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- 1.What is ACCIDENTAL INDIA? Accidental India: A History of the Nations Passage through Crisis and Change is journalist Shankkar Aiyars fascinating new book which examines the chronicle of Indias history through seven turning points in the countrys history. In the book, Aiyar argues that changes in the country since independence have not arisen through conscious decision making or planning, but have been accidental results of crises affecting the nation.
2. Accidental India consist of: The Economic Liberalization Of 1991 The Green Revolution Of The Sixties The Nationalization Of Banks In 1969 Operation Flood In The Seventies The Mid-Day Meal Scheme Of 1982 The Software Revolution Of The Nineties The Passing Of The Right To Information Act In 2005. 3. The Economic Liberalization Of 1991 The economic liberalization in India refers to ongoing economic reforms in India that started on 24 July 1991. After Independence in 1947, India adhered to socialist policies. Attempts were made to liberalize the economy in 1966 and 1985. The first attempt was reversed in 1967. Thereafter, a stronger version of socialism was adopted. The second major attempt was in 1985 by prime minister Rajiv Gandhi. The process came to a halt in 1987, though 1966 style reversal did not take place It Includes:- Pre Liberalization Policies Narasimha Rao Government (19911996) Later Reforms Impact Of Pre Liberalization Policy Impact Of Reforms 4. The Green Revolution Of The Sixties Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1960s that increased agriculture production worldwide, particularly in the developing world beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green Revolution" credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. It Comprises of :- Nature of Green Revolution Causes or Importance of Green Revolution Effects of Green Revolution on Income Problems or demerits of Green Revolution 5. The Nationalization Of Banks In 1969 After independence the Government of India (GOI) adopted planned economic development for the country (India). Accordingly, five year plans came into existence since 1951. This economic planning basically aimed at social ownership of the means of production. However, commercial banks were in the private sector those days. In 1950-51 there were 430 commercial banks. The Government of India had some social objectives of planning. These commercial banks failed helping the government in attaining these objectives. Thus, the government decided to nationalize 14 major commercial banks on 19th July, 1969. All commercial banks with a deposit base over Rs.50 crores were nationalized. It was considered that banks were controlled by business houses and thus failed in catering to the credit needs of poor sections such as cottage industry, village industry, farmers, craft men, etc. The second dose of nationalisation came in April 1980 when banks were nationalized. It Explains the:- Liberalization of 1990s Objective behind nationalization of Banks in India Demerits/ Limitations of Bank Nationalization in India 6. Operation Flood In The Seventies Operation Flood in India, a project of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was the world's biggest dairy development programme which made India, a milk-deficient nation, the largest milk producer in the world, surpassing the USA in 1998,with about 17 percent of global output in 201011, which in 30 years doubled the milk available per person, and which made dairy farming Indias largest self-sustainable rural employment generator. All this was achieved not merely by mass production, but by production by the masses. It is subjected to:- Liberalization of 1990sProgramme Implementation of Operation Flood Effects of White Revolution Matching Demand & Supply Protection of Milk industry White Revolution & Gender Revolution Success of White Revolution 7. The Mid-Day Meal Scheme Of 1982 The Mid Day Meal Scheme is a multi-faceted programme of the Government of India that, among other things, seeks to address issues of food security, lack of nutrition and access to education on a pan nation scale. It involves provision for free lunch on working days for children in Primary and Upper Primary Classes in Government, Government Aided, Local Body, Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternate Innovative Education (AIE) Centre, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and National Child Labor Project (NCLP) Schools run by Ministry of Labour. The primary objective of the scheme is to provide hot cooked meal to children of primary and upper primary classes. With other objectives of improving nutritional status of children, encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities, thereby increasing the enrollment, retention and attendance rates. It is subjected to:- History Pre Independence Initiative Initiative by State Government Initiative By Central Government National Programme of Nutrition Support to Primary Education Criticism of Dry Rations Implementation Models & Criticism Monitoring & Evaluation & Criticism 8. The Software Revolution of 90s The free software movement was launched in 1983, but there existed earlier projects which fit (or almost fit) the modern definition of free software, that is, software which all users are free to use, study, modify and redistribute ("free as in freedom"). Earlier projects provided these freedoms either for practical reasons or social reasons but were not part of an organized movement to spread the practice or the philosophy. The movement was launched by Richard Stallman as a reaction to the growing trend of developers blocking these freedoms by only publishing the run able version of the software and not the modifiable source code. Stallman argues that this is a social imperative for all distributed software, rather than a technical choice which just happens to have a practical value in some contexts. In 1998, people who advocated free software but disagreed that it was a social imperative began using the term "open-source software" for the software and presenting it as having technical advantages. It includes:- Sharing Techniques Before Software Free Software Before the 1980s Initial Decline of Free Software Conditions Between 1980s 1990s Launch of Free Software Movement