Management Information Systems, Jon M. Huntsman School of Business, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84622. (E-mail: email@example.com), Phone: (435) 797-2456.
JOURNAL OF BUSINESS INQUIRY 2010
The relevant marketing literature has evolved from initially focusing on impulsivity and how to encourage this consumption pattern among all consumers, (e.g., Patterson, 1963; Cox, 1964; Stern, 1962; Kollat and Willett, 1967). More recent research, has investigated the construct of compulsive consumption (e.g., Faber, OGuinn, and Krych, 1987; Faber and OGuinn, 1989; OGuinn and Faber, 1989; 1992; Scherhorn, Reisch, and Raab, 1990; Valence, dAstous, and Fortier, 1988; Peter, 1991; Nataraajan and Goff, 1991; McElroy et al. 1991; 1994; Christenson et al., 1992; Hirschman, 1992; Magee,1994; DeSarbo and Edwards, 1996; Faber et al. 1995; Black 1996; 2007), with a focus on the possible negative outcomes experienced by individual consumers predisposed to behave abnormally in the marketplace. A review of the relevant research follows, providing the basis for the development of this studys theoretical framework.
From a theoretical perspective, the study offers an integrated framework by bringing together diverse constructs/data themes from previous research from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and marketing, toward an improved general understanding of the compulsive buying addictive disease. Integrated from the reviewed literature, Figure 1 displays the construct and theme relationships for the antecedents and consequences of the compulsive buying disease.
II. Review of the Literature
Longmans Dictionary of Psychology and Psychiatry (Goldenson, 1984) defines compulsion, as a persistent, uncontrollable impulse to perform a stereotyped, irrational act, such as washing the hands 50 times a day. The act serves an unconscious purpose, such as a means of warding off anxiety, avoiding unacceptable impulses, or relieving a sense of guilt, (Goldenson, 1984, p. 165). Driven by underlying urges of a serious and lasting nature, compulsive behaviors are repeated, sometimes to obsession, such as 50 washings of the hands, in an attempt to address unresolved underlying issues. This differs from when an impulse purchase occurs, as it is typically driven by an external stimulus and once it is consumed, the internal drive is satisfied. But with compulsive behaviors, the mere act of washing ones hands an additional time does not resolve the deeper issue within, such as an abnormal fear of bacteria or disease. Thus, the act is repeated and continued because the compelling drive remains unresolved. When acted out and recognized, compulsive behaviors are nearly always considered negatively and as abnormal and/or socially undesirable.
Impulsive human behavior and compulsive behavior disorders have been described and operationalized over centuries in the literatures of philosophy (e.g., Plato, 300B.C. as discussed in Hamilton, 1962; Aristotle, 300 B.C. as discussed in McKeon, 1941), economics (e.g., Marshall, 1890; Bohm-Bawerk, 1959), psychiatry (e.g., Popkin, 1989; McElroy, Keck, Pope, Smith, and Strakowski, 1994; Lejoyeux, Hourtane, and Ades, 1995;) sociology (e.g., Klemmack, Carlson, and Edwards, 1974; Faber and OGuinn, 1988b), social psychology (Rotter, 1966; Oxford, 1985), psychoanalytical psychology (e.g., Freud, 1936, 1959, 1962; Beck, 1967; Chelton and Bonney, 1987), as well as within the last several decades in marketing (Rook, 1987; Faber and OGuinn, 1988a, 1988b, 1989). It is reasonable to believe that these constructs have captured the imagination of humankind for so long because, as we are differentiated from all other living creatures by our rational natures, we strive to better understand why we sometimes behave without reason. In addition, finding ways to avoid or at least reduce the suffering of corresponding negative consequences promotes our long-term best interests.
Plato addressed the issue of a compulsive behavioral tendency when he described the man who persistently acts without temperance or reason, and is thus inevitably destined for misfortune.
VOL. 9 WORKMAN and PAPER:COMPULSIVE BUYING: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Serving as the central theme and point of philosophical discussion in several of Platos dialogues (e.g., The Republic and Philebus in Hamilton, 1963), Socrates debates with other philosophers about the importance of consistently acting with measure (temperance), proportion, reason, and intelligence in order to realize and live life to its fullest, the good life. Those acting without these characteristics are described as being ruled by the short term, impure variety of pleasure, as opposed to those acting in accordance with the purest form of pleasure, that of the soul (Hamilton, 1963).
It is important to note that although diverse literatures have historically focused on the negative outcomes of impulsive and compulsive human behaviors, thus serving as a warning to rational humans to think before they leap, marketers have traditionally been interested in encouraging leaping before thinking consumption behaviors, where purchases are made swiftly and/or repeatedly before deliberation of possible alternatives and consequences is given more time. Selling additional goods to more consumers is, after all, one of the major objectives when the goal is to increase market share and generate increased profits. Millions of dollars each year are appropriated by corporations to discover additional effective tactics that encourage rapid and repeated consumption behavior.
A body of marketing literature has developed over the past few decades in an effort to better understand the cognitive, affective, and situational variables impacting consumers propensities to purchase goods impulsively (e.g., Faber, OGuinn, and Krych, 1987; Rook, 1987; Faber and OGuinn, 1989; OGuinn and Faber, 1989 and 1992; Peter, 1991; Hirschman, 1992; Nataraajan and Goff, 1991; Edwards, 1992, 1993, 1994a). Managerial implications of these studies have frequently related to prescriptive retail tactics designed to encourage this type of consumption pattern.
However, although striving to increase sales and profits via these tactics stands to benefit retailers, the encouragement and development of these behavioral tendencies poses serious problems for a growing number of consumers. The double digit rise in the number of this nations personal bankruptcy filings in the past decade, for example, points toward an increasing number of consumers who are evidencing consumption patterns far beyond their financial means (US Department of Commerce 2008). Moreover, national figures ending 2008 indicate that the average American family has accrued $8