Amanda Burchell, Mike DePalma, Lisa Maeyer, Troy Ohntrup, Marissa Wegfahrt

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Transcript of Amanda Burchell, Mike DePalma, Lisa Maeyer, Troy Ohntrup, Marissa Wegfahrt

  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Amanda Burchell, Mike DePalma, Lisa Maeyer, Troy Ohntrup, Marissa Wegfahrt
  • Slide 3
  • Table of Contents Declaration of War War of 1812 Burning in Washington D.C. Battle of Baltimore North Point Hampstead Hill Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key Making of the Flag Meaning of the Flag The Pledge of Allegiance Evolution of the Song Psalm of Americanism Influence of the Song Original Lyrics Modified Lyrics Questions Bibliography
  • Slide 4
  • Declaration of War Trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France The impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion Outrage over insults to national honor after humiliations on the high seas Possible American interest in annexing British North America territory (part of modern-day Canada
  • Slide 5
  • War of 1812 War began with attack on Canada An effort to gain land Cut off British supply lines to Tecumseh's Indian confederation Initial battles in Canada not as easy as War Hawks hoped Inexperienced American soldiers pushed back rapidly Britain was at war with France, so they were preoccupied and multitasking On Mid-Atlantic Coast, British troops landed in Chesapeake Bay area in 1814 Marched from here towards Washington
  • Slide 6
  • War of 1812 (Burning) U.S. General William Winder attempted to stop British forces U.S. troops badly routed City of Washington was evacuated British burned the Capitol, White House, and most of the nonresidential Washington British pressed onward Admiral Cochrane sought to invade Baltimore
  • Slide 7
  • War of 1812 (Battle of Baltimore) Cochrane's forces bombarded Fort McHenry Guarded Baltimore's harbor, but unable to seize it This inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner
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  • Battle of Baltimore (North Point) British had 5,000 troops Marched toward Baltimore, but met heavy resistance at the Battle of North Point Fought about 5 miles from the city Major General Samuel Smith commanded Baltimore Dispatched roughly 3,000 men to meet the British in a forward engagement
  • Slide 9
  • Battle of Baltimore (North Point)(cont.) General Stricker was to stall British invasion force in order to delay British advance long enough for Major General Smith to complete defenses in Baltimore Ross led the land invasion force Ross killed in second shift of American defense by an American sharpshooter British army now under command of Colonel Arthur Brooke British succeeded in driving American militia back
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  • Battle of Baltimore (Hampstead Hill) Rodgers Bastion, located on Hampstead Hill, was centerpiece of a 3-mile-wide earthworks from outer harbor in Canton Dug to defend Eastern approach to Baltimore against British Dawn on September 13, 1814 Day after the Battle of North Point About 4,300 British troops advanced north on North Point Road, then west along Philadelphia Road toward Baltimore Forced U.S. troops to retreat to main defensive line around the city
  • Slide 12
  • Battle of Baltimore (Hampstead Hill) British commander Col. Arthur Brooke established new headquarters about two miles northeast of Hampstead Hill. British began probing actions on Baltimores inner defenses American line was defended by 100 cannons and more than 10,000 regular troops Defenses were far stronger than British anticipated
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  • Battle of Baltimore (Hampstead Hill)(cont.) U.S. defenders at Fort McHenry successfully stopped British navel forces Few ships were still able to provide artillery support Once British took outer defenses, inner defenses became priority British infantry had not anticipated how well defended they would be First attack was a failure Brooke's forces managed to outflank and overrun American positions to right
  • Slide 14
  • Battle of Baltimore (Hampstead Hill)(cont.) After discussion with lower ranking officers, Brooke decided British should bombard fort instead of risk a frontal assault At 3 AM on September 14, 1814, British troops were ordered to return to ships
  • Slide 15
  • North Point Fort McHenry
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  • Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry) At Fort McHenry, about 1,000 soldiers under command of Major George Armistead awaited British naval bombardment Their defense was augmented by sinking of a line of American merchant ships at adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to further thwart passage of British ships Attack began on September 13 British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding fort with Congreve rockets and mortar shells
