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  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

    Solzhenitsyn in 1974


    Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn

    11 December 1918

    Kislovodsk, Russian SFSR

    Died 3 August 2008 (aged 89)

    Moscow, Russia

    Occupation Novelist, soldier, teacher

    Ethnicity Russian

    Citizenship USSR, Russian Federation

  • Alma mater Rostov State University

    Notable work(s)

    One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,

    The First Circle,

    Cancer Ward,

    The Gulag Archipelago,

    The Red Wheel

    Notable award(s)

    Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

    Templeton Prize 1983

    Laureate of the International Botev Prize 2008


    Natalia Alekseyevna Reshetovskaya

    (194052; 195772)

    Natalia Dmitrievna Svetlova (1973



    Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (born 1970),

    Ignat Solzhenitsyn (born 1972),

    Stepan Solzhenitsyn (born 1973)

    (all by Natalia Svetlova)

    Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (/solnitsn/;[1] Russian: , pronounced [lksandr savt slnit sn]; 11 December 1918 3 August 2008)[2] was an eminent Russian novelist, historian, and tireless critic of Communist totalitarianism. He helped to raise global awareness of the gulag and the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system. While his writings were often suppressed, he wrote many books, most notably The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, two of his best-known works. "For the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable

  • traditions of Russian literature",[3] Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970. He was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974 but returned to Russia in 1994 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

    Contents [hide]

    1 In the Soviet Union o 1.1 Early years o 1.2 World War II o 1.3 Imprisonment o 1.4 Marriages and children o 1.5 After prison o 1.6 Later years in the Soviet Union

    2 In the West 3 Return to Russia 4 Death 5 Legacy 6 KGB operations against Solzhenitsyn 7 Accusations of collaboration with NKVD 8 Views on history and politics

    o 8.1 "Men have forgotten God" o 8.2 On Russia and the Jews o 8.3 On new Russian "democracy" o 8.4 The West o 8.5 Russian culture o 8.6 Communism, Russia and nationalism o 8.7 World War II o 8.8 The Sino-Soviet Conflict o 8.9 Vietnam war o 8.10 The Holodomor

    9 Published works and speeches 10 Unpublished works 11 TV documentaries on Solzhenitsyn 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

    In the Soviet Union Early years

  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR (now in Stavropol Krai, Russia). His mother, Taisiya Solzhenitsyna (ne Shcherbak) was Ukrainian.[4][5] Her father had apparently[citation needed] risen from humble beginnings, as something of a self-made man. Eventually, he acquired a large estate in the Kuban region in the northern foothills of the Caucasus. During World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a young officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins and fellow native of the Caucasus region. The family background of his parents is vividly brought to life in the opening chapters of August 1914, and in the later Red Wheel novels.

    In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Alexandr. Shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Alexandr was then raised by his widowed mother and aunt in lowly circumstances. His earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War. By 1930 the family property had been turned into a collective farm. Later, Solzhenitsyn recalled that his mother had fought for survival and that they had to keep his father's background in the old Imperial Army a secret. His educated mother (who never remarried) encouraged his literary and scientific learnings and raised him in the Russian Orthodox faith;[6] [7] she died in 1944.[8]

    As early as 1936, Solzhenitsyn was developing the characters and concepts for a planned epic work on World War I and the Russian Revolution. This eventually led to the novel August 1914 some of the chapters he wrote then still survive.[citation needed] Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University. At the same time he took correspondence courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History, at this time heavily ideological in scope. As he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union until he spent time in the camps.[citation needed]

    World War II

    During the war Solzhenitsyn served as the commander of a sound-ranging battery in the Red Army,[9] was involved in major action at the front, and twice decorated. A series of writings published late in his life, including the early uncompleted novel Love the Revolution!, chronicles his wartime experience and his growing doubts about the moral foundations of the Soviet regime.[10]


