Acne and Rosacea

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1 Acne and Rosacea Medical Student Core Curriculum in Dermatology Last updated June 8, 2011

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Acne and Rosacea. Medical Student Core Curriculum in Dermatology. Last updated June 8, 2011. Module Instructions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Acne and Rosacea

Medical Student Core Curriculum in Dermatology

Last updated June 8, 2011

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Module Instructions

The following module contains a number of blue, underlined terms which are hyperlinked to the dermatology glossary, an illustrated interactive guide to clinical dermatology and dermatopathology.

We encourage the learner to read all the hyperlinked information.

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Goals and Objectives

The purpose of this module is to help medical students develop a clinical approach to the evaluation and initial management of patients presenting with acne and rosacea.

By completing this module, the learner will be able to:• Identify and describe the morphology of acne and rosacea• List common triggers for intermittent flushing in rosacea• Explain the basic principles of treatment for acne and rosacea• Recommend an initial treatment plan for a patient presenting with

comedonal and/or inflammatory acne• Practice providing patient education on topical and systemic acne

treatment• Determine when to refer a patient with acne or rosacea to a

dermatologist

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Acne Vulgaris: Epidemiology

Acne vulgaris, often referred to as “acne”, is a disorder of pilosebaceous follicles• Typically presents at ages 8-12 (often the first sign of

puberty), peaks at ages 15-18, and resolves by age 25• Affects 90% of adolescents and affects races equally • Family history is often positive• 12% of women and 3% of men will have acne until their

40s• In women it is not uncommon to have a first outbreak at

20-35 years of age

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Acne Vulgaris: Clinical Presentation

Acne affects mainly the face, neck, upper trunk and upper arms (where sebaceous glands are abundant)

Acne begins with “clogged pores” (pores = pilosebaceous unit), aka comedones

• Open comedones = “blackheads” • Closed comedones = “whiteheads”

Debris and bacteria collect in these clogged pores which then leads to inflammation: papules and pustules with erythema and edema

These pressurized follicles can rupture in the dermis, resulting in tender deep nodulocystic acne

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Case OneJim Reynolds

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Case One: History HPI: Jim Reynolds is an 17-year-old healthy teenager who

presents to his primary care physician with “pimples” on his face for the last 2 years. He reports a daily skin regimen of aggressive facial cleansing with a bar soap during his morning shower.

PMH: no chronic illnesses or prior hospitalizations Allergies: no known allergies Medications: none Family history: father and mother had acne as teenagers Social history: lives at home with parents, attends high school ROS: negative

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Skin Exam Findings

Exam of left cheek: numerous pustules, papules, open and closed comedones with some scarring

Open comedo

Closed comedo

Pustule

Inflamed papule

Scarring

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Classification of Acne Vulgaris

Classification of acne is based on the morphology• Comedonal: open and closed comedones • Inflammatory: papules and pustules • Nodulocystic: nodules and cysts

It is equally important to describe the severity (each type can be mild to severe depending on the amount of acne) and note the presence of scarring for each patient

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Case One, Question 1

How would you describe Jim’s skin exam?a. Mild comedonal acne without

presence of scarringb. Mild inflammatory acne without

comedonesc. Moderate mixed comedonal and

inflammatory acne with presence of scarring

d. Moderate mixed comedonal and inflammatory acne without presence of scarring

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Case One, Question 1

Answer: c How would you describe Jim’s skin exam?

a. Mild comedonal acne without presence of scarring

b. Mild inflammatory acne without comedonesc. Moderate mixed comedonal and

inflammatory acne with presence of scarringd. Moderate mixed comedonal and inflammatory

acne without presence of scarring

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How Would You Describe the Following Patients’ Acne?

Remember for each patient to include the morphology, severity and presence of

scarring

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Acne Vulgaris

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Acne Vulgaris

Moderate comedonal acne without evidence of scarring.

Note the mild post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

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Acne Vulgaris

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Acne Vulgaris

Severe nodulocystic acne with presence of scarring

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Case One, Question 2

Which is (are) related to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris?

a. Androgens in the circulationb. Bacteria in the hair folliclec. Follicular pluggingd. Sebum secretion e. All of the above

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Case One, Question 2

Answer: e Which is (are) related to the pathogenesis

of acne vulgaris? a. Androgens in the circulationb. Bacteria in the hair folliclec. Follicular pluggingd. Sebum secretion e. All of the above

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Acne Vulgaris: Pathogenesis

Acne Vulgaris is related to 4 factors:• Presence of hormones (androgens)• Sebaceous gland activity (increased in presence of

androgens)• Plugging of the hair follicle as a result of abnormal

keratinization of the upper portion (gives rise to comedones)

