ADPC _ Myanmar Community Based Disaster Risk Management Manual - November 2009 _ Burmese

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Transcript of ADPC _ Myanmar Community Based Disaster Risk Management Manual - November 2009 _ Burmese

  • vufpGJpmtkyfonf

    &yf&GmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;twGuf avhusifhxm;aom &yf&GmrSapwemh0efxrf;rsm;?

    &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;udk vufawGUusifhoHk;aqmif&Gufolrsm;?

    uRrf;usifynm&Sifrsm;twGuf &nf&G,fygonf/

  • Oa,smZOf

    2008 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHodkU 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufcJhaom em*pfrkefwdkif;onf jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;wGif

    tqdk;Gm;qHk;obm0ab;qdk; jzpfcJhonf/ xkdtjzpftysufonf obm0tE&m,fwdkUrS vlwdkUtm;'ku

    tBuD;rm;qHk;ay;EkdifaMumif;udk azmfjyaeayonf/ xkdUtjyif if;tjzpftysufonf ab;tE&m,fwdkUtm;BudKwif

    umuG,f&efESifhab;tE&m,f jzpfEkdifonfh taMumif;w&m;wdkUudk avQmhcs&eftwGuf aus;GmtqifhrS

    pwifvkyfaqmif&ef vdktyfaMumif;udkrD;armif;xdk;jyaeayonf/

    ordkif;tpOftvmt& jrefrmEkdifiHwGif rkefwdkif;'Pf? a&vTrf;rdk;rI? rdk;acgifrI? qlemrD ESifh rD;ab;tE&m,f

    wdkUusa&mufEkdifacsSdayonf/ em*pfrkefwdkif;\ oifcef;pmaMumifh jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; obm0ab;tE&m,f

    avQmhcsa&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmif&eff tcGifhtvrf;rsm;yGifhvmonf/

    rnfonfhobm0ab;tE&m,fwGifrqdk? yxrqHk;wkefYjyefaqmifGufolrsm;rSmjynfol vlxkyifjzpfonf/

    jynfolvlxkonf olwdkUwwfEdkifoaGUenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh obm0ab;tE&m,fusa&mufNyD; yxrem&Dydkif;

    twGif;wkefUjyefEkdifMuonf/ xdkUaMumifh jynfolvlxk tajcjyK obm0ab;tE&m,f BudKwifumuG,fa&;onf

    rnfonfhobm0 ab;tE&m,favQmhcsa&;pDrHudef;wGifrqdk t"dutcef;[email protected] yg0ifayonf/ jynfolvlxk

    onf olwdkUaexdkif&ma'o\ yx0Dtaetxm;? ab;uif;&maSmifwdef;onfhvrf;aMumif;? rdrd\ tm;omcsuf?

    tm;enf;csufwdkUudk odSdem;vnf&efvdkayonf/ odkUrSom jynfolvlxk taejzifh obm0ab;tE&m,fwdkUukd

    xda&mufpGm &ifqdkifajzSif;Ekdifayrnf/ xdkodkUjzpfay: vmap&ef jynfolvlxkonf obm0ab;tE&m,favQmhcs

    umuG,fa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;wGif wuf

  • vufpJGpmtkyfonf e,fy,ftrsdK;rsdK;Sd obm0ab;tE&m,f avQmhcsa&; wm0ef xrf;aqmifaeonfh

    yk*dKvfrsm;? jynfolvlxkrsm;ESifh oufqdkif&m tzJGUtpnf;trsdK;rsdK; wdkUtwGuf obm0ab;tE&m,f'PfwdkUudk

    atmifjrifpGm &ifqdkifEdkifvmap&efESifh ab;tE&m,fuif;vGwfonfh tem*wfudk wnfaqmufvmEdkifap&ef

    vrf;Tefay;Edkifvdrfh rnf[k,HkMunfarQmfvifhygonf/

    bDId;bD? yg&m*sKvD

    Bishow B. ParajuliXmeudk,fpm;vS,f

    ,ltef'DyD (jrefrm)

  • rmwdum

    tcef; 1 &yf&GmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,f pDrHcefUcGJa&; - rdwfqufed'gef;

    1-1 1-2 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;

    &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;qdkonfrSm 1

    aqmif&Guf&eftb,faMumifhvdktyfoenf; 1

    udk rnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf; 2

    CBDRM vkyfief;pOfrS ay:xGufvmrnfh&v'frsm;

    ]jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefYcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf} rdwfquf

    1-3 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;1-4 CBDRM onf rnfolwdkUESifh oufqdkifyg oenf; 3 1-5 4 1-6 vufpGJpmtkyf\ &nf&G,fcsuf 5 1-7 5

    tcef; 2 vkyfief;tqifh(1) - &yf&Gma&G;cs,fjcif;

    2-1 7 2-2 &yfGmudk rnfodkY a&G;cs,f&rn 7

    &yf&Gma&G;cs,f&ef bmaMumifhvdktyfovJ

    fenf;

    tcef; 3 kyfief;tqifh(2) - cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif;ESifh &yf&Gmudkem;vnf oabmaygufjcif;

    3-1 cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif; tb,faMumifh vdktyfygoenf; qmufrnfenf; 9

    &yfGmtay: em;vnfatmif rnfodkY aqmif&Gufrnfenf;

    v9

    3-2 &yf&GmESifhcifrifrIudk rnfodkY wnfa3-3 10

    tcef; 4vkyfief;tqifh(3) - yg0ifaqmif&Gufaoma

    b;tE&m,ftuJjzwfjcif; (PDRA)

