Addictive and Unhealthy Behaviors

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Addictive and Unhealthy Behaviors. Defining and Understanding Eating Disorders. Anorexia nervosa. A psychological disease characterized by an intense fear of becoming obese, a disturbed body image, a significant weight loss, the refusal to maintain normal body weight, and amenorrhea. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Addictive and Unhealthy Behaviors

  • Addictive and Unhealthy Behaviors

  • Defining and Understanding Eating DisordersAnorexia nervosaA psychological disease characterized by an intense fear of becoming obese, a disturbed body image, a significant weight loss, the refusal to maintain normal body weight, and amenorrhea.

  • Characteristics of Anorexia NervosaWeight loss to 15% below normalIntense fear of gaining weight or being fat, despite being underweightDisturbance in ones experience of body weight, size, and shapeFemales: absence of at least three consecutive expected menstrual cycles(APA, 1994)

  • Understanding Anorexia NervosaAnorexia is potentially deadly; it can lead to starvation and other medical complications such as heart disease. Affected individuals dont see themselves as abnormal.

  • Defining and Understanding Eating DisordersBulimiaAn episodic eating pattern of uncontrollable food bingeing followed by purging, characterized by an awareness that the pattern is abnormal, fear of being unable to stop eating voluntarily, depressed mood, and self-deprecation.

  • Characteristics of BulimiaRecurrent binge eating

    A sense of lacking control over eating behavior during the binges

    Engaging in regular self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, strict dieting or fasting, or vigorous exercise in order to prevent weight gain

    Average minimum of two binge-eating episodes a week for three months

    Persistent over-concern with body shape and weight(APA, 1994)

  • Understanding BulimiaCondition is severe but less severe than anorexia. Bulimia can lead to anorexia. Bulimic individuals are aware that they have a problem.

  • Research on the Prevalenceof Eating Disorders in SportAthletes appear to have a greater occurrence of eating-related problems (disordered eating) than does the general population.

    Female athletes, in general, report higher rates of eating disorders than male athletes, which is similar to rates for the general population.

    Athletes and non-athletes have similar eating-related symptoms.

    A significant percentage of athletes engage in pathogenic eating or weight loss behaviors (e.g., bingeing, fasting), although subclinical in intensity.

  • Predisposing FactorsWeight restrictions and standardsCoach and peer pressureSociocultural factorsPerformance demandsJudging criteria

  • Physical Signs of Eating DisordersWeight too lowConsiderable weight lossExtreme fluctuations in weightBloatingSwollen salivary glandsAmenorrhea(continued)

  • Physical Signs of Eating DisordersCarotinemiayellowish palms or soles of feetSores or calluses on knuckles or back or hand from inducing vomitingHypoglycemia (low blood sugar)Muscle crampsStomach complaintsHeadaches, dizziness, or weakness from electrolyte disturbancesNumbness and tingling in limbs from electrolyte disturbancesStress fractures

  • PsychologicalBehavioral Signsof Eating DisordersExcessive dietingExcessive eating without weight gainExcessive exercise that is not part of normal training programGuilt about eatingClaims of feeling fat at normal weight despite reassurance from othersPreoccupation with foodAvoidance of eating in public and denial of hungerHoarding foodDisappearing after mealsFrequent weighingBinge eatingEvidence of self-induced vomitingUse of drugs such as diet pills, laxatives, and diuretics to control weight

  • Dos and Donts for Dealing with Eating DisordersDo get help and advice from a specialist.Do be supportive and empathetic.Do express concern about general feelings, not specifically about weight.Do make referrals to a specific person and, when possible, make appointments for the individual.Do emphasize the importance of long-term good nutrition.Do provide information about eating disorders.Dont ask the athlete to leave team or curtail participation, unless so instructed by a specialist.Dont recommend weight loss or gain.Dont hold team weigh-ins.Dont single out or treat the individual differently from other participants.

