Amruth ganapathy difficulties with major bulk cargoes


Transcript of Amruth ganapathy difficulties with major bulk cargoes



Operational difficulties !!!!

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STEEL finished productsRust developmentHandling / bad stowageContamination


Coating damageHandling damage

COALFIRE / EXPLOSIONSELF HEATING monitoring CO levelsMETHANE explosion. Surface ventilationCORROSION high sulphur content and moisture. Measuring pHCoal cargoes may emit methane gas which is flammable. A methane/air mixture containing between 5% and 16% methane constitutes an explosive atmosphere that can be ignited by sparks or naked flame

Self Heating

Excess moisture cargo claim

Operational ProceduresHolds should be surface ventilated for the first 24 hours after departure from the loading portIn case of potential self-heating the hatches are kept closed and surface ventilation is limited to the absolute minimum time to remove any accumulated methane. Any self-heating is indicated by increasing concentration of carbon monoxide in the hold. Trimming at the ends to prevent air permeating the body of the coal. This aspect is sometimes ignored in the rush to sail from the port and untrimmed holds can contribute to self heating during the voyage. Coals may be subject to oxidation, leading to depletion of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide in the cargo spaceSome coals may be liable to react with water and produce acids which may cause corrosion.

DRI direct reduced ironDRI is the raw material used in the production of steel in electric arc furnaces, which form the majority of the steel production facilities worldwide. DRI can be split into two distinct subgroups; cold moulded pellets or hot moulded briquette

Hot iron when in contact with water can cause a chemical reaction resulting in the production of hydrogen, which is highly explosive in the correct quantities. The generation of hydrogen is the most dangerous property of DRI and has led to several fatal explosions

If this product becomes wet it can significantly overheat and emit hydrogen gas. Thus it must be carried under inert conditions. Nitrogen gas is normally used and is applied to the holds by way of a temporary manifold fitted to the tank top prior to loading Gas monitoring of the holds, normally for hydrogen and oxygen, must also be undertaken throughout the voyage.


ORES any ore !!Concentrates copper, lead or zin. Partially washed or concentrate ores.Longitudinal distribution with fast loading.A large number of open pit mines operate below ground water level. Cargoes which contain a certain proportion of FINE particles and a certain amount of MOISTURE may liquefy if shipped with a moisture content in excess of their transportable moisture limit. Cargoes may appear to be dry when loaded, and yet may contain sufficient moisture to saturate parts of the cargo which can become fluid under the stimulus of compaction and vibration during a voyage.

STATISTICSVESSELDWTBUILTDEATHSWHENCARGOORIGINAsian Forest14k20070July 2007I.O. FinesIndiaBlack Rose39k19771Sep 2009I.O. FinesIndiaJian Fu Star45k198313Oct 2010Nickel oreIndonesiaNasco Diamond57k200921Nov 2010Nickel oreIndonesiaHong Wei50k200110Dec 2010Nickel oreIndonesiaVinalines Queen56k200522Dec 2011Nickel orePhilippinesSun Spirits11k20070Jan 2012I.O. FinesPhilippinesHarita Bauxite50k198315Feb 2013Nickel oreIndonesiaTrans Summer57k20120Aug 2013Nickel orePhilippines

MV Black Rose capsized after sailing from Paradip Sept 2009

LIQUEFACTIONIn a dry, granular, cargo the individual particles are in contact with each other such that frictional forces prevent them sliding over one another. However, if there is enough moisture present then there is the potential for the cargo to behave like a liquid. This is because settling of the cargo occurs under the influences of vibration, over stowage and the motion of the ship. Loss of stability and over recent years, has been associated with the loss of life in numerous marine casualties. Group A cargoes in the IMSBC Code. Group A consists of cargoes which may liquefy if shipped at a moisture content in excess of their transportable moisture limit. Associated with some of these casualties and near misses has been poor compliance with the testing and certification requirements that are designed to ensure that cargoes are loaded only if the moisture content is sufficiently low to avoid liquefaction occurring during the voyage

IMSBC CodeThe new schedule for Iron Ore Fines, a Group A Cargo, is valid for iron ore cargoes containing both 10% or more of fine particles less than 1 mm in diameter and 50% or more of particles less than 10 mm in diameter.

The existing schedule for Iron Ore, a Group C Cargo, is amended to be valid for iron ore cargoes containing either less than 10% of fine particles less than 1 mm in diameter, or less than 50% of fine particles less than 10 mm in diameter, or both.Cargoes can be tested using either the flow table method or the penetration test method, both of which involve increasing the moisture content of a sample until actual liquefaction is observed. For genuine Group C cargoes, this point is never reached and so no transportable moisture limit can be determined.

MININGChrome ore / manganese ore any contamination renders the manganese ore useless.Sun dry

BAUXITEOn 2nd January 2015, bulk carrier BULK JUPITER carrying a cargo of approximately 46,400 tonnes of bauxite on a voyage from Kuantan, Malaysia, to Qingdao, sank approximately 150 nautical miles off the coast of Vietnam with the loss of 18 lives from a crew of 19. A marine safety investigation carried out by the vessels flag State has uncovered evidence to suggest that the loss of the vessel may have been caused by liquefaction of the cargo. The potential for bauxite to liquefy is not specifically addressed in the IMSBC Code, with the material only being identified as Group C.


HULLSevere structural damage may occur to bulk carriers due to loading/unloading operations. Such damage may occur instantly, and may, in severe cases, endanger the ships safety unless rectified rapidlyIron ore, however, is usually shipped in alternate cargo holds because of its high specific gravity. This is done for the purpose of avoiding excessively stiff ship motion and also for the convenience of loading facilities. Hull stress monitoring system

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