    -1 PDRA \t,ltq? oabmw&m; rlabmif 13 4-2 PDRA yHkpH

    2

    PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ4rS5txdenf;vrf;rsm; 34 rf;rsm;

    4

    15

    4-3 PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ1rS3txdenf;vrf;rsm; 24-4 4-5 PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ6enf;v 36

  • 4-6 37 4-7 PDRA twGufBudKwifjyifqifjcif; 39

    CVA rlabmifudktoHk;jyK tcsuftvufpkpnf;jcif;

    yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsuf tkyfpkrsm; 4-8 42

    tcef; 5 vkyfief;tqifh(4) - yg0ifaqmif&Gufaom ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrI tpDtpOf a&

    47

    yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJjcif;udk

    &yf&Gmab;tE&m,f pDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOf a&;qGJjcif;wGif yg0ifaom

    &mrsm;

    ;qGJjcif; 5-1 yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJjcif;qdkonfrSm 5-2

    rnfokdU aqmif&Gufrnfenf; 47

    5-3 taMumif;t 50

    tcef; 6

    vkyfieoifwef;ay;jcif;

    f;tqifh(5) - &yf&Gmab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;tpktzGJUwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh avhusifh

    &yf&Gmab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;tpktzGJUwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh

    DMC zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifjcif; vkyfief;tqifhrsm;

    DMC \rlrsm;

    6-1 avhusifhoifwef;ay;jcif;qdkonfrSm 52

    6-2 52 6-3 DMC \vkyfief;wm0efrsm; 53 6-4 55 6-5 DMC ESifh htzGJYrsm;\ pGrf;aqmif&nfwnfaqmufjcif; 56

    tcef; 7 kyfief;tqifh(6) - &yf&Gmvlxkudk,fwdkif; pDrHcefUcGJtaumiftxnfazmfjcif;

    7-1 taumiftxnfazmfa&; vkyfief;wm0efrsm;ESifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;

    yg0ifaqmif&GufaomjyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; vkyfaqmifyHk

    v59

    7-2 t&if;tjrpfEId;aqmf&mwGif rnfodkU ulnDyHhydk;rnfenf; ... 62 7-3 64 7-4 vsmxm;csufrsm; odkUr[kwf pDrHcsufrsm;udk jyifqifyHk 64

  • tcef; 8&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;\ t"dutpdwftydkif;rsm; t"duta&;ygaom CBDRM tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh oufqkdif&m

    Tefjycsufrsm; 67

    aemufqufwGJrsm;

    1 yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomaus;vufa'o\tuJjzwfcsuf(Participatory Rural Appraisal-PRA) udk tusOf;tm;jzifh jcHKiHkazmfjyjcif;

    nfh

    yg0ifaqmif&GufaomapmifhMunfhppfaq;jcif;ESifh tuJjzwfoHk;oyfjcif; tion - PME 76

    jrefrmEdkifiHtwGufab;&efrsm;azmfjycsuf 85

    72

    2 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;pDrHudef;wGif yg0ifotaMumift&mrsm; 74

    3 Participatory Monitoring and Evalua

    4 5 t"dyg,fazmfjycsufrsm;ESifh toHk;tEIef;rsm; 91

  • &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 1

    yHk 1 CBDRM oifwef;ay;aepOf

    tcef; 1 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; - rdwfqufed'gef;

    1-1 &yfGmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;qdkonfrSm .... &yfGmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; (Community Based Disaster Risk Management - CBDRM) onf ab;tE&m,fMuHKawGU&Edkifaom &yfGmvlxktaejzifh ab;tE&m,frsm;udkazmfxkwfjcif;? qef;ppfavhvmjcif;? udkifwG,fajzSif;jcif;? apmifhMunfh ppfaq;jcif;? tuJjzwfoHk;oyfjcif; wdkUwGif wuf

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 2

    CBDRM onf a'ocH&yf&Gmvlxkrsm;omru &yf&GmjyifyrSyk*dKvf (tzGJYtpnf;) rsm;udkyifpGrf;tm;pkrsm;csJUxGif&ef pkpnf;apEdkifygonf/

    &yf&Gmvlxkonf ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;vkyfief;pOftwGuf t"duta&;ygol rsm;jzpfouJhodkY if;vkyfief;pOf\ tusdK;aus;Zl;udk &,lcHpm;&rnfholrsm;jzpfaom aMumifh CBDRMudk aqmif&Gufjcif;onf a&&SnfwnfwhH&ef vdktyfygonf/

    jynfolvlxk\ pGrf;aqmif&nfESifh pGrf;tm;pkrsm;udk jrifhwif&efESifh if;wdkU\ tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIudk avsmhyg;ap&ef tav;xm; vkyfaqmifoifhygonf/

    &yf&GmtwGif;&Sd vlyk*dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD? rdom;pkwpfpkcsif;pD? tzGJYwpfzGJYpDwdkif;wGif rwlnDaom ab;tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIESifh pGrf;aqmif&nfwdkY&Sdygonf/

    1-3 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;udkrnfodk Yaqmif&Gufrnfenf; ....

