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Alfred the Great UnifiedThe Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
ENGLANDKing Alfred the Great united the various kingdoms of England that had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kingsGradually united kingdom under one rule, calling it England land of the AnglesAngles, Saxons, Germanic people were united
NORMAN CONQUEST10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the battle of HastingsWilliam was then crowned King of EnglandNorman knights received land as a fief and swore allegiance to the kingWilliam unified the landMarriage of French & Anglo-Saxons led to a new English culture
William I, the ConquerorBrought NormanFeudalism To England
HENRY IIHenry II enlarged English monarchy (1154-1189)Added land by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine of FranceExpanded the power of the royal courts & kings power/increased # of criminal cases tried on the kings courtIntroduced jury trialCommon law replaced law codes across the kingdomUnified body of lawsJudges decisions for the base of law in various English speaking countries
HENRY IIS SONSHenry succeeded by son Richard the Lion Hearted.When Richard died, his younger brother John took the throne.
KING JOHNRuled from 1199 to 1216
Cruel to subjects squeezed a lot of money out of themWeak military leaderLost territory Normandy and northern FranceAlienates the ChurchThreatens to take away self-government charters of towns
MAGNA CARTAEnglish nobles resented the growth of the kings power/ rebellion was raised against King John
1215, King John was forced to put his seal on the Magna CartaParliament would not fund his war if he did not sign the documentParliament: a body of representatives that makes laws for a nationNobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rightsMagna Carta = document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in 1215written recognition that the power of the king was limited
John Was ForcedTo Sign the MagnaCarta in 1215
MAGNA CARTALimit Kings powerIncrease power of NoblesNo taxation without representationJury trial Protection of Law
Basic legal rights of Great Britain and United States.
ENGLISH PARLIAMENTAnother step toward a democratic government came during the rule of the next English King, Edward IEdward needed to raise taxes for war in 1295He summoned 2 burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) from every town and 2 knights from every country to serve as a parliament legislative group.First met in November 1295 at Westminster AbbeyEventually 2 houses were formedNobles & church lords formed = House of the LordsKnights & townspeoples = House of CommonsParliaments granted taxes & passed lawsProvided a check on royal powerKing called them whenever a new tax was needed.
Edward I Called a ParliamentOf Lords and Commons
FRANCEKings of France too looked for ways to increase their power.After the breakup of Charlemagnes empire, French counts and dukes ruled their lands independently under the feudal system.Hugh Capet was chosen to be king by west Frankish nobles establishing the Capetian dynasty (987-1328)Capetians had little power & only controlled the land around Paris/ Dukes had more power than kings
PHILLIP II (PHILLIP AUGUSTUS)Powerful Capetian King1180-1223King @ 15As a child he watched his father lose land to King Henry II of EnglandSet out to weaken power of English kings in FranceHe was the turning point in the French monarchyTripled the lands under his control from King John.Waged war against England and gained control of Normandy & AquitaineMore powerful than his vassals for the first time
FRENCH KINGDOMPhillip II successors continued to add land to the Kingdom
Louis IX ruled 1226-1270 - deeply religious man who later made a saint by the Catholic church/Known for his attempts bring justice to his people created French Appeals CourtStrengthened monarch while weakening feudal ties
Phillip IV (1285-1314), Phillip the Fair, effective in strengthening the French monarchy & expanding the royal bureaucracyPhillip IV started a French parliament/Estates GeneralEstates General: an assembly of representatives from all 3 of the estates, or social classes, in France
Philip IV Called the Estates-General to Raise Taxes
ESTATES-GENERAL1st Estate:CHURCH LEADERS
2nd Estate:Great lords
3rd Estate:Commoners: wealthy landowners & merchants
BEGINNINGS OF DEMOCRACYEngland and France begin to establish a democratic traditionA centralized government is created to rule widespread landsCommon law and court system support a central governmentCommoners included in decision making
AVIGNON & GREAT SCHISMIn 1300 Pope Boniface VIII attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had.When King Philip IV of France asserted his authority over French bishops, Boniface responded with an official document that stated that kings must always obey popes.Philip IV imprisons Pope Boniface VIII and plans to bring him to trial.But pope was rescued but Pope dies soon after.Never again would a pope be able to force monarchs to obey him.Great Schism: a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church during which rival popes were established in Avignon and Rome
GREAT SCHISM 1305, Philip IV persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope.Clement V (newly selected Pope) moved from Rome to city of Avignon (in France)Popes lived here for next 69 years.The move to Avignon badly weakened the Church.But when reformers tried to move papacy back to Rome the result was worse.In 1378, Pope Gregory XI died while visiting Rome.College of Cardinals then met in Rome to choose successor.As they deliberated they could hear mob outside chanting A Roman, a Roman, we want a Roman for pope, or at least an Italian.Cardinals chose an Italian, Pope Urban VI
GREAT SCHISM: 1378Many cardinals immediately regretted their decision because Urban VIs passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later.Now 2 PopesPope Urban VI: Italian Pope lived in RomePope Clement VII: French Pope lived in AvignonEach EXCOMMUNICATE the other as a false pope.Split causes Great SchismCouncil of Constance attempted to end the Great Schism in 1414 by choosing a single Pope.Forced other Popes to resignChose Martin V as PopeEnded the Great Schism but left the papacy greatly weakened.