• P. acnes (bacteria) in the hair follicle (lives on the oil and breaks it down to free fatty acids which cause inflammation)

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Case One, Question 3

Which of the following agents are effective in treating acne vulgaris?

a. Oral antibioticsb. Topical benzoyl peroxidec. Topical retinoid creamsd. All of the above

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Case One, Question 3

Answer: d Which of the following agents are effective

in treating acne vulgaris? a. Oral antibioticsb. Topical benzoyl peroxidec. Topical retinoid creamsd. All of the above

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Treatment: Basic Principles

Systemic and topical retinoids, systemic and topical antimicrobials, and systemic hormonal therapies are the main classes of treatment

Multiple agents are often used with activity against different pathogenic causes (e.g. topical antibiotic plus retinoid)

Use topical antibiotics with benzoyl peroxide to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance

Acne scarring is difficult to treat, therefore aggressive prevention is important

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Acne Scarring

Acne should be treated aggressively to avoid permanent scarring and cysts

Refer patients with difficult to control acne or the presence of scarring to dermatology

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Common First-Line Treatments

Mild comedonal: topical retinoid, +/- topical benzoyl peroxide

Mild papular/pustular: topical retinoid, topical antibiotics (clindamycin, erythromycin), topical benzoyl peroxide

Moderate papular/pustular: oral antibiotics with topical retinoid and benzoyl peroxide

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Common First-Line Treatments

Moderate nodular without scarring: oral antibiotic with topical retinoid and topical benzoyl peroxide

Severe nodular: refer to a dermatologist for oral isotretinoin

Scarring and keloids: refer to a dermatologist for oral isotretinoin

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Topical Retinoids (tretinoin, all trans retinoic acid)

Topical retinoids are vitamin A derivatives Used for acne vulgaris; photodamaged skin; fine

wrinkles, hyperpigmentation Patients should be warned of common adverse

effects:• Dryness, pruritus, erythema, scaling• Photosensitivity

Available as a cream or gel Do not apply at the same time as benzoyl peroxide

because benzoyl peroxide oxidizes tretinoin26

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Benzoyl Peroxide

Benzoyl peroxide is a topical medication with both antibacterial and comedolytic properties

Available as a prescription and over-the-counter, as well as in combinations with topical antibiotics

Patients should be warned of common adverse effects:

• Bleaching of hair, colored fabric, or carpet• May irritate skin; discontinue if severe

Available as a cream, lotion, gel, or wash27

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Topical Antibiotics

Used to reduce the number of P. acnes and reduce inflammation in inflammatory acne

Do not use as monotherapy (often used with benzoyl peroxide to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne and rosacea)

• Erythromycin 2% (solution, gel)• Clindamycin 1% (lotion, solution, gel, foam)

Metronidazole 0.75%, 1% (cream, gel) is used in the treatment of rosacea

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Topical Acne Treatment: Side Effects

Topical acne treatments are often irritating and can cause dry skin

• When using retinoids or benzoyl peroxide, consider beginning on alternate days. Use a moisturizer to reduce their irritancy.

Topical agents take 2-3 months to see effect Patients will often stop their topical treatment too early

from “red, flakey” skin without improvement in their acne

Patient education is a crucial component to acne treatment

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Oral Antibiotics

Tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline Use for moderate to severe inflammatory acne Often combined with benzoyl peroxide to prevent

antibiotic resistance If the patient has not responded after 3 months of

therapy with an oral antibiotic, consider: • Increasing the dose,• Changing the treatment, or • Referring to a dermatologist

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Oral Treatment: Side Effects Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline,

minocycline):• Are contraindicated in pregnancy and in children

<8 years old • May cause GI upset (epigastric burning, nausea,

vomiting and diarrhea can occur)• Can cause photosensitivity (patients may burn

easier, which can be easily managed with better sun protection). Recommend sun block with UVA coverage for all acne patients on tetracyclines

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Oral Tetracyclines: Patient Counseling

Major side effects:• Tetracycline: GI upset, photosensitivity• Doxycycline: GI upset, photosensitivity• Minocycline: GI upset, vertigo, hyperpigmentation

Patients need clear instructions• If taking for acne, it is okay to take them with food and

dairy products for tolerability of GI side effects• Take with full glass of water; avoids esophageal erosions• Tetracyclines do NOT interfere with birth control pills• It takes 2-3 months to see improvement

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Minocycline pigmentation

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Pigmentation appears after months to years in a small percentage of patients

First noticeable on the alveolar ridge, palate, sclera

Skin deposition can be brown or blue-grey. Blue-grey pigmentation may occur in scars