    CBDRM vkyfief;pOfwGif &yfGm\ ab;tE&m,ffMuHKawGUEkdifrIudk jynfhpHkpGm tuJjzwf jcif;? if;wdkU\ tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIrsm;ESifh pGrf;aqmif&nfrsm;udk qef;ppfavhvmjcif; wdkUonf ab;tE&m,frsm;avsmhyg;apa&;vkyfief;aqmifGufrIrsm;\ tajccH jzpfygonf/ &yfGmonf tuJjzwfjcif;? tpD tpOfa&;qGJjcif;ESifh taumif txnfazmfjcif;vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifoifhygonf/ csOf;uyfyHk twkdif;aqmifGufjcif;jzifh &yfGm \ ppfrSefaom vdktyfcsufrsm; ESifht&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;Edkifygrnf/ vkyfief;pOf udk usifhoHk;jcif;jzifh jyemrsm; udk oifhavsmfaom Mum;0if aqmifGufrIrsm;jyKvkyf ajzSif; ay;Ekdifrnfh tvm;tvm ydkrdk rsm;jym;ygonf/

    CBDRMvkyfief;pOfwGif tqifhqifh vkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief; (6)&yf yg0ifygonf/ ab;tE&m,frjzpfrD aqmifGufEdkifouJhodkU ab;tE&m,f jzpfyGm;NyD;csdefwGifvnf; aemiftcgab;tE&m,fusa&mufrIavsmhenf;ap&efaqmifGufEdkifygonf/ vkyfief;tqifh wpfqifhpDrSm ,cifvkyfief;tqifhtay:wGif qufvufaqmifGuf&efjzpfNyD; aemufxyf aqmifGuf&rnfh vkyfief;pOfodkU OD;wnfoGm;ygonf/ ,if;vkyfief;pOfrsm;tm;vHk;udk

    yH k 2 CBDRM pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;aqmif&GufaepOf

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 3

    yH k3 &yfGmrS CBDRM wGifyg0ifywfoufol (jyifyrS yk* d Kvfrsm;ESif ha'ocHrsm;)

    aygif;pnf;vdkufaomtcg tpDtpOfa&;qGJa&;ESifh taumiftxnfazmfa&;pepfwpf&yfudk &SdNyD; tm;aumif;aom ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; enf;vrf;ud&d,mwpf&yf jzpfvmEkdif ygrnf/ ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;vkyfief;pOfwGifyg0ifonfhvkyfief;tqifh (6)&yfudk atmufwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf-

    vkyfief;tqifh(1) &yfGmaG;cs,fjcif; vkyfief;tqifh(2) cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif;ESifh&yfGmudkem;vnfoabmaygufjcif; vkyfief;tqifh(3) yg0ifaqmifGufaomab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsuf

    (Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment - PDRA) vkyfief;tqifh(4) yg0ifaqmifGufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJ

    jcif;/ vkyfief;tqifh(5) ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIaumfrwD (Disaster Management

    Committee-DMC) zGJYpnf;jcif;ESihf avhusifhoifwef;ay;jcif; vkyfief;tqifh(6) &yfGmvlxkudk,fwdkif pDrHcefUcGJtaumiftxnfazmfjcif;

    1-4 CBDRM onf rnfolwdkUESif houfqdkifygoenf; .... &yfGmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; vkyfief;pOfwGif tusdK;pD;yGm;yg0ifywfoufol trsm;tjym;Sdygonf/if;wdkYudktMurf;tm;jzifh tkyfpk(2)pkcGJjcm; Edkifygonf/a'ocHrsm;ESifh jyifyrSyk*dKvfrsm;jzpfygonf/ a'ocHrsm;[laoma0g[m&rSm &yfGmtwGif;Sdvlyk*dKvfrsm;? tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifhtusdK;pD;yGm; yg0ifywfoufolrsm;udkqdkvdkyg onf/jyifyrSyk*dKvfrsm;qdkonf rSm&yfGmjyifyrSjzpfNyD;&yfGm\ tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIudk avsmhenf;usqif;apNyD; ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; pGrf;aqmif&nfjrifhrm;apvdkaom tydkif;[email protected];?tzGJUtpnf;rsm; udk qdkvdkygonf/ a'ocHrsm;tMum;wGif ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIaumfrwD (DMC) onf ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; aqmifGuf&ef qufoG,fndEdIif;ay;aomtzGJU jzpfygonf/

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 4

    DMConftzGJU0ifrsm;?aumfrwDrsm;\tultnDjzifh ab;tE&m,favsmhyg;apa&;tpDtrH rsm; taumiftxnfazmf&ef ulnDyHhydk;ay;ygonf/ DMC rSwpfyg; &yfGmwGif;Sd vlyk*dKvf? rdom;pk? tzGJUtpnf;? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;ESifh trsm;jynfol0efaqmifrItm;vHk;wdkUonf ab;tE&m,faMumifhxdcdkufolrsm;omvQifjzpfjcif;aMumifhab;tE&m,frsm;avsmhyg;apa&; wGif tcef;[email protected] yg0ifEdkifonfcsnf;om jzpfygonf/ ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrI xda&mufap&eftwGuf vkyfief;trsm;tjym;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ygrnf/ DMC onf vkyfief;trsm;tjym;udk taumiftxnfazmf&eftwGuf trsdK;om;rsm;? trsdK;orD;rsm;? aus;&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUjzdK;a&;aumifpD?a*gyutzGJY? ausmif;aumfrwD? awmifol v,form;rsm;? ig;zrf;vkyfom;rsm;? tvkyfMurf;vkyfolrsm;? vli,fvlG,frsm;ESifh oD;jcm; vdktyfcsufrsm;SdMuonfh tjcm;olrsm;udk EdI;aqmfoifhygonf/ jyifyrSyk*dKvfrsm;wGif tpdk;&Xme^tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? jrefrmEdkifiHMuufajceDtoif;? tif*sDtdkrsm;? ukvor*? yk*[email protected] tjcm;jyifytzGJUtpnf;rsm; yg0ifygonf/ if;wdkU\ tcef;[email protected] tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIavsmhyg;apa&;? pGrf;aqmif&nfjrifhrm;apa&;wdkYwGif &yfGm\ BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfrIrsm;udk yHhydk;rIay;&ef jzpfygonf/ enf;ynm? kyf0wKypnf;ESifh aiGaMu; yHhydk;rIay;jcif;jzifh aqmifGufEkdifygrnf/ jyifyrStzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf if;wdkU\ vkyfief;pOf wpfpdwfwpfa'otaejzifh vkyfief;pOfudk pwifaqmifGufEdkifygonf/ odkUr[kwf &yfGmu yHhydk;rI&,lvdkaMumif; jyifyrS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;xH qufoG,fjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifygonf/ owdjyK&efrSm &yfGmESifhEdIif;pmvQif jyifytzGJUtpnf;rsm;rSm aiGaMu;t&if;tjrpf? enf;ynmuRrf;usifrI? EdkifiHa&;MoZmoufa&mufrI rsm;jym;jcif;aMumifh &yfGmudk vTrf;rdk; Edkifonfh taetxm;odkU a&mufSdvmEdkifygonf/ odkUjzifh &yfGmvlxk\ OD;pm;ay; rsm;udk rpOf;pm;bJ if;wdkU\ vkyfief;tpDtpOfudkom wGef;tm;ay; aqmifGufvdkjcif;aMumifh &yfGm\pGrf;aqmif&nfudk xdcdkufapEdkifygonf/ xdkUaMumifh jyifyrStzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf &yfGm\pGrf;aqmif&nfwnfaqmufa&;udk txl;*kjyK pmemem;vnf&ef vdktyfygonf/

