A scapular facture in Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis(Dinosauria ...

download A scapular facture in Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis(Dinosauria ...

of 6

  • date post

    11-Feb-2017
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    214
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of A scapular facture in Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis(Dinosauria ...

  • ! " # $

    !"#$#!%&'$ ()$$"*%+ #, &-%+.

    %

    /!

    &%

    "#

    '

    /00$

    (

    "#

    )

    1234/!

    !

    +24"#

    %&'(

    !

    /00$

    ! "#$%&'()$*

    )*+,* ', '-. ./'012+/-3.4' ,5 '-. '.*3

    "

    6+5

    4,/07*+0

    #

    +4 "!8!

    9":

    ; '-.+* A.*'.1*02 57/+,4/ +4 '-. '-.*,?@/'ABC%!56 DE

    V"##U8

    8*#9 : 3; 3 ?; @6( A B;

  • !

    !!

    " !

    "#

    #

    $%&'($)$*+ ,-.)/010 &' )1&2' ,-3/4+541)&'10 %&'($)$*,12

    674&.'/4128 9,'1 :&4;28 ,-71.',$-28 2'4122 74&.'/412 &-0

    &9-$4:&) '11'(?@

    A B$41$=148 ,-0,41.' 1=,01-.1 &)2$

    ,-0,.&'12 '(1 :$49,0,'+ $7 '(14$%$028 &-0 ),:%,-*

    '(14$%$0 7$$'%4,-'2 &-0 '4&.;C&+2 2/**12' ,-3/4,12 $4

    &4'(4,',2

    >D5E@

    A

    F(1 %&)1$%&'($)$*,.&) 2'/0+ $7 G(,-121 0,-$2&/42

    91*&- 41)&',=1)+ )&'1A F(1 $-)+ 7$4:&) 41%$4' ,2 '(&'

    '(1 7,9/)& &9-$4:&),'+ $7 $-1 !"#$$%&'"%()(" 6G14&'$%"

    2,&< 2%1.,:1- :&+ (&=1 911- .&/210 9+ '(1 '/914.)1

    9&.,))/2

    >!@

    A H- &00,',$-8 '(1 2:&)) )/:%2 &-0 %4$'/914&-.1

    $- .14=,.&)8 0$42&) &-0 .&/0&) =14'194&1 $7 *%+,-!

    ./0"%()(" /'./(%-,-"0" 6I/2&/4$%$0&< GGJ K L#D#"

    &41 $9214=10 6M142$-&) $9214=&',$-"?5"D@

    A H- L##[8 C(1- M1-* 1' &)A C141 2/::&"

    4,\,-* '(1 F(14$%$0& ,- V,*$-*8 GH /C80-;C-"0" C&2

    3/0*10 '$ 91 =&),08 &-0 FH I'-;0 C&2 &''4,9/'10 '$ GH

    I'-;0

    >"[@

    A P1418 '(1 .$-.)/2,$- $7 M1-* 1' &)A ,2 &0$%'10A

    ! "#$%&%'%&(#)* )++,-.&)%&(#$

    GGJ ]G(1-*0/ G$))1*1 $7 J1$)$*+8 Y,.(/&-8

    G(,-&8 OPBJ]O&'/4&) P,2'$4+ B/21/: $7 J/&-*U,8

    O&--,-*8 G(,-&8 WBOP]W'&( B/21/: $7 O&'/4&)

    P,2'$4+8 W-,=142,'+ $7 W'&(8 W'&(8 WY^A WYOB ]

    W-,'10 Y'&'12 O&',$-&) B/21/:8 _&2(,-*'$-8 WY^A

    VSB]V,*$-* S,-$2&/4 B/21/:8 Y,.(/&-8 G(,-&A

    / 0($$&* 1)%-,&)*$

    ^ -1&4)+ .$:%)1'1 2;1)1'$- ,2 %41214=10 ,- VSB

    ##LD8 ,-.)/0,-* '(1 .$:%)1'1 2;/))8 R .$441)&'10 .14=,"

