America Becomes an Imperial Power Mr. Phipps. I. The Turning Point The Spanish American War...

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Transcript of America Becomes an Imperial Power Mr. Phipps. I. The Turning Point The Spanish American War...

  • America Becomes an Imperial PowerMr. Phipps

  • I. The Turning PointThe Spanish American War (1898-1899)

  • BackgroundSpanish Oppression of NativesYears of poverty, cruelty, brutality, deprivationHad taken native landCubans revolted (1895) and torched sugar plantations, resulting in further brutality by Gen WeylerAmericans intervened only to get better price on sugar

  • Americas Foreign PolicyA Shift in Policy for the U.S.Needed to enforce the Monroe Doctrine--to protect the Western Hemisphere from foreign aggressionNeeded to compete with the European imperialismNeeded new ports to facilitate trade with new markets

  • The Great White FleetTheodore Roosevelt, Asst. Sec. of NavyInitiated first peace-time mobilizationRefaced navy to include battleships, speedboats, gunships, and support carriersAll naval vessels under mechanical power--fuel, coal, electricityAll vessels made of steelAll vessels continuously fueled and ready

  • II. The U.S.S. Maine

  • The War StartsU.S.S. MaineSent to Cuba to monitor Cuban militarism (spy on the Spanish)Feb. 15, 1898, the U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana BayCause unknown, but Spanish are suspected of planting a bomb260 American sailors diedResulted in public outcry and demand for warModern evidence suggests that faulty wiring, combined with rust and proximity to ammunition caused the explosion

  • Yellow JournalismWilliam Randolph Hearst and Joseph PulitzerCompeted in selling newspapersFocused on sensationalist reportingOften untrue, exaggerated storiesNational Enquirer style headlinesFlashy, violent picturesPublished private De Lome (Spanish ambassador) that criticized the PresidentArgued for war, as it would sell more papers

  • A Splendid Little WarThe War in the PhilippinesSpains empire included the Philippines, Cuba, and a series of islands in the PacificRoosevelt sent Great White Fleet to the Philippines to prevent Spanish naval mobilization and destroy its fleetAdmiral Dewey, head of the naval fleet, destroyed Spains navy within days of its arrival

  • The War in CubaAmerican military unprepared and untrainedArmy was given woolen underwearNo military leadership with experienceFood rations were tainted, canned meat gave soldiers food poisoningDysentary, malaria, and yellow fever were commonGen. Shafter, the ranking general, had gout, was grossly obese, and had to be carried to battleMajor Battles: Battle of Guarisimas and Battle of San Juan Hill

  • The Results of the Spanish American WarThe U.S. won islands from SpainCuba, The Philippines, Puerto RicoThe U.S. gained control of Pacific sea trade lanesThe U.S. improved reputation for helping people become democraticThe U.S. became an internationally recognized military and political power

  • III: American Involvement in the World

  • Alaska (1867)Sewards FollyWanted as a buffer from RussiaConsidered idiotic because of its apparent uselessness Bought for $7.2 millionWould yield petroleum, oil, timber, and silver

  • Hawaii (1893)Queen Liliuokalani forced to abdicate her throne to husband, a puppetAmerican sugar plantations forced the revolution in order to dictate price of sugarAmerican govt supported it because it wanted Pearl Harbor as strategic portConsidered an egregious abuse of powerStarted a huge Hawaiian fashion in mainland

  • Japan (1908)TRs Nobel Peace PrizeResult of mediating the Russo-Japanese WarAmerica chosen to arbitrate international disputeNeither side happy with result, forcing migration wave in 1906Gentlemans AgreementAmerican government could dictate Japanese immigrationRoot-Takahira AgreementU.S. forced integration in San Francisco schools, because of racial discrimination following immigration

  • ChinaBackgroundNeeded a balance to industrializing power of Japan and Russian expansionChina remained decentralized, agricultural, and primitiveChinese had immigrated to the U.S. to help build railroadChinese Exclusion Act (1882)--banned Chinese immigration

  • The Open Door Policy (1899)Issued by John Hay (U.S. Sec. of State)Urged European powers to carve up China into spheres of influenceAllow free trade and open exploitation by all European powersMaintain peace and balance power around the world

  • The Boxer Rebellion (1900)The Peaceful Harmonious FistsStudent organization protested the incursion of missionaries and European businessmenCalled them foreign devilsKilled over 200 missionaries and diplomats in Beijing (Peking)

  • Panama (1904)Spanish-American War highlighted need for isthmian canalDeploy navy from east to westMove cargo/product from east to westSpeed movementPossible canal sites:Panama: shorter, easier to dig, wanted independence from Colombia, but occupied by FranceNicaragua: longer, in volcanic area, had Congressional and contractor support

  • Gunboat DiplomacyU.S. supported Panamanian RevolutionBroadened Monroe Doctrine to facilitate democracy around the worldGained control of the Canal Zone in the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

  • Building the CanalConstruction started in 1904RequiredEliminating malaria, dysentery, and yellow feverMoving machinery through mudProvide living space for workersBuild a 50 mile long series of locks, artificial lakes, and communication links

  • The Turning PointThe Spanish-American War was the culmination of a debate in the U.S. to pursue an imperialist policyThe U.S. became a leading international political, diplomatic, and military leader in the worldThe U.S. forced to take care of colonial possessions: The Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and PanamaForced to decide if American laws govern themForced to take care of rebuilding infrastructureForced to stop internal rebellionEarned criticism for treatment and cost of policy