    1-5 CBDRM vkyfief;pOfrSay:xGufvmrnfY&v'frsm; CBDRMvkyfief;pOfudkaqmifGufjcif;jzifh trsm;jynfoltE&m,fuif;Sif;a&;ESifh &yfGm\ ab;tE&m,fcHEdkif&nfSdrIwdkU qifhuJwdk;wufaumif;rGefvmrnfjzpfygonf/ rQwNyD;a&Snf wnfwHhaomumvSnf &yfGmzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI jzpfay:vmap&efvnf; taxmuftuljyK ygrnf/ CBDRM aqmifGuf&eftwGuf a&SnfwnfwHhonfhzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIudk t"dym,f owfrSwf&mwGif vlodtrsm;qHk; t"dym,fazmfjycsufjzpfonfh Brutland aumfrSifu jyKpkaomatmufazmfjyyg t"dym,fazmfjycsufudk toHk;jyKygonf/

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 5

    a&SnfwnfwHhonfhzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIqdkonfrSm- ]]tem*wfrsdK;qufopfrsm;\ vdktyfcsufrsm;udkjznfhqnf;EdkifrnfhpGrf;&nfudk rxdcdkufapbJ rsufarSmufvdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;aomzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI}} jzpfygonf/

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

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    4-1 PDRA \t,ltq oabmw&m; rlabmif

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    tE&m,fusa&mufEdkifaom &yfGmrsm;onf PDRA \ ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; vkyfief;pOf wpfckvHk;\ A[dktcsuftjcmae&m Sdygonf/ PDRA onf vltrsm;\ pGrf;aqmif&nfrsm;udk owfrSwfqHk;jzwff&efESifh vltrsm;\ b0aexdkifrIudk xdckdufEdkifonfh ab;tE&m,frsm;udk avsmhyg;ap&ef vlyk*dKvfwpfOD;csif;ESifh &yfGm\t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk toHk;jyK&ef tm;ay;ygonf/ PDRA onf yg0ifaqmifGufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; tpDtpOfa&;qGJa&;\ tajccH jzpfygonf/ e,fajrcHvltrsm;onf ab;tE&m,frsm;udk wm;qD;umuG,f&ef odkUr[kwf avsmhyg;ap&eftwGuf udk,fhtm;udk,fudk; aqmifGufEdkif onf? aqmifGufvdrfhrnf[laom ,HkMunfcsuftay:wGif tajccHygonf/

    PDRA\ tqifhcGJrsm;? &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh xGufay:&v'frsm;udk Z,m;-2 wGif azmfjy xm;ygonf/

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 14

    Z,m; 2 ab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsufudk yH kpHxkwfpDpOfjcif;

    tqifhcG Jrsm; &nf&G,fcsufrsm; xGufay:&v'frsm;

    tqifhcGJ 1 &yfGmwGif;Sd ab;&efrsm;udk azmfjyjcif; ab;&efrsm;udk pm&if;jyKvkyfNyD; if;wdkU\oabmobm0udk azmfxkwfjcif;

    tqifhcGJ 2 ab;tE&m,fjyajryHka&;qGJjcif; &yfGmab;tE&m,fjyajryHk? &yfGmt&if;jrpfajryHk

    tqifhcGJ 3 &yfGm\tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIrsm;

    ESihfpGrf;aqmif&nfrsm;udkazmfjyjcif; (trsdK;orD;?trsdK;om;rsm;?oufMuD;&G,ftdkrsm;? roefpGrf;olrsm; ponf)

    pGrf;aqmif&nfrsm;ESifh tE&m,f usa&mufvG,frIrsm;udkqef;ppfavhvmjcif;

    ( CVA)

    tqifhcGJ 4 ab;tE&m,frsm;udk owfrSwfqHk;jzwfjcif;