    .&) =14'194&18 "D 0$42&) =14'194&18 [ 2&.4& &-0 ?[ .&/"

    0&) =14'194&18 )17' &-0 4,*(' 2.&%/)&18 .$4&.$,028 ,),&8

    %/9128 ,2.(,& &-0 )17' 71:/4A J&$

    >""@

    $9214=10 '(&' '(141

    C141 &9-$4:&),',12 .&/210 9+ (+%14$2'1$*1-+ ,- '(1

    )17' 2.&%/)& $7 VSB ##LD 9/' 0,0 -$' $7714 7/4'(14

    &-&)+2,2A

    ^..$40,-* '$ '(1 -1C $9214=&',$- 74$: '(1 &/"

    '($428 '(1 )17' 2.&%/)& ,2 2),*(')+ )$-*14 '(&- '(1 4,*('

    2.&%/)&A ^ :&22,=1 '/914$2,'+ 41*,$- C&2 $9214=10 $-

    '(1 :,05%$2'14,$4 1-0 $7 '(1 )17' 2.&%/)&4 0,&%(+2,28

    C(,.( .$-'4,9/'12 '$ '(1 1U'4& 01%'( $7 '(1 :,00)1

    &-0 0,2'&) 1-0 $7 '(1 2.&%/)&4 0,&%(+2,2 6211 Z,*A " &-0

    F&9)1 "

  • ! " # $

    !"#$#!%&'$ ()$$"*%+ #, &-%+. !""!

    !

    "#$%&'(&)*%"+$, #- &./01*/23 (&4)*%"+$, #- &./01*/2 45/0,6&5&3 7.#)854$, #- .#2/#

    .#543 74&)854$, #- 45&$/* &./01*/23 90&4)4%0$, #- 02#:5;/* &./01*/2 45/0,6&5&3

    9;&4)4%0$, #- ;544*% &./01*/2 45/0,6&5&3 94&4)4%0$, #- 45&$/* &./01*/2 45/#

    0,6&5&3 J

    45&$5".$ /"+1*/2 4%-#2;5$6 #..12& K%$8%%"

    $,% 02#:5;/* %"4 /"4 $,% 45&$/* %"4 #- $,%

    %;5"%".%> L,% .#2$5./* K#"%& /2% "#$

    .#"&%.1$5=%I 8,5., 5"45./$%& $605./* -2/.#

    $12%&> L,% &12-/.% #- $,% %;5"%".% 5&

    2#1+,> L,% /22/"+%;%"$ #- $,% $2/K%.1*/%

    5& 45%2%4I 8,5., 5& =%26 &5;5*/2 $# $,%

    K#"6 ./**1& -#2;%4 4125"+ -2/.$12% ,%/*5"+ 5" ,1;/"