Skin pigmentation may not fade after discontinuation

Patients on long-term minocycline should be screened; if seen on gums or sclerae, discontinue

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Oral Isotretinoin

Oral isotretinoin, a retinoic acid derivative, is indicated in severe, nodulocystic acne failing other therapies

Should be prescribed by physicians with experience using this medication

Typically given in a single 5-6 month course Isotretinoin is teratogenic and therefore absolutely

contraindicated in pregnancy• Female patients must be enrolled in a FDA-mandated prescribing

program in order to use this medication• Two forms of contraception must be used during isotretinoin

therapy and for one month after treatment has ended

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Isotretinoin: Side Effects

Common side effects of isotretinoin include: • Xerosis (dry skin)• Cheilitis (chapped lips)• Elevated liver enzymes• Hypertriglyceridemia

Individuals with severe acne may suffer mood changes and depression and should be monitored

Severe headache can be a manifestation of the uncommon side effect pseudotumor cerebri

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Back to Case OneFollow-up: Jim has called the after-hours answering service very concerned about a new symptom of “dizziness”, which began after he started his new medication.

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Case One, Question 4

Which of the following treatment regimens was most likely prescribed for Jim’s acne?

a. Isotretinoin 1mg/kg/day divided BIDb. Minocycline 100mg po BID c. Tetracycline 500mg po once daily d. None of the above

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Case One, Question 4

Answer: b Which of the following treatment regimens was

prescribed for Jim’s acne?a. Isotretinoin 1mg/kg/day divided BID (main side effects

include xerosis, cheilitis, elevated liver enzymes, hypertriglyceridemia)

b. Minocycline 100mg po BID (can cause vestibular toxicity, manifested as dizziness, ataxia, nausea and vomiting)

c. Tetracycline 500mg po once daily (common side effects include GI upset and photosensitivity)

d. None of the above

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Patient Education

Patient education and setting expectations are important components of effective acne treatment• Lack of adherence is the most common cause of

treatment failure• With the patient, the physician should develop the

therapeutic regimen with the highest likelihood of adherence

• Acne treatment is only treating new lesions, not the ones already there

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Patient Education (cont.)

Patients should use only the prescribed medications and avoid potentially drying over-the-counter products, such as astringent, harsh cleansers or antibacterial soaps

• Recommend daily moisturizer when patients are using solutions and gels because they have more drying effects than creams and ointments

Overaggressive washing and the use of particulate abrasive scrubs often exacerbates acne and should be avoided

Cosmetics are often labeled as “non-comedogenic” or “oil-free” if they do not cause or exacerbate acne

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Case TwoMs. Emily Garcia

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Case Two: History

HPI: Ms. Garcia is a 22-year-old woman who was referred to the dermatology clinic for new onset acne

PMH: no major illness or hospitalizations, no pregnancies Allergies: allergic to penicillin (rash) Medications: occasional multivitamin Family history: noncontributory Social history: lives in the city and attends college Health-related behaviors: gained 40 pounds over the past 4

years despite a healthy diet and exercise habits ROS: new upper lip and chin hair growth, irregular menstrual

cycles since menarche, last period was 4 months ago

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Case Two: Skin Exam

Moderate comedonal and inflammatory acne of cheeks and jaw line. Also with scattered terminal hairs on the upper lip and lower chin.

Hair loss noted on frontal and parietal scalp.

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Case Two, Question 1

Ms. Garcia was given spironolactone and her acne improved. Why did this medication work?

a. Spironolactone has anti-androgenic effectsb. Spironolactone has anti-comedonal activityc. Spironolactone when used appropriately has

anti-bacterial activityd. The diuretic effect of spironolactone eliminated

sodium resulting in less sebum

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Case Two, Question 1

Answer: a Ms. Garcia was given spironolactone and her acne

resolved. Why did this medication work?a. Spironolactone has anti-androgenic effectsb. Spironolactone has anti-comedonal activity (not

true)c. Spironolactone when used appropriately has anti-

bacterial activity (not true)d. The diuretic effect of spironolactone eliminated

sodium resulting in less sebum (not true)

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Case Two, Question 2

Based on the history and exam, what is the most likely diagnosis?

a. Cushing Syndromeb. Gram negative folliculitisc. Polycystic ovarian syndromed. S. aureus folliculitis

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Case Two, Question 2

Answer: c Based on the history and exam, what is the most

likely diagnosis?a. Cushing Syndrome (manifestations of excessive

corticosteroids, which results in central obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, hirsutism, purple striae)

b. Gram negative folliculitis (multiple tiny yellow pustules develop on top of acne vulgaris as a result of long-term antibiotic administration)

c. Polycystic ovarian syndromed. S. aureus folliculitis (multiple follicular pustules and

papules) 47

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Ms Garcia most likely has polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)• Affected individuals must have two out of the following

three criteria: (1) oligo- and/or anovulation, (2) hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), and (3) polycystic ovaries on sonographic examination*