    &yfGmrsm; &ifqkdifae&aom tE&m,f pm&if;tjynfhtpHk

    tqifhcGJ 5 ab;tE&m,frsm;udk tqifhowfrSwfjcif;

    ab;tE&m,frsm;udk OD;pm;ay; owfrSwfxm;aom pm&if;

    tqifhcGJ 6 vufcHEdkifaom tE&m,ftqifhudk qHk;jzwfjcif;

    rdom;pkESifh &yfGmvHkjcHKrItwGuf oabmwlnDxm;aom tE&m,ftqifhrsm;

    tqifhcGJ 7 ab;tE&m,f(rsm;)udkwm;qD;umuG,fjcif;? avQmhcsjcif;? aTUajymif;jcif;? odkUr[kwf vufcH&ifqdkifjcif; wdkUwGif rnfonfudkjyKvkyfrnfudkqHk;jzwfjcif;

    oabmwlnDxm;aomvkyfief;rsm;

    tcsuftvufrsm;udkpkpnf;NyD;aomtcg&yfGmrSjyefvnfoHk;oyfa&;ESifhtuJjzwfa&;tzGJY\ tzGJU0ifrsm;u if;wdkU\ awGUSdcsufrsm;udk twnfjyK&ef &yfGmodkU jyefvnfwifjyygonf/ aqG;aEG;wifjy&mwGif ab;tE&m,frsm;ESifh b0aexdkifrI? ydkifqkdifypnf;? toufarG;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 15

    0rf;ausmif;? &yfGmtajccHtaqmuftODrsm;udk if;tE&m,frsm;u Ncdrf;ajcmufrIwdkUudk azmfxkwfNyD; aqG;aEG;ygonf/ &yfGmrS jyefvnftoday;ajymMum;csufrsm;tay: tajcjyK vdktyfovdk jznfhpGufjcif;? jyifqifjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ef jzpfygonf/

    4-2 PDRA yHkpH

    yg0ifaqmif&GufonfYaus;vufa'o\tuJjzwfcsuf (Participatory Rural Assessment-

    PRA) udk PDRA vkyfief;pOf\ &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,foHk;oyftuJjzwfcsufESifh tpDtpOfa&;qGJa&;wGif toHk;jyKygonf/ PRA ESifh ywfouf avhvmEdkif&ef aemufqufwGJ-1wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ PRAudk toHk;jyKaom PDRA aqmif&Guf&mwGiff &yfGmrSudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifhtjcm;tusdK;pD;yGm;yg0ifywfoufolrsm;udk xnfhoGif;jcif;onf ydkrdkaumif;rGefaom vkyfenf;vkyf[ef jzpfygonf/

    PDRA tzGJYGJYonf atmufygwdkYudk owdjyKoifhygonf- - pHkprf;ar;jref;onfhtaMumif;t&mrSm avhvmpl;prf;rIjyKvkyf&mwGif t"du tav;xm;

    &rnfY taMumif;t&mjzpfygonf/ - t"duar;cGef;rsm;onf PDRAtzGJYGJu &,lvdkaom owif;tcsuftvuf rsm;udk

    tao;pdwfar;jref;jcif; jzpfygonf/ - enf;vrf;qdkonfrSmtzGJYGJUu owif;tcsuftvuf &,lyHkudk qdkvdkygonf/ Oyrm-

    PRAenf;vrf;ud&d,mrsm;?wpfqifhcHpmtkyfpmwrf;ypnf;rsm;? t"du owif;tcsuf tvuf jznfhqnf;ay;olrsm;udk awGUqHkar;jref;jcif;jzpfygonf/

    - t"duwkefUjyefajzMum;olrsm;rSm aus;GmolBuD;? q&m?q&mrrsm;? oHCmawmfrsm;? &yfGmtwGif; aexdkifolrsm;? txl;ojzifh umvMumjrifhpGm aexdkifcJholrsm; ponfwdkU jzpfygonf/

    Z,m; 3 yg0ifaqmif&Gufonfh ab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsuf(PDRA) yH kpH t"du pHkprf; ar;jref;onfh

    taMumif;t&m t"du ar;jref;onfh ar;cGef;rsm; enf;vrf; ajzMum;olrsm;

    u/ IjrifyHk 1/ tE&m,frsm; oif\ rdom;pktwGif;ESifh &yfGmtwGif;

    wGif vGefcJhaom 10ESpf twGif; jzpfyGm;cJhaom ab;tE&m,fwpfckudk azmfjyyg/ tb,faMumifh ab;tE&m,f[k ,lqyg oenf;/

    jzwfoef;vrf; avQmufjcif;

    tqifh owfrSwfjcif;

    &GmolMuD;? &yfGm\ tjcm;ta&;ygaomyk*dKvfrsm;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 16

    2/ ab;tE&m,f rsm;aMumifh qHk;&IH;Edkifajc

    udk,fa&;udk,fwm? rdom;pkESifh &yfGm\om,m0ajyma&;ESifh vHkjcHKa&;udk Ncdrf;ajcmuftE&m,fjyKaeaom t&mrsm;rSm rnfonfwdkUenf;/

    trsdK;om;? trsdK;orD;? uav;oli,f? roefpGrf;ol? oufBuD;G,ftdkrsm;\ b0aexdkifrI

    arG;jrLa&; wd&pmefrsm; tkd;tdrf ydkifqdkifypnf;rsm; aus;vufusef;rma&;XmecGJ? wHwm;? ausmif;? oabFmqdyf? pmMunfhwdkuf? "rmHkuJhodkUaom tajccH taqmuftODrsm;

    tBuD;av;qHk;[k ,lqaom ab;tE&m,faMumifhqHk;&IH;Edkifajc odkUr[kwf ab;tE&m,frSmtb,fenf;/ab;tE&m,faMumifhqHk;IH;EdkifajcavQmhcs&ef &yfGmtaejzifh trsm;qHk; &ifqkdif& onfh jyemrsm;rSm rnfonfwdkUenf;/

    jzwfoef;vrf; avQmufjcif;

