Analysis of the Long Jump Takeoff & Landing

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LA84 Coaching Education Advanced Clinic Contemporary Analysis of the Long Jump Takeoff and Landing The Sinusoidal Pattern Cameron T. Gary USATF Certified Level II Coach Jumps - Sprints, Hurdles & Relays
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Advanced Long Jump technique analysis

Transcript of Analysis of the Long Jump Takeoff & Landing

  • 1. Cameron T. Gary USATF Certified Level II Coach - Jumps - - Sprints, Hurdles & Relays

2. Basics of Jumping How do we jump? Flexion, followed by a fast, coordinated extension of the hips, knees and ankles until foot release Triple-Extension The most basic of movements Not particularly athletic, per se Summation of Forces THE most efficient power delivery and jumping effect All THREE movements are needed Otherwise it is not a jump Try jumping without extending any one of the three segments 3. The Hip Hinge Is the foundation of jumping movements Sprinting and Jumping movements originate at the HIPS! The arms and legs amplify power Power Delivery Proximal Distal 4. Concentric Jumping At the most basic level Pushing only - purely concentric movement STRENGTH oriented Concentric movements Used when moving from a stationary position Sprint starts Beginning of an approach run This is the area we are training with: Conventional weight lifting squats, power cleans, snatches, dead lifts, etc. Jumping up onto a surface Running up stairs This is the foundation of basic jumping But not maximal sprinting and jumping there IS a difference! 5. Counter-Movement Jumping Quick drop of mass increases amount of force applied to the ground Increase the weight without increasing the mass The beginnings of the SSC The arms are used to assist in developing force into the ground Applied downward then upward Hinged segmental movement The more force you apply into the ground, the more return you can impart through the body More athletic commonly used in various team sports, etc. Eccentric and isometric You are strongest eccentrically Bench Press analogy 6. Plyometric Effect SSC - Stretch-Shortening Cycle RAPID Eccentric, Isometric and Concentric Contractions Absorption (ballistic) - Eccentric Contraction; the dropping downward Isometric (stabilizing) The base from where you start the explosion Explosion (reactive) - Concentric Contraction; the exploding upward The FASTER the better Focus on dynamic power Work/Time We must maximize impulse Change in direction (of momentum) Teach your athlete to LAND (absorb impact) Then learn to rebound think of delivering a blow before they strike the ground Functional Leg Stiffness is key Imagine a bouncing rubber ball the harder the ball, the higher the bounce This applies to both the sprinting and jumping movements Knee angles are shallow, ground contact is faster Force applied into the ground is higher This is the reactionary speed part of sprinting Running jumps are nothing more than a change in direction as is sprinting! There really is no horizontal jumping it is a transitional vertical impulse The hips move in a wave-like (sinusoidal) pattern as the athlete travels horizontally 7. Leg Stiffness VERY Important At the beginning of the run The athlete is overcoming inertia - focus on strength Vertical hip displacement/heel recovery is low The focus is on Horizontal displacement (pushing to rear) As the athlete is moving at top (controlled) speed There is insufficient ground contact time to use raw strength Focus on ballistic-reactive power (downward strike) Vertical displacement/heel recovery is higher After maximal velocity is attained The support leg grounds near BDC Faster athletes tend to displace higher while maintaining an optimal (not maximal) stride frequency Good leg stiffness allows for an eccentric FRONT side foot strike Poor leg stiffness leads to Low/Slow vertical displacement Incomplete swing/plant cycle and poor/slow REAR side mechanics 8. You must get DOWN to go up The last two strides: Long Short Short Long The wave pattern Establishes the flight path Long strides = long jumps Short, choppy strides = short, high jumps Take-off foot is well forward of the COM 9. Hinged-Moment Analogy If you could imagine a pogo stick with wheels, you understand the hinged- moment This is what propels a pole-vaulter over the bar It is also what allows us to jump vertically while moving horizontally And the reason for the penultimate/pre-recruitment transition The foot contact checks horizontal velocity - imparting forward rotation Sprinting BDC; Jumping Forward of BDC 10. Jumping Application Objective Project Center of Mass (COM) as far into the pit However there is a constant battle vs. forward rotation Optimal take-off angles why? 18 22 degrees horizontal velocity is the main contributor to distance (jump out, not up) COM is not starting from the ground but above ground 11. Center of Mass Mass is NOT weight Mass is a function of matter Gravity is a function of the magnetic pull of mass toward the earths core Body Positions re: COM Standing Bending Front Side Arms play a role DONT forget them! This is relevant to the flight Especially the landing positions 12. In-Air Movements only Preserve Landing Positions The Approach and Take-Off establish potential flight distance Coach what matters most! 13. Flight Styles Sail/Stride Jump Generally used by beginning jumpers Hang Where the athlete simply hangs as if suspended from a pull-up bar Lengthens the body, slows rotation Hitch-Kick Running off the board The arms and legs continue to move quickly Arms/Legs counteract rotation 14. Action-Reaction Newtons Laws Every action causes an equal and opposite reaction Strong impulse into ground yields greater return to the body Weak impulse has the same effect Arms relative to Torso Set the pace/tempo Rear Arm Sweep Example Horizontal Vertical Legs relative to whole body Same affect as the arms, but bigger Think of this when you consider your flight mechanics 15. Landings Heels out, toes up Hands must stay outside of the hips Variations Slide in Buttocks in Hole Pop-Out kind of NEVER reach forward on landing It does not combat forward rotation One will NOT be able to hold your feet up regardless of the number of sit-ups one does! 16. Wall Test 17. Sand Clearance Sitting back is the least of your worries Remember - 80% of your jump distance is determined while still on the ground Sweep the arms forward after breaking the sand Who hasnt heard the statement? It was a good jump, but he sat back RememberThe sand will move! A sure sign of over-rotation is a jumper that pops forward out of the pit after landing Especially if His/her hands are forward His/her arms are between their knees This might look cool, but it costs the jumper valuable distance 18. Video Analysis. 19. Summary & Questions 20. www.ctgdevelopment.net 619-895-4699 [email protected]