• In addition to hormonal acne, increased circulating androgens also results in hirsutism

• Women with PCOS also have a greater degree with insulin resistance which can cause acanthosis nigricans

* Based on definition from the Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2004

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Androgens in Acne In many post adolescent women, antiandrogen therapy

can improve acne• These women have hormonal acne; their serum hormone

levels are usually normal• Hormonal acne lesions are often perioral and along the jaw

line• Many women report a pre-menstrual flare

Not all women with hormonal acne are tested for hyperandrogenism • However, it should be considered in the female patient whose

acne is severe, sudden in onset, or associated with hirsutism or irregular menses

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More Examples of Hormonal Acne

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Inflammatory acne on the lateral and inferior face, especially along the jawline

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Treatment of Hormonal Acne

Commonly used agents to treat hormonal acne include: • Spironolactone 50mg -100mg daily• Oral contraceptives

– The following oral contraceptives have been approved by the FDA for treatment of acne: Yaz, Ortho Tri-cyclen, Estrostep

– There is good evidence and consensus opinion that other estrogen-containing OCPs are also effective

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Case ThreeMs. Sherri Johnson

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Case Three: History

HPI: Ms. Johnson is a 33-year-old woman who presented to clinic with “red cheeks” for the last year

PMH: migraine headaches since childhood Allergies: none Medications: none Family history: not contributory Social history: lives in an apartment, works as a cashier

at a grocery store Health related behaviors: drinks 1/2 pint of vodka per

day, no tobacco or drug use ROS: negative

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Case Three, Question 1

How would you describe Ms. Johnson’s skin exam?

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Case Three, Question 1

Facial erythema with papules and pustules on the nose and cheeks as well as some scattered papules and pustules on the forehead and chin.

No comedones are noted.

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Case Three, Question 2

What is the most likely diagnosis?a. Bacterial folliculitisb. Pellagra from niacin deficiencyc. Rosacead. Seborrheic dermatitise. Systemic lupus erythematosus

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Case Three, Question 2Answer: c What is the most likely diagnosis?

a. Bacterial folliculitis (Would expect multiple follicular pustules and papules for a shorter duration, without background of erythema)

b. Pellagra from niacin deficiency (Erythema and edema which fade with a dusky brown-red coloration on sun-exposed areas. Lesions become hyperkeratotic and scaly)

c. Rosacead. Seborrheic dermatitis (Would expect erythematous patches and

plaques with greasy, yellowish scale accentuated on the central face)

e. Systemic lupus erythematosus (Rash of SLE does not present with pustules)

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Acne Rosacea: The Basics

Acne rosacea, also called rosacea, is a chronic inflammatory condition located at the “flush” areas of the face (nose, cheeks > brow, chin)

Papules and pustules superimposed on a background of telangiectasias and general erythema

More common in women Age of onset 30-50s (later than acne vulgaris) Affected persons flush easily Patients often report very sensitive skin

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Case Three, Question 3

Which of the following might trigger Ms. Johnson’s rosacea?

a. Alcoholb. Heat/hot beveragesc. Hot, spicy foodsd. Sunlighte. All of the above

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Case Three, Question 3

Answer: e Which of the following might trigger Ms.

Johnson’s rosacea? a. Alcoholb. Heat/hot beveragesc. Hot, spicy foodsd. Sunlighte. All of the above

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Rosacea Triggers

Alcohol Sunlight Hot beverages (heat) Hot, spicy food If it makes you flush it can flare rosacea

• Includes emotional stress Unlike acne vulgaris, rosacea is not related

to androgens

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Clinical Features of Rosacea Rosacea is typically located on the mid face including the

nose and cheeks with occasional involvement of the brow, chin, eyelids, and eyes

Patients have erythema and telangiectasias Patients can have papules and pustules The absence of comedones helps to distinguish acne

vulgaris from rosacea May also present with rhinophyma (dermal and sebaceous

gland hyperplasia of the nose) Patients can have ocular rosacea: keratitis, blepharitis,

conjunctivitis

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The Following Photos Illustrate Different Types of Rosacea

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Erythematotelangietatic Rosacea

Erythema and telangiectasias scattered on the nose and cheeks.

There are no papules, pustules, or comedones present.

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Papulopustular Rosacea

Erythema with papules and pustules on the nose and chin.

Patient also has erythematous patches on the cheeks bilaterally.