    In February 1945, while serving in East Prussia, Solzhenitsyn was arrested for writing derogatory comments in private letters to a friend, Nikolai Vitkevich,[11] about the conduct of the war by Joseph Stalin, whom he called "Khozyain" ("the proprietor"), and "Balabos", (Yiddish rendering of Hebrew baal ha-bayi for "master of the house").[12] He was accused of anti-Soviet propaganda under Article 58 paragraph 10 of the Soviet criminal code, and of "founding a hostile organization" under paragraph 11.[13][14] Solzhenitsyn was taken to the Lubyanka prison in Moscow, where he was interrogated. On 7 July 1945, he was sentenced in his absence by Special Council of the NKVD to an eight-year term in a labor camp. This was the normal sentence for most crimes under Article 58 at the time.[15]

  • The first part of Solzhenitsyn's sentence was served in several different work camps; the "middle phase," as he later referred to it, was spent in a sharashka (i.e., a special scientific research facility run by Ministry of State Security), where he met Lev Kopelev, upon whom he based the character of Lev Rubin in his book The First Circle, published in a self-censored or "distorted" version in the West in 1968 (an English translation of the full version was eventually published by Harper Perennial in October 2009).[16] In 1950, he was sent to a "Special Camp" for political prisoners. During his imprisonment at the camp in the town of Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan, he worked as a miner, bricklayer, and foundry foreman. His experiences at Ekibastuz formed the basis for the book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. One of his fellow political prisoners, Ion Moraru, remembers that Solzhenitsyn spent some of his time at Ekibastuz writing.[17] While there he had a tumor removed, although his cancer was not diagnosed at the time.

    In March 1953 after the expiry of Solzhenitsyn's sentence, he was sent to internal exile for life at Kok-Terek in the northeastern region of Kazakhstan, very close to the current border with Russia, as was common for political prisoners. His undiagnosed cancer spread until, by the end of the year, he was close to death. However, in 1954, he was permitted to be treated in a hospital in Tashkent, where his tumor went into remission. His experiences there became the basis of his novel Cancer Ward and also found an echo in the short story "The Right Hand." It was during this decade of imprisonment and exile that Solzhenitsyn abandoned Marxism and developed the philosophical and religious positions of his later life; this turn has some interesting parallels to Fyodor Dostoyevsky's time in Siberia and his quest for faith a hundred years earlier. Solzhenitsyn gradually turned into a philosophically minded Christian as a result of his experience in prison and the camps.[18][19] He repented for some of his actions as a Red Army captain, and in prison compared himself to the perpetrators of the Gulag: "I remember myself in my captain's shoulder boards and the forward march of my battery through East Prussia, enshrouded in fire, and I say: 'So were we any better?'" His transformation is described at some length in the fourth part of The Gulag Archipelago ("The Soul and Barbed Wire"). The narrative poem The Trail (written without benefit of pen or paper in prison and camps between 1947 and 1952) and the 28 poems composed in prison, forced-labor camp, and exile also provide crucial material for understanding Solzhenitsyn's intellectual and spiritual odyssey during this period. These "early" works, largely unknown in the West, were published for the first time in Russian in 1999 and excerpted in English in 2006.[20][21]

    Marriages and children

    On 7 April 1940, while at the university, Solzhenitsyn married Natalia Alekseevna Reshetovskaya.[22] They had just over a year of married life before he went into the army, and then to the Gulag. They divorced in 1952, a year before his release, because wives of Gulag prisoners faced loss of work or residence permits. After the end of his internal exile, they remarried in 1957.[23] They divorced in 1972.

    The following year (1973) he married his second wife, Natalia Dmitrievna Svetlova, a mathematician who had a son from a brief prior marriage.[24] He and Svetlova (born 1939) had three sons: Yermolai (1970), Ignat (1972), and Stepan (1973).[25]

  • After prison

    After Khrushchev's Secret Speech in 1956 Solzhenitsyn was freed from exile and exonerated. After his return to European Russia, Solzhenitsyn was, while teaching at a secondary school during the day, spending his nights secretly engaged in writing. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech he wrote that "during all the years until 1961, not only was I conv