    &moDtvdkuf jyu'def

    tqifh owfrSwf jcif;

    &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom yk*dKvfrsm;

    &yfGmwGif aexdkifolrsm;

    3/ usm;-r tcef;[email protected]

    trsdK;orD;^rdef;uav;? trsdK;om;^a,mufsm;av; wdkU\ pdkufvuPmrsm; rSm rnfonfwdkUenf;/ rdom;pk? &yfGmESifh ydkrdkus,fjyefUaom vlUtzGJUtpnf;twGif; wGif if;wdkUonf rnfonfhtcef;[email protected] Sdonf [k owfrSwfxm;ygoenf;/

    &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom yk*dKvfrsm;

    &yfGmwGif aexdkifolrsm;

    trsdK;orD;rsm;tzGJY

    4/ b0aexdkifrI t&nftaoG;

    &yfGmtwGif; rnfolwdkUrSm csrf;om

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 17

    toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkifoenf;/

    c/ kyfydkif;^kyf0wKypnf; 1/ e,fajra'o azmfjycsuf

    &yfGm\ tG,ftpm;rSm rnfrQSdygoenf;/ &yfGm\ e,fedrdwfrsm;rSm rnfonfwdkU jzpfygoenf;/ &yfGmteD;Sd aps;ESifh pufHkrsm;wGif rnfonfh t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk awGU&ygoenf;/ (oD;ESHrsm;? yifv,f xGufypnf;rsm;? owKrsm;? obm0 "mwfaiGU ponfwdkU) &yfGmtwGif;wGif tpm;tpmESifh 0ifaiG t"du&Sdonfh t&if;tjrpfrsm;rSm rnfonfwdkU ygenf;/ ajryHkwGif atmufygwdkUudk ae&m owfrSwf azmfjyyg/

    bk&m;apwDESifh tjcm;0wfjyK&mae&mrsm;

    rlvwef;?tv,fwef;ausmif;rsm; aus;vufusef;rma&;XmecGJ?wdkufe,f aq;&Hkrsm;

    a&ydkufrsm; vrkawmrsm; oabFmqdyfrsm; "rm&Hkrsm;? &yfol&Gmom;rsm; pka0;Edkifaomae&m

    &yfGmtwGif; awGUSd&aom ta&;yg onfh tajccH taqmufttHkrsm;

    aus;&Gm^aus;&Gmtkyfpk\ pmMunfhwkdufrsm;

    &yfGmonf aus;vuf pdkufysdK;a&; vkyfudkifaom &yfGm jzpfygu ajrqDvTm trsdK;tpm; ESifh xGufSdaom

    jzwfoef; vrf;avQmuf jcif;

    &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom yk*dKvfrsm;

    &GmolMuD;?

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 18

    oD;ESHrsm; (pyg;?[if;oD;[if;&Guf?yJ)

    &yfGmonf urf;dk;wef;&yfGm jzpfygu tP0g t&if;tjrpfrsm;

    &yfGmonfwd&pmefxdef;ausmif; arG;jrL aom &yfGmjzpfygu pm;usufajr

    2/ vlOD;a&qkdif&m azmfjycsuf

    &yfGm\ vlOD;a& pkpkaygif;rnfrQSdygoenf;/ trsdK;om; rnfrQSdygoenf;/ trsdK;orD; rnfrQSdygoenf;/ a,mufsm;av;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm; rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ udk,f0efaqmifESifh EdkUwdkufrdcifrnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ oufBuD;G,ftdk rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ wpfOD;wnf; aexdkif&aom oufBuD; G,ftdk rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ roefpGrf;ol rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ wpfOD;wnf; aexdkif&aom roefpGrf;ol ESifh oufBuD;G,ftdk rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ ajryHkay:wGif txl; vdktyfcsufSdonfh tkyfpkrsm; aexdkif&m ae&mudk azmfjyyg/

    pl;pkduftkyfpk awGUqHk ar;jref;jcif;

    &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom yk*dKvfrsm;

    &GmolMuD;

    3/t&if;tjrpfrsm; udk &,l toHk;jyK EdkifrI ESifh xdef;csKyfjcif;

    rdom;pktwGif;ESifh &yfGmtwGif;wGif t&if;tjrpfrsm; udk rnfolu toHk;jyK oenf;? ydkifqkdifoenf;? xdef;csKyf oenf;/ odkUr[kwf pDrHcefUcGJoenf;/ (t&if;tjrpfrsm; qdkonfrSm 0ifaiG? aiGom; ponfwdkU jzpfygonf/) ,if; t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif;? ydkifqkdifjcif;? xdef;csKyf jcif; odkUr[kwf pDrH cefUcGJjcif;wGif trsdK;om;rsm;? trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh uav;oli,f rsm;\ tcef;[email protected] rnfodkU Sdygoenf;/

    tqifh owfrSwf jcif;

    pl;pdkuftkyfpk aqG;aEG;jcif;

    trsdK;om; trsdK;orD; uav;oli,f

    4/ obm0 ab; tE&m,frsm;^ enf;ynmqkdif&m ab;tE&m,frsm;rS vHkjcHKa&;

    vGefcJhaom 10ESpftwGif;wGif &yfGmu awGUMuHKcJh&aom ysufpD;rI trsm;jym;qHk; obm0 ab;tE&m,f rsm;rSm rnfonfwdkUygenf;/ (toufqHk;HI;rI? ydkifqkdif ypnf;? toufarG;0rf;ausmif;?

    twdwfjzpfpOf jzwfoef;azmf jyjcif;