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Phymatous Rosacea

Facial erythema, scattered papules, pustules on the nose, forehead, cheeks and chin. Thickened, highly sebaceous skin.

This patient also has severe rhinophyma.

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Rosacea Treatment

Therapy is often long-term Rosacea is chronic, controllable, but not

curable All patients should use sunscreen daily Most treatments are directed at specific

findings manifested by rosacea patients See the following slides for recommendations

regarding rosacea treatment

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Rosacea Treatment (cont.)

For patients with papulopustular rosacea and the erythrotelangiectatic type, topical products are often used: • Metronidazole, sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid

and sulfur cleansers and creams In addition to topical products, oral antibiotics

(tetracyclines) are used for pustular and papular lesions

Lasers and light devices are useful for treating the erythema and telangiectasias, but the cost is not covered by insurance, limiting their availability

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Rosacea Treatment (cont.)

Isotretinoin is considered in severe cases

These patients should be referred to a dermatologist

Surgical approaches are used to treat rhinophyma

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Back to Case Three

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Case Three, Question 4

Which of the following treatments would you recommend for Ms. Johnson?a. Avoidance of alcoholb. Oral tetracyclinec. Use sunscreen dailyd. All of the above

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Case Three, Question 4

Answer: d Which of the following

treatments would you recommend for Ms. Johnson?a. Avoidance of alcoholb. Oral tetracyclinec. Use sunscreen dailyd. All of the above

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Case Three, Question 5

True or False, topical and oral antibiotics are the best treatment for the erythema of rosacea.

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Case Three, Question 5

Answer: False The medical management of rosacea may

not diminish the erythema Laser therapy may be helpful for

telangiectasias and erythema Photoprotection is also helpful in treating

the erythema of rosacea

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Ask About Ocular Symptoms

Ask all patients with rosacea about any ocular symptoms

Consider referral to ophthalmology and/or dermatology if suspect ocular involvement

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• Signs and symptoms of ocular rosacea include: blepharitis, conjunctivitis, iritis, scleritis, hypopyon, and keratitis

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Take Home Points: Acne Vulgaris

Acne vulgaris is characterized by open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts

Include the morphology, severity and presence of scarring when describing acne

Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris is related to the presence of androgens, excess sebum production, the activity of P. acnes, and follicular hyperkeratinization

Systemic and topical retinoids, systemic and topical antimicrobials, and systemic hormonal therapies are the main classes of treatment for acne vulgaris

Untreated acne can result in permanent scarring76

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Take Home Points: Rosacea

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition of the face, which may present with easy flushing, erythema, telangiectasias, papules and pustules, and/or phymatous changes

Many patients with rosacea have ocular involvement Unlike acne vulgaris, rosacea does not present with

comedones and is unrelated to hormones Topical and oral treatments often improve the papules and

pustules of rosacea, but will not reverse the underlying erythema and flushing

All patients with rosacea should use sunscreen

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Acknowledgements

This module was developed by the American Academy of Dermatology Medical Student Core Curriculum Workgroup from 2008-2012.

Primary authors: Sarah D. Cipriano, MD, MPH; Eric Meinhardt, MD; Timothy G. Berger, MD, FAAD; Kanade Shinkai, MD, PhD, FAAD.

Peer reviewers: Rebecca B. Luria, MD, FAAD; Cory A. Dunnick, MD, FAAD.

Revisions and editing: Sarah D. Cipriano, MD, MPH; John Trinidad. Last revised June 2011.

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References Berger T, Hong J, Saeed S, Colaco S, Tsang M, Kasper R. The Web-

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Chambers Henry F, "Chapter 46. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors and Miscellaneous Antibacterial Agents" (Chapter). Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL: Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11e: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=949328.

Feldman S, Careccia R, Barham KL, Hancox J. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acne. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:2123-30.

James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, “Chapter 13. Acne” (chapter). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin Clinical Dermatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006: 231-239, 245-248.

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References Rotterdam 1: revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health

risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 2004;19:41–47. Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, Halvorson LM, Hoffman BL, Bradshaw KD, Cunningham

FG, "Chapter 16. Amenorrhea" (Chapter). Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, Halvorson LM, Hoffman BL, Bradshaw KD, Cunningham FG: Williams Gynecology: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3156564.

Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, Lucky AW, Shalita AR, Sigfried EC, et al. Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management. J AM Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:651-63.

Zaenglein Andrea L, Graber Emmy M, Thiboutot Diane M, Strauss John S, "Chapter 78. Acne Vulgaris and Acneiform Eruptions" (Chapter). Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest B, Paller AS, Leffell DJ: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 7e: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=2963025.