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Adolf Hitler 1

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

Hitler in 1937

Fhrer of Germany

In office2 August 1934 30 April 1945

Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg(as President)

Succeeded by Karl Dnitz(as President)

Chancellor of Germany

In office30 January 1933 30 April 1945

President Paul von Hindenburg

Deputy Franz von Papen Position vacant

Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher

Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels

Reichsstatthalter of Prussia

In office30 January 1933 30 January 1935

Prime Minister Franz von Papen Hermann Gring

Preceded by Office created

Succeeded by Office abolished

Personal details

Born 20 April 1889Braunau am Inn, AustriaHungary

Died 30 April 1945 (aged56)Berlin, Germany

Nationality Austrian citizen until 7 April 1925[1]

German citizen after 25 February 1932

Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (19211945)

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Adolf Hitler 2

Other politicalaffiliations

German Workers' Party (19201921)

Spouse(s) Eva Braun(2930 April 1945)

Occupation Politician, soldier, artist, writer

Religion See Adolf Hitler's religious views

Signature

Military service

Allegiance German Empire

Service/branch Reichsheer

Years of service 19141918

Rank Gefreiter

Unit 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment

Battles/wars World War I

Awards Iron Cross First Class Iron Cross Second Class Wound Badge

Adolf Hitler German: [adlf htl]( listen); (20 April 1889 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born Germanpolitician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische DeutscheArbeiterpartei (NSDAP), commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Fhrer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of thefounding of Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust.A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the German Workers' Party, precursor of the Nazi Party, in 1919,and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'tat, known as the Beer Hall Putsch, inMunich. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (MyStruggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles andpromoting Pan-Germanism, antisemitism, and anticommunism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Afterhis appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-partydictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism. His aim was to establish a New Order ofabsolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe.Hitler's foreign and domestic policies had the goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Germanic people.He directed the rearmament of Germany and the invasion of Poland by the Wehrmacht in September 1939, leadingto the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Under Hitler's rule, in 1941 German forces and their European alliesoccupied most of Europe and North Africa. By 1943, Hitler's military decisions led to escalating defeats. In 1945 theAllied armies successfully invaded Germany. Hitler's supremacist and racially motivated policies resulted in thesystematic murder of eleven million people, including an estimated six million Jews.In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress, Eva Braun. On30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and theircorpses were burned.

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Adolf Hitler 3

Early years

AncestryHitler's father, Alois Hitler (18371903), was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. The baptismalregister did not show the name of Alois's father, so Alois bore his mother's surname. In 1842 Johann Georg Hiedlermarried Anna. After she died in 1847 and he in 1856, Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedler's brother, JohannNepomuk Hiedler.[2] It was not until 1876 that Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priestbefore three witnesses.[3] While awaiting trial at Nuremberg in 1945, Nazi official Hans Frank suggested theexistence of letters claiming that Alois' mother was employed as a housekeeper for a Jewish family in Graz and thatthe family's 19-year-old son, Leopold Frankenberger, had fathered Alois.[4] However, no Frankenberger, Jewish orotherwise, was registered in Graz during that period.[5] Historians doubt the claim that Alois' father was Jewish.[6][7]

At age 39, Alois assumed the surname "Hitler", also spelled as "Hiedler", "Httler", or "Huettler". The origin of thename is either "one who lives in a hut" (Standard German Htte), "shepherd" (Standard German hten "to guard",English "heed"), or is from the Slavic words Hidlar and Hidlarcek.[8]

Childhood and education

Adolf Hitler as an infant(c.18891890)

Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn inRanshofen,[9] a village annexed in 1938 to the municipality of Braunau am Inn,Austria-Hungary. He was the fourth of six children to Alois Hitler and KlaraPlzl (18601907). Adolf's older siblings Gustav, Ida, and Otto died ininfancy.[10] When Hitler was three, the family moved to Passau, Germany.[11]

There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather th