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    SEMINAR

    BY-M R ANAND SAGAR

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    WHYNEED FOR NEW ECO

    FRIENDLY SOURCE OFENERGY

    HARVESTING

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    CURRENT PROBLEMmore than 90% ofgreenhouse gas emissions come from thecombustion of fossil fuels.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas
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    FUTURE PROBLEMThe American Petroleum Institute estimated in 1999 that theworld's oil supply would be depleted between 2062 and 2094

    by 2005 that proportion had

    dropped to about 8%

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    SOME ECO FRIENDLY SOURCE OF

    ENERGY ARE :GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    SOLAR ENERGY

    WIND ENERGY

    TIDAL ENENGY

    NUCLEAR ENENGY

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    Space-basedsolar power

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    CONCEPTTo generate power in space for use on Earth

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    INDRODUCTION

    It is putting the solar panels in spacewhere the sun is always shining. Solar cells will

    convert solar energy into electrical energy.

    The power would then be beamed to Earth in

    the form of some sort of electromagnetic

    waves, likely lasers or microwaves, to a

    ground-based station that could then deliver

    power to customers over existing transmission

    lines

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    PRIMARY REQUIREMENTS

    Financial

    Public Acceptance

    Microwave Receiving Antenna Facilities

    Potential of Laser for SBSP Power Transmission

    Mapping of Exclusion Areas

    Public Outreach Experiment

    Power Transmission and Reception

    Space Transportation

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    WORKING

    Converting solar energy into electro magnetic

    waves

    Beaming electro magnetic waves towards therectenna

    Converting electro magnetic waves intoelectric energy

    Transmitting electric energy to the consumers

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    SYSTEM CONVERTING SOLAR ENERGY INTO

    ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND AGAIN CONVERTING TO

    EM WAVES

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    BEAMING OF E-M WAVES

    EM WAVES REACHING THE RECEIVER

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    EM WAVES REACHING THE RECEIVER

    SIDE

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    RECTENNA RECEIVING THE EM WAVES

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    EM WAVES CONVERTED BACK INTO

    ELECTRICAL ENERGY

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    ELECTRICAL ENERGY SEND TO THE

    CONSUMERS

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    WHY TO PUT SOLAR

    CELLS IN SPACEWHY NOT ON THE

    SURFACE OF EARTH

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    SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF ENERGY

    REFLECTED BACK INTO SPACE

    Approximately 30 percent

    of SOLAR ENERGY isreflected directly back by

    the atmosphere and by

    clouds

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    SOLAR ENERGY EVEN AT NIGHT

    MULTIPLE

    REFLECTORS CAN

    BE USED TO SEND

    LIGHT TO DARKPLACES

    &

    ELECTROMAGNETI

    C WAVES CAN BETRANSMITTED ANY

    WHERE AT ANY

    TIME

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    SPACE-BASED SOLAR POWERESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF

    THREE PARTS:

    a means of collecting solar power in space,

    a means of transmitting power to earth

    a means of receiving power on earth

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    A MEANS OF COLLECTING

    SOLAR POWER IN SPACESOLAR CELLS

    Extremely high efficiency solar

    cells are essential

    Now a days triple junction gallium

    arsenide on germanium cells are

    used in satellites .

    Its efficiency is 40.4%

    Normal solar cells capable of

    generating 1W Costs around 3-4 $

    A MEANS OF TRANSMITTING POWER

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    A MEANS OF TRANSMITTING POWER

    TO EARTH

    MICROWAVE POWER

    TRANSMITERS OR CAVITY

    MAGNETRON IS USED TOTRANSMIT ELECTRICAL

    ENERGY

    OVER LONG DISTANCES

    WIRELESSLY WITH ANEFFICIENCY OF ABOUT 65 %

    A MEANS OF RECEIVING

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    A MEANS OF RECEIVING

    POWER ON EARTH

    RECTENNA IS THE DEVICE WHICH

    IS USED IN CONVERTING THE

    IN COMING MICROWAVES INTO

    ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    IN LABORATORY ENVIRONMENTS,EFFICIENCIES OF 90% HAVE BEEN

    OBSERVED

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    WHERE TOINSTALLTRANSMITTERS

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    LOCATIONS OF TRANSMITTERS

    Geostationary orbit

    Low Earth orbit

    Moon

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    GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT

    Geosynchronous orbit is directly

    above the Earth's equator with a

    period equal to the Earth's

    rotational period hence

    transmitter and receiver willalways be in a straight line

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    MOONThe main reason for locating the solarpower collector on the moon is that

    most of its mass could be constructed

    out of locally available lunar materials

    significantly reducing the amount of

    mass and therefore the launch costs

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    WHERE TOLOCATERECEIVERON EARTH

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    RECTENNAS WOULD BE

    MANY KILOMETERS ACROSS

    ARABLE LAND OR NON ARABLE

    LAND CAN BE USED

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    ADVANTAGESstandard extraterrestrial level of solar irradiance is1367 W/m2 which is 144% more than that of terrestrial

    solar irradiance

    satellite-based solar panel can collect power 24 hoursper day, whereas a terrestrial station can collect for at

    most 12 hours per day, if weather permits

    Unlike oil, gas, ethanol, and coal plants, space solar

    power does not emit greenhouse gases

    http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/terrestrialhttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/terrestrial
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    DISADVANTAGES

    HIGH INITIAL COST

    A 4 GW power station would weigh around 4000 metric tonnes.

    For launching this 150 heavy lift launch vehicles are needed

    Estimated serial launch cost for shuttle-based

    HLLVs of $500 million to $800 million

    Alternative HLLVs at $78 million, total launch costs would

    range between $11 billion (low cost HLLV, low weight panels)

    and $320 billion ('expensive' HLLV, heavier panels,)

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    ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    When hot rocket exhaust reacts with

    atmospheric nitrogen, it can form

    nitrogen compoundsThese nitrogen compounds are

    problematic when they form in the

    stratosphere, as they can damage theozone layer

    S

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    SAFETYThe transmitting waves should not be so intense as

    to injure birds

    Locating rectenna near to sea shore will present

    serious problems like corrosion of structure,

    mechanical stress

    Exposure to the beam can be minimized in two ways

    On the ground physical access is controllable byfencing

    Protective metal shell can be used to cover planes

    flying through the beam

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    CONCLUSION

    THIS TECHNOLOGY IS HIGHLY

    EFFICIENT AND CAN GIVEENERGY FREE OF COST IN

    LATER STAGE.

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    THANKS

    TO

    Mr. BULBULE

    DISCOVERY CHANNEL

    ENCARTA

    WIKIPEDIA