  • Slide 17
  • Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry) After initial exchange of fire, British fleet withdrew to just beyond range of Fort McHenrys cannons and continued to bombard American redoubts for next 27 hours Although 1,500 to 1,800 cannonballs were launched at fort, damage was light due to recent fortification that had been completed prior to battle Only 4 killed, 24 wounded
  • Slide 18
  • Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry)(cont.) After nightfall, Cochrane ordered a landing to be made by small boats to shore just west of fort away from harbor opening on which forts defense was concentrated He hoped the landing party might slip past Fort McHenry and draw Smiths army away from main British land assault on citys eastern border Gave British good diversion for half hour, allowing them to fire again and again
  • Slide 19
  • Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry) On morning of September 14, 30 ft 42 ft oversized American flag was raised over Fort McHenry Small encampment of British riflemen responded Fired a round each at the sky Taunted Americans just before returning to the shoreline
  • Slide 20
  • Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry) Brooke was told not to attack American positions around Baltimore unless there were less than 2,000 men in fort Brooke forced to withdraw from his positions Returned to fleet Scheduled to set sail for New Orleans
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  • Francis Scott Key Born in Frederick County, Maryland Studied law at St. Johns College in Annapolis, Maryland Was an attorney Accompanied John Skinner aboard British ship HMS Tonnant during War of 1812 Skinner and Key were there to negotiate release of prisoners (one of whom was Beanes)
  • Slide 23
  • Francis Scott Key (cont.) Skinner, Beanes, and Key were not allowed to leave ship Knew too much about the strength and position of British attack plans Forced to watch ships bombard Fort McHenry during Battle of Baltimore
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  • Francis Scott Key (cont.) At dawn, Key saw the American flag still waving Inspiration to write the poem describing his experience Published as Defense of Fort McHenry Now known as The Star Spangled Banner
  • Slide 25
  • Making of the Flag Flag has been modified 26 times since 1777 15 stars and 15 stripes flew over Fort McHenry and is known as the Star Spangled Banner Flag There were 15 stars and stripes because Vermont and Kentucky had joined the colonies That particular flag was used for 23 years Made by Mary Young Pickersgill Current flag was designed by 17 year old Robert G. Heft
  • Slide 26
  • Meaning of the Flag Symbol of Americanism Key felt flag symbolized relief and pride when it flew over Fort McHenry Stripes represent the 13 original colonies Stars represent 50 states of United States Color did not have a meaning when the flag was first adopted Red now means hardiness and valour White means purity and innocence Blue means vigilance, perseverance, and justice
  • Slide 27
  • The Pledge of Allegiance Pledge allegiance you promise to be loyal to the Flag to the symbol of your country of the United States of America a nation of 50 states and several territories, each with certain rights of its own and to the Republic a country where the people elect representatives from among themselves to make laws for everyone for which it stands, the flag represents the values of our form of government, in which everyone is equal under the law one Nation under God, a country formed under God whose people are free to believe as they wish indivisible, the nation cannot be split into parts with liberty and justice with freedom and a system of law for all for every person in the nation, regardless of their differences
  • Slide 28
  • Evolution of the Song Key wrote the poem Defense of Fort McHenry inspired by flag flying and British defeat Key gave poem to Judge Joseph H. Nicholson who them put poem to music The Anacreontic Song by John Stafford Smith Thomas Carr was first to publish song under Star Spangled Banner
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  • Evolution of the Song (cont.) Woodrow Wilson wanted original version, so he asked five musicians to play it July 27, 1889, Secretary of Navy Benjamin Tracy made it official song to raise flag 1916-Wilson had it played at military events and other important occasions March 3rd, 1931, Hoover signed a law making it national anthem
  • Slide 30
  • Influence of the Song Many professional and amateur singers sing the song at sporting events, military, or patriotic events The song has also been adapted to take different forms The song symbolizes Americanism and how we