    K#"%& M&%% N5+> GO> N2/.$12% ,%/*5"+ 5& / .#"$5"1#1&

    02#.%&&I 8,5., ./" K% /2$5-5.5/**6 45=54%4 5"$# $,2%%

    0,/&%&P 5"-*/;;/$#26 0,/&%I K#"% 2%0/2/$5=% 0,/&%I /"4

    2%;#4%*5"+ 0,/&%> L,% /22/"+%;%"$ #- 025;/26 K#"%

    ./**1& 5& 45%2%4> C"41.%4 K6 $,% &$2%&&I $,% K#"6

    ./**1& #=%2 $,% &$2%&& /:5& 5& &$2%"+$,%"%4 +2/41/**6I

    8,5*% $,% K#"6 ./**1& #1$&54% $,% /:5& 5& %*5;5"/$%4

    +2/41/**6> L,% /22/"+%;%"$ #- $,% $2/K%.1*/% $%"4& $#

    K% 2%+1*/2> C" $,% *#"+ K#"%& #- *#8%2 *5;K& #- ,1#

    ;/"&I $,% .#;0*%$% 2%$5#" #- 025;/26 K#"% ./**1&

    5& -2%Q1%"$*6 4%$%.$%4I /"4 %=%"$1/**6 $,%2% 5& "# #K#

    &%2=/K*% 45--%2%".% -2#; / ,%/*$,6 K#"% 5" R )2/6&>

    L,5& -2/.$12% ./&% 45&.1&&%4 ,%2% ,/00%"%4 5" / 8%5+,$

    K%/25"+ K#"%I 8,%2% /K1"4/"$ ;1&.*%& 8%2% /$$/.,%4I

    /"4 $,% *#/4 452%.$5#"& 8%2% .#;0*5./$%4> L,% /K#

    &%".% #- &$/K*%I .#"&%.1$5=% /"4 &$2#"+ &$2%&& 5"41.%#

    ;%"$ 5"$%2-%2%4 85$, $,% 2%;#4%*5"+ 02#.%&& /-$%2 $,%

    -#2;/$5#" #- $,% 025;/26 K#"% ./**1&I /"4 %=%"$1/**6

    $,% ;/&&5=%I 45&$5".$*6 .#"=%: &,/0%4 K#"% ./**1& 8/&

    -#2;%4>

    9%0%"45"+ #" =/25#1& -/.$#2&I K#"% -2/.$12%& ./"

    K% 45=54%4 5"$# %:$%2"/* -#2.% -2/.$12%I 0/$,#*#+5./*

    -2/.$12% /"4 &$2%&& -2/.$12%> S6&$%;5. ;%$/K#*5. 45&$12#

    K/".% #- ./*.51; /"4 0,#&0,#21&I 5"-%.$5#1& 45&%/&%

    /"4 #&$%#"%#0*/&5/ /2% .#;;#" 5" 0/$,#*#+5./* -2/.#

    $12%&> L,% #$,%2 K#"%& #- D9E FFGH /2% 8%**)02%#

    &%2=%43 "# %=54%"$ *%&5#"& MK#"% -2/.$12% 5" 0/2$5.1*/2O

    /2% 4%$%.$%4> L,%2%-#2% 5$ 5& 1"*5T%*6 $,/$ $,% -2/.$12%

    8/& ./1&%4 K6 &6&$%;5. ;%$/K#*5. -/.$#2& #2 5"-%.$5#">

    U&$%#"%#0*/&5/ #" &./01*/ 5& =%26 2/2% 5" ,1;/" K%#

    5"+&> L# #K&%2=% $,% &0%.5;%" K%$$%2I $,% 45/0,6&5&

    8/& K2#T%" 10 /$ $,% */$%2/* K#"% ./**1& .*#&% $# $,%

    ;/2+5"> C" $,% .2#&&)&%.$5#"I $,% ;/2+5" #- $,% K#"%

    ./**1& 5& 8%** ).52.1;&.25K%4 85$, $,% *#8%2 .#2$5./*

    K#"%&> V# 5"=/&5=% +2#8$, #2 4/;/+% 5" K#"% &1K#

    &$/".% 8/& 4%$%.$%4 M&%% N5+> WO> U&$%#"%#0*/&5/ ./"

    K/&5./**6 K% %*5;5"/$%4 /& $,% ./1&%> E#2%#=%2I 8#1"4

    ,%/*5"+ 5& 5;0#&&5K*% $# #..12 5" 0/$,#*#+5./* -2/.$12%&

    ./1&%4 K6 $1;#2&> C" #$,%2 8#24&I $,5& ,1+% K#"% ./*#

    *1& 0#5"$& /8/6 -2#; 0/$,#*#+5./* -2/.$12% 8/& ./1&%4

    K6 $1;#2> C" /445$5#"I $,5& &$21.$12% ,/& "# &5;5*/25$6

    85$, ;#2K54 &./01*/ #- !""#$%&'&$ ('%)*"*$ XSVE

    HAWH> L,% */$$%2 &./01*/ ,/& / ;#2% $25/"+1*/2 &,/0%

    2%*/$%4 $# / */2+% %:#&$#&5&

    ?GF)G@B

    > L,%2%-#2% $,% -2/.$12%

    #" $,5& &0%.5;%" 8/& ;#&$ *5T%*6 ./1&% K6 /" %:$%2"/*

    -#2.%>

    ! "#$%&'(' )* +,-$.()/

    N#2 0/*%#/"$,2#0#*#+5./* 0/*%#0/$,#*#+6I K#"%

    -2/.$12% 5& "#$ &5+"5-5./"$> L,% &5+"5-5./".% *5%& 5"