  • Making ReferralsA person who has a rapport with the individual should schedule a private meeting to discuss the matter.

    Emphasize feelings rather than directly focusing on eating behaviors.

    Be supportive and keep all information confidential.

    Make a referral to a specific clinic or person.

  • Preventing Eating Disordersin Athletes and CoachesPromote proper nutritional practices.Focus on fitness, not body weight.Be sensitive to weight issues.Promote healthy management of weight.

  • Substance Abuse98% of elite athletes said they would take a banned performance-enhancing substance with two guaranteesthey would not be caught and they would win.

    60% said they would do so even if it meant they would die from the side effects.

  • Defining Substance AbuseSubstance abuseA maladaptive pattern of psychoactive substance use indicated by one of two patterns of use: continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurring social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems that are caused or exacerbated by use of the psychoactive substance; or recurrent use in situations in which the use is physically hazardous (e.g., driving).

    Some symptoms of the disturbance have persisted for at least one month or have occurred repeatedly over a longer period.

  • Defining Drug AddictionDrug addictionA state in which either discontinuing or continual use of a drug create an overwhelming desire, need, and craving for more of the substance.

  • Prevalence of Substance Abuse in SportsMost studies have focused on alcohol and steroid use:Alcohol use: 55% to 92% of high school athletes; 87% to 88% of college athletes.

    Performance-enhancing drugs: reported use by 5% of high school and college athletes (40 to 60% among elite athletes).

  • Steroid use a male and female thing:Traditionally, the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as steroids has been seen as predominantly a male domain.

    However, recent research has revealed that young girls (some as young as 9 years old) are using bodybuilding steroidsnot necessarily to get an edge on the playing field but to get the toned, sculpted look of models and movie stars.

  • Why Athletes and Exercisers Use DrugsPhysical reasons include wanting to:- enhance performance,- rehabilitate injury,- look better, and- control appetite and lose weight,- escape from unpleasant emotions or stress,- build confidence or enhance self-esteem, and- seek thrills,- peer pressure and- emulating athletic heroes.

  • Reducing the Probability of Substance Abuse (Prevention)Change in behavior (lack of motivation, tardiness, absenteeism)Change in peer groupMajor change in personalityMajor change in performance (academic or athletic)Apathetic or listless behaviorImpaired judgmentPoor coordinationPoor hygiene and groomingProfuse sweatingMuscular twitches or tremorsBe aware of the warning signs of substance abuse:

  • Addiction to ExerciseExercise addiction: A psychological or physiological dependence on a regular regimen of exercise that is characterized by withdrawal symptoms after 24 to 36 hours without exercise

    Positive addiction to exercise: A condition in which exercise is viewed as important in ones life but is successfully integrated with other aspects of life (healthy habit)

    Negative addiction to exercise: A condition in which life becomes structured around exercise to such an extent that home and work responsibilities suffer

  • Preventing Negative Addiction to ExerciseSchedule rest days.Work out regularly with a slower partner.If youre injured, stop exercising until healed.Train hardeasy: Mix in low intensity and less distance with days of harder training.If interested in health aspect, exercise three or four times a week for 30 minutes.Set realistic short- and long-term goals.

  • Prevalence of Compulsive Gambling72% of NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes engage in some form of gambling.

    12% of male and 3% of female college athletes have problematic/pathological gambling problems.

    6% to 8% of college students are compulsive gamblers.

    A 2003 NCAA study showed that 35% of male athletes and 10% of female athletes bet on college sports, and approximately 60% of NCAA Division I and 40% of Division III athletes did not know the NCAA rules about gambling.

    6% to 8% of college students are compulsive gamblers.

    Gambling by high school students is thought to be widespread.

  • Signs of Compulsive GamblingKeysIdentification is next to impossible.

    Use the following Gamblers Anonymous 20 Questions for self-identification.

    Sport psychology professionals should make referrals when negative consequences appear.