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Transcript of Agents of Socialization - WeeblyAgents of Socialization? • Agents of Socialization – People or...

  • Agents of Socialization

  • Agents of Socialization?

    • Agents of Socialization– People or groups that affect our . . .

    • Self-concept• Attitudes• Behaviors

  • 1.) The Family• 1st to have an impact• Intense experiences• Lifelong impact• Sets basic sense of self• Establishes initial motivations, values, and


  • Family and Social Class

    Working-class• Main concern - stay out of


    • Kids develop naturally

    • Use more physical punishment

    Middle-class• Focus on development of

    curiosity, self-expression, and self control

    • Believe need lots of guidance

    • More likely to reason with children

    •Melvin Kohn•Working-class and middle-class parents raise kids differently

  • Why Such Different Attitudes?

    Hypothesis - World of Work

    Working-class• Bosses tell workers exactly what to do• Parents expecting children will have similar jobs . . . • Socialize qualities they have found useful at work

    (conformity, obedience)

    Middle Class• Jobs usually more initiative/decision making• Parents expecting children to have similar jobs . . . • Socialize qualities they have found useful at work

    (independent thinking, taking initiative)

    *BUT . . . not all parents followed the “correct” model

  • Kohn - Conclusions• Type of work and level of decision making

    freedom was key!

    • Middle class office workers– Closely supervised followed the working-class model

    • Working class parents who had a fair amount of freedom in decision making at work . . . – Ex. - carpenters, plumbers, painters, home repair– Followed the middle-class model

  • 2.) The NeighborhoodSociologists: Wilson(1987), Brookes (1997), Sampson (2001)

    • Kids from poor neighborhoods are more likely to: – get in trouble with the law– become pregnant– drop out of school

    • Residents of more affluent neighborhoods watch out for children more

    • In riskier neighborhoods adults watch out for children less

  • 3.) Religion

    • Significant even for people who do not grow up in religious homes

    • Ideas pervade U.S. society

    • Provide basic ideas of morality

  • 4.) Day CareSociologists: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    Study (1999), Guensburg (2001)

    • More hours in daycare more likely to:– Fight– Be cruel or “mean”– Have weaker bonds with mother

    • Less time in day care:– more cooperative– more affectionate toward mother

    BUT WHY?

  • Benefits to Day Care

    • More hours in day care . . . higher language skills

    • Children from dysfunctional families benefit the most (Scarr and Eisenberg 1993)

  • 5.) The School

    • Learn a broader perspective• Prepares to take roles in the world beyond the


  • 6.) Peer Groups

    • Very powerful agent!!• Standards of our peer group tend to

    dominate our lives• Members of a peer groups tend to have

    the same likes/dislikes, goals, values, and behaviors

  • 7.) The Mass Media• 32% of children under 12 in the U.S. have their

    own TV • 53% of ages 12-18 have own TV

    • Young people average 5.5 hours a day with some form of media

    • Over 200 studies have shown links between watching violence in the media and short term increases in aggressive behavior in young people

  • 8.) The Workplace

    • U.S. teenage employment higher than any other industrialized country

    • Teens working more than 20 hours/week often leads to lower grades (Greenhouse 2001)