Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Alternative Energy
- 1.Alternative Energy Biomass
- Plant material or animal waste (solid or bio-fuel)
- Direct- heating, cooking, industrial
- Indirect- drive turbines, produce electricity
3. Production of Biomass
- Grow and harvest fast growing trees , shrubs, perennial grass, water hyacinths via bio mass plantation
- Crop residue (sugarcane, rice husks, cotton stalks)
- Animal manure
4. Biomass: the Smarter Oil
- Create jobs
- increases state and local tax receipts by $1.2 million
- $10.6 billion through 2012 by reducing direct government payments to farmers, reduces gasoline prices by 6.6 cents per gallon (saving consumers $3.3 billion annually), and cuts the trade deficit by $34.1 billion through 2012.
- Limitless ways of using biomass, renewable, not depended on fossil fuels, decrease dependence on foreign oil
- Cuts down on the use of landfills
- Gaseous biofuel burned in advanced combustion turbines could produce electricity as cheaply as 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour by 2010, at which point biomass should be able to supply 5% of the entire worlds electricity ($20 billion in value)
- Ethanol and Methanol, two types of liquid biofuel, could some day replace gasoline and diesel fuel in internal combustion engines once the price for oil gets too high.
- Ethanol-made primarily from sugar or grain crops, already mixed with gasoline today to make gasohol, has a high octane and much lower emissions but costs much more than gasoline and has a lower possible range.
- Methanol- made mostly from natural gas but at higher cost can also be made from wood, wood wastes, agricultural wastes, sewage sludge, garbage, and coal. It can also be converted into hydrogen with reformers for use in hydrogen fuel cells. It also has a high octane, dependent on method of production may have lower C02 emissions, but only has about half the range of gasoline and is more expensive to make, and if generated by coal has higher CO2 emissions.
- Biomass may produce anywhere from 14-40% of the worlds energy by 2050, based on varying assumptions on the future of:
- Biomass gasification
- Use in energy-efficient fuel cells
- Creation of biomass plantations
- How extensively biomass is to be used as a source of energy in the future depends on:
- Land and water availability
- Ability to limit harmful environmental effects associated with large-scale biomass production
- Whether it is used in such a way that there is no net increase in CO2 emissions
- In conclusion, biomass could potentially make up a significant portion of world energy production in the future, however it seems that it has some major flaws in the areas of price, efficiency, and environmental impact that may impede its development into a major source. If methods to develop biofuels and/or burn biomass become more environmentally sound, more cost effective, and more reliable, pure biomass or biofuel combinations could become a huge staple in world energy production in the future, projected anywhere from 14-40% within the next 45 or so years.