    &moDtvkduf jyu'def

    &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom yk*dKvfrsm;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 19

    &yfGmwGif;Sd ta&;yg aom taqmufttHk ypnf;ud&d,mrsm; ponfwdkU ESifh pyfvsOf; qHk;HI;rIh trsm;qHk;udk qdkvdkygonf/) vlrnfrQ xdcdkufygoenf;/ if;wdkUrSm aexdkif&mae&mrS pGefUcGmoGm; Mu&ygovm;/ rnfrQMumatmif pGefUcGm oGm;&ygoenf;/ pGefUcGmoGm;&jcif;aMumifh rdom;pk^&yfGmtay: rnfodkUaom oufa&mufrIrsm;? xdcdkufrIrsm; Sdygoenf;/

    vltrsm;\ b0aexdkifrI? tdk;tdrf ydkifqkdifypnf;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief; rsm;? &yfGm\ ta&;ygaom taqmufttHk? ypnf;ud&d,m? ae&m Xmersm;tay: ab;tE&m,frsm; aMumifh vufiif;oufa&mufrIrsm;ESifh umvSnf xdcdkufrIrsm;rSm rnfonfwdkUygenf;/

    vGefcJhaom 10ESpftwGif;wGif &yfGm ab;tE&m,f rjzpfyGm;rD? jzpfyGm;aepOfESifh jzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf &yfGmonf rnfodkU aqmifGufcJhyg oenf;/ rdom;pkESifh &yfGmtqifh wGif rnfonfh vkyfief;rsm;udk ,cifu aqmifGufcJhNyD; ,ck raqmifGufyg oenf;/

    vmrnfh 10ESpftwGif;wGif tjcm; rnfonfh ab;tE&m,f? Ncdrf;ajcmufrIrsm;ESifh tE&m,frsm; jzpfyGm;rnf[k &yfGmu cefUrSef;ygoenf;/ (urf;&dk;wef;ajrrsm; avsmhenf;oGm;jcif;ponf) rkwfokef&moDwdkawmif;jcif;

    a&;qGJjcif;

    tqifhowf rSwfjcif;

    tkyfpkvdkuf aqG;aEG;jcif;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 20

    */ vlrIa&;^tzGJUtpnf; qdkif&m 1/ tajccH

    0efaqmifrI rsm;udk &,l toHk;jyKEkdif jcif;

    tjcm;0efaqmifrIrsm;

    tif*sDtdkrsm;u ay;tyf aom 0efaqmifrIrsm;?

    c&pf,mef bk&m; ausmif;rsm;u ay;tyfaom 0efaqmifrIrsm;

    bk&m;apwDrsm;wGif &&SdEdkifaom 0efaqmifrIrsm;

    pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief; rsm;(qefpuf)^ yk*vdu [email protected] ay;tyfaom 0efaqmifrI rsm;

    &yfGmtwGif;wGif tpdk;&u ay;tyfonfh rnfonfh tajccH0efaqmifrIrsm; &SdEdkifygoenf;/ Oyrm-usef;rma&; jyKpkapmifhaSmufrI? ynma&;? a&ESifh ywf0ef;usif oefUSif;a&;? u,fq,fa&; tultnD? toufarG; 0rf;ausmif; tultnD? vHkjcHKa&;ESifh Oya' tultnD ponfwdkUjzpfygonf/

    &yfGmudk tajccH0efaqmifrIrsm; jznfhqnf;ay;onfh tjcm; tzGJUtpnf;rsm; Sdygovm;/ ab;tE&m,f rjzpfyGm;rD? jzpfyGm;aepOf ESifh jzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf &yfGmwGif rnfonfh0efaqmifrI rsm;udk &SdEdkifygoenf;/ tpdk;&u ay;tyfonfh rnfonfh tajccH0efaqmifrIrsm;udk rnfolwdkU &,ltoHk;jyKEdkifygoenf;/ &yfGmtwGif;wGif &yfGmtajcjyK tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? jynfolvlxk tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? vufSd Sdaeygovm;/

    awGUqHkar;jref; jcif;

    Aif Venn tajcjy yHk a&;qGJjcif;

    aus;GmtzGJU &yfGmwGif aexkdifolrsm;

    &GmolMuD; oHCmawmf rsm;

    2/ rdom;pk^&yfGm pkpnf;nDGwfjcif;

    rdom;pkudk rnfodkU ,lq^t"dyg,fowfrSwfygoenf;/ &yfGmwGif aexdkifolrsm;rSm rnfolwdkU ygenf;/ (wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; yg0ifrI)Zmwd&yfGmrSm rnfonfhae&m a'ojzpfMuygoenf;/ &yfGmtwGif; rnfonfh yGJvrf;tcrf;tem;rsm;wGif rwlnDaom tkyfpkrsm; awGUqHkNyD; tcsif;csif; tultnD ay;Muygoenf;/ ab;tE&m,f rjzpfyGm;rD? jzpfyGm;aepOfESifh jzpfyGm;NyD; aemuf

    awGUqHkar;jref; jcif;

    pmGufpmwrf; rsm;udk jyefvnf oHk;oyfjcif;

    jynfolvlxk tzGJUtpnf;

