Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches

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Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches. Maarten Vink ICS-UL ENCONTRO COM A CIÊNCIA 2009 Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 29 e 30 de Julho de 2009. Research Question : what explains the different ways in which states attribute citizenship? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Access to Citizenship

    European Trends and Comparative ApproachesMaarten Vink ICS-UL

    ENCONTRO COM A CINCIA 2009Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian, 29 e 30 de Julho de 2009

  • ProjectResearch Question: what explains the different ways in which states attribute citizenship?

    Relevance: access to citizenship is of essential importance for political incorporation of immigrants

    Analysis: citizenship laws in 30 developed democracies from 1985 to 2009

    Method: comparative configurational analysis (CCA)

  • Limits to Comparative ResearchDifferent state-building processesConsolidated vs. fragile statesDifferent citizenship traditionsIus soli vs. ius sanguinisDifferent migration experiencesEmigration vs. immigrationDifferent political contextsE.g. left-wing vs. populist parties

  • Trends 1: Discursive changesInstrumentalizationSince 1980sCitizenship policies as integration policiesElite-driven

    PoliticizationSince 1990sCitizenship policies as identity policiesSociety-driven

  • Trends 2: Substantive changesEqual treatment men / women (ius sanguinis)Inclusion 2nd and/or 3rd generation (ius soli)Acceptance of multiple citizenshipIntroduction of integration conditions Deprivation of citizenship (fraud / crime)European Union membershipVink, M., ed. (2010). Migration and Citizenship Attribution: Politics and Policies in Western Europe. Special issue of Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(4).

  • 1a. Extension of ius sanguinis

    Introduction of citizenship attribution iure sanguinis a patre et a matre

    FRA

    IRE

    GERPORFIN

    SWI*

    (45)

    (56)

    (75)(81)GRE

    (06)

    (84)

    SPA

    DENICEBEL

    (78)(82)NET

    SWI*

    NOR AUT(85)

    SWE ITA

    (79) UK

    (83)

    |

    | |

    |

    |

    |

    |

    1945

    1955 19651975

    1985

    1995

    2005

  • Extension to children born out of wedlockLUX (87), DE (93), ICE (98) DEN (99), UK (02), FIN (03), NOR (06) for biological fathersSWE (05) also to non-biological mother (art. ins.)Extension to adopted childrene.g. NED (98/05), FIN (03)Extension to emigrants (reacquisition)FRA, ITA, SPAConditional when born abroad, 1 parent citizenSLO (registration), LAT, LIT (parental consent)Limitation to first generation born abroadBE (85), DE (00); see also IRE, POR and UK1b. Extension and limitation of ius sanguinis

  • 2. Extension and limitation of ius soliIus soli countries amend their ius soli principle- UK (83), IRE (04) Ius sanguinis countries introduce ius soli - GER (00)Ius sanguinis countries provide for ex lege acquisition via a double ius soli - NET (53), SPA (82), BEL (92), POR (06)Extension of ius soli to stateless minors- EST, LAT (98)Restriction of ius soli for potential stateless, if registration in the country of origin possible - FIN (03), FRA (03), LUX

  • 4. Introduction of integration conditionsLanguage tests AUS (98/06), BUL (01), LUX (01), UK (03/04), NET (03/09), FRA (06), NOR (06)Contra this trend: BEL (00), POR (06)General integration tests BUL (01), DEN (02), FRA (03), UK (02/05), NET (03), AUS (06)Naturalisation ceremony and oath of allegiance UK (02/05), NET (05/07/09).

  • 5. Deprivation of citizenshipIntroduction of fraudulent behaviour during naturalization procedure as reason for deprivation (even when otherwise stateless)DEN (02), FIN (03), NET (03), BEL (06), DE (06), cf. Art. 7 (b) ECNDeprivation of nationality because of criminal behaviour seriously prejudicial to the vital interests of the stateUK (more severe 02), DEN (04), NET (09?), contra this trend SPA (02)

  • 6. European UnionShorter residence requirement for nationals EU in case of naturalization AUS, ITA, HUN (03)Loss of citizenship because of permanent residence abroad, but not within EU NET Loss of nationality in case of voluntary acquisition of foreign citizenship, but not of other MS / SWIGER (07)Renunciation previous citizenship as condition for naturalization, but not if citizen of other MS / SWI GER (07)

  • 3. Increasing acceptance of multiple citizenship increasing occurrence of multiple citizenship due to migration and mixed marriages

    question: why do some states recognize multiple citizenship as a reality, while others do not?

  • Multiple Citizenship in EU15: Ius soli

  • Multiple Citizenship in EU15: Renunciation demand

  • ExplanationsLegal tradition (Weil, 2001)Common vs. Civil law?Colonialism (Howard, 2006)Former colonial power (1945)?Left-wing governments (Joppke, 2005)No. of years largest gov. party is left 1990-2003Presence of populist parties (Howard, 2006)Max. electoral support 1990-2003

  • Comparative Configurational AnalysisCharles Ragin1987. The Comparative Method2000. Fuzzy-set social science

    Calibration:Crisp-set (0/1) Fuzzy-set (0-1)

    No independent variablesNo linear regression Necessary and sufficient conditions (or combinations)

  • Citizenship Configurations (2009)

  • Analysis 1: 1985

  • Analysis 2: 2009

  • ConclusionsNo single European model

    Citizenship attribution in flux

    Citizenship policies explained by:legal tradition common law vs. civil lawcolonial experienceideological factors absence / presence of strong populist parties(rather than absence / presence of strong leftwing parties)

  • Online observatory33+ countriesComprehensive comparative gridLaws / Case lawCountry reportsComparative tablesStatisticsLaunch Fall 2009 Funded by ECeudo-citizenship.eu

    Until 2006 Swiss citizenship was not attributed automatically to the child of a mother who had acquired Swiss citizenship by marriage.In all states the unitary system of nationality within one family (wife follows the nationality of the husband; systme unitaire) is replaced by a dualistic system (wife can have another nationality than the husband: systme dualiste). See Art. 4 (d) ECN: marriage does not have consequences for the nationality of the spouses.The dominance of ius sanguinis a patre is in all states replaced by a ius sanguinis a matre et a patre. Some countries make exceptions on the ius sanguinis principle in case of birth abroad (Belgium, Germany (since 2000), Ireland, Portugal) or in case of nationality-mixed marriages (see Latvia, Slovenia. Compare Lithuania and FYR). Art. 6 ECN allows this exceptions. However they should not lead to statelessness (Recommendation R 99 (18) of the Committee of Ministers of the CoE)

    SLO: when born abroad, with one SLO parentN.B. ECN does not make a choice between ius soli/ ius sanguinis1 ECN also ratified by Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and FYR Macedonia.2 Germany: no renunciation demand for EU citizens and no loss when acquiring citizenship of other EU member state (since 2007).3 Italy: only applies when acquiring citizenship of state that is party to Strasbourg Convention (Chapter 1), with exception for cases that fall under Second Protocol.4 Spain: no renunciation for citizens from Latin America, Andorra, Portugal, Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, and no loss of citizenship for Spanish citizens acquiring citizenship of these countries (since 1990). 1 ECN also ratified by Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and FYR Macedonia.2 Germany: no renunciation demand for EU citizens and no loss when acquiring citizenship of other EU member state (since 2007).3 Italy: only applies when acquiring citizenship of state that is party to Strasbourg Convention (Chapter 1), with exception for cases that fall under Second Protocol.4 Spain: no renunciation for citizens from Latin America, Andorra, Portugal, Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, and no loss of citizenship for Spanish citizens acquiring citizenship of these countries (since 1990).