    vltrsm;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 21

    rwlnDaomtkyfpkrsm;onf rnfonfhenf;vrf; rsm;jzifh tcsif;csif; tultnD ay;Muygoenf;/ ab;tE&m,frsm;onf &yfGmwGif aexdkifMuolrsm;tMum; qufqHa&; rsm;tay: rnfodkU tjyKoabmESifh qdk;usdK; oufa&mufrIrsm; Sdygoenf;/ ab;tE&m,f jzpfyGm;aepOf ESifh jzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf if;wdkUonf tcsif; csif; rnfodkU tultnDay;Muygoenf;/aus;Gm ^&yfuGufaumifpDrsm;\ vkyfief; wm0efrsm;ESifh tcef;[email protected] rsm; rSm rnfonfwdkUygenf;/ &yfGmtwGif; wGif tjcm;rnfonfh tzGJUtpnf; rsm;udk wnfaxmifNyD; jzpfygoenf;/ ,if;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ab;tE&m,frsm;aMumifh qHk;IH;Edkifajc avQmhcs&ef rnfodkU tultnD ay;ygoenf;/ odkUr[kwf ab;tE&m,frsm;udk wkefUjyef&efESifh ab;avsmhyg;ap&ef jyifqifa&;twGuf &yfGmudk rnfodkUtultnDay;ygoenf;/

    C/ aphaqmfrI^oabmxm;qkdif&m 1/ tajymif;tvJ jyKvkyfEkdif&efESifh xda&mufpGm tpDtpOf a&;qGJEkdif &ef pGrf;aqmifEdkif onf[k cH,ljcif;

    vufSd &yfGmtajcjyK tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? jynfolvlxk tzGJUtpnf;rsm; &yfGm twGif; Sdygovm;/ &yfGmtwGif;wGif ab;tE&m,f pDrHcefUcGJa&;ESifh ywfoufaom vufSdtzGJUtpnf; rnfrQ Sdygoenf;/ ,if;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif &yfGmtwGif; apwemh0efxrf; aqmifGufonfh tzGJUcGJ Sdygovm;/ ab;tE&m,faMumifh qHk;IH;Edkifajc? ab;tE&m,faMumifh xdcdkufrIwdkUudk avQmhcs&eftwGuf &yfGmonf rnfodkU pDpOfxm;ygoenf;/ rnfonfwdkUudk

    tkyfpkvdkufESifh wpfOD;csif; awGUqHk ar;jref;jcif;

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    pmrsufESm 32

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    pmrsufESm 33

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 34

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    pmrsufESm 36

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 42

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 43

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    &yfGmtzGJUtpnf; acgif;aqmifrsm; - ab;&efrsm;? &yfGm\ ab;tE&m,f jzpfyGm;onfhtwdwfjzpfpOf? rnfonfhab;&efrsm;onf ab;tE&m,frsm; jzpfyGm;vm& aMumif;ESifh tb,faMumifh jzpf&aMumif;? ab;tE&m,frsm;\ toufSifaexdkifrItay: xdcdkufEkdifrI (trsdK;om;? trsdK;orD;? a,mufsm;av;? rdef;uav; rsm;twGuf)? ydkifqdkif ypnf;? toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;? &yfGm\ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh &yfuGuf^aus;&Gmtkyfpk? aus;&GmwdkUtay:ab;tE&m,f\xdcdkufrI? b0aexdkifrI? ydkifqdkif ypnf;tdk;tdrfESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;udk Ncdrf;ajcmufaom ab;tE&m,frsm;udk avsmhyg; ap&ef tpdk;&\ aqmifGufcsufrsm;

    &yfGmwGifpDrHcsufrsm; aqmifGufaeaomtif*sDtdkrsm; - ab;&efrsm;? &yfGm\ ab;tE&m,fjzpfyGm;onfhtwdwfjzpfpOf? rnfonfhab;&efrsm;onf ab;tE&m,frsm; jzpfyGm;vm&aMumif;ESifh tb,faMumifh jzpf&aMumif;? ab;tE&m,frsm;\ toufSif aexdkifrItay: xdcdkufEkdifrI (trsdK;om;? trsdK;orD;? a,mufsm;av;? rdef;uav;rsm; twGuf)?ydkifqdkifypnf;?toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;? &yfGm\pD;yGm;a&;ESifh&yfuGuf^ aus;&Gmtkyfpk? aus;&GmwdkUtay:ab;tE&m,f\xdcdkufrI? b0aexdkifrI? tdk;tdrfypnf;

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 44

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  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 45

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    tkyfpk 5 - pkaqmif;xm;aomtcsuftvufrsm;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; - t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm;vHk;rS pkaqmif;&Sdaom pmGufpmwrf;rsm;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; - CVA rlabmifudk toHk;jyK tcsuftvufrsm;udk pkpnf;jcif; tkyfpk 6 - enf;ynm owif;tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif; - jzwfoef;vrf;avQmufjcif; avhusifhcef; vkyfaqmifjcif; - &yfGmu jyKpkrnfh ajryHk toD;oD;wGif yg0ifulnD a&;qGJjcif; - ajrqDvTmtrsdK;tpm;? a&pepfponfwdkUESifh pyfvsOf;onfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;

    pkaqmif;jcif;

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    - PDRAtzGJUtwGuf tpm;taomuf pDpOfjcif; - tzGJUtwGuf o,f,lydkUaqmifa&; pDpOfjcif; - tzGJUtwGufypnf;rsm; tvHktavmufSdap&ef aqmifGufjcif; - vdktyfygu pum;jyef^ bmomjyefrsm; pDpOfay;jcif;

    yHk 10 PDRAwGif uav;rsm;yg0ifaqmif&GufaeyHk

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 46

    tcef; 4 avhvmcJhorQ . . . - PDRA \tqifh7&yf - aqmif&Guf&efenf;vrf;rsm; - aqmif&Guf&efjyifqif jcif;

    ab;tE&m,f A[kokw&Sd,ifuG,f?

    tE&m,frSvGwfEdkifr,f/

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 47

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    a&;qGJjcif;

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