    45--%2%"$ -2/.$12% 2/$%& /"4 $60%&I 8,5., 2%=%/* 5;0#2#

    $/"$ 5"-#2;/$5#" /K#1$ $,% *5-%&$6*% #- 02%,5&$#25. ,1#

    ;/"&

    ?GGB

    > S#;% -2/.$12%& /2% ,5+,*6 &1++%&$5=% #- ,5+,*6

    =5#*%"$ .#"-*5.$& K%$8%%" 0%#0*%

    ?GWB

    > L,5& &,#1*4 /*

    ,#*4 $21% -#2 $,%2#0#4&>

    E1*$5)*/6%2 ;1&.*%& /2% /$$/.,%4 #" $,% &./01*/

    #- =%2$%K2/$%I 8#2T5"+ /& / K1--%2 /+/5"&$ $,% =5#*%"$

    -#2.%& $,/$ ;/6 ./1&% $2/1;/> L,%&% ;1&.*%& ./" /*

    02#$%.$ $,% &./01*/ /+/5"&$ *#8)%"%2+6 5"Y125%&> U"*6

    / 452%.$ ,5+,)%"%2+6 5;0/.$ ./" ./1&% &./01*/2 -2/.#

    $12%> C" ,1;/" #&$%#*#+6I $,% &./01*/ 5& /* -2/.$12%4

    /& $,% 2%&1*$ #- &5+"5-5./"$ K*1"$ $2/1;/I /& #..12& 5"

    =%,5.*% .#**5&5#"&

    ?GHB

    > D9E FFGH ,/4 02#K/K*6 K%%" 5"#

    0$1%, @ 2,$'3/,4,#5' )* '6$73%$, )* 892 FFGH

    @WZG

  • !

    !!

    " !

    "#

    #

    $%&' ( )* +,-./01+2-1%./ .3 !"#$%&'"#()"'*') &+,-#$+#)-) 4/5 ."/+#%&-)"'*') &(%&'"#+#)-)

    67, 4/1,+%.+ 8.59 .3 !0 &+,-#$+#)-) %0 :%17%/ 17, 4114-;%/& 4+,4 .3 17, 14%

  • ! " # $

    !"#$#!%&'$ ()$$"*%+ #, &-%+. !""!

    !

    "#$%& '( ) *%+%$% +',-%(.% .,--'*',(/ 0( 12% ,12%$

    2)(&3 '4 12% *.56#-5 25& *#44%$%& 4$,7 *'8('4'.5(1 9-#(1

    1$5#753 *%+%$% .2%*1 1$5#75 7'821 9% 6$%*%(1

    :;,#-& &'$%.1-? 6#1 12% )('7)-#* -'4% '( &)(8%$@ A,>$

    %+%$3 *.56#-5$ 4#*',( ,4 BCD EE;F '(&'.)1%* 12)1 12%

    1$)#7) '* (,1 *, *%$',#*G

    H2%$% 25+% 9%%( I *6%.'%* ,4 !"#$%&'"#()"'*')

    &'*.,+%$%&J !+ )&"#$,('-#).)

    :;K=

    3 !+ /"$')

    :;L=

    5(& !+

    &-0.#$-#)-)

    :MMN

    O 5(& 12%? 5-- .57% 4$,7 12% P25(8*25Q$

    '7'5, R,$751',(/ !+ )&"#$,('-#).) '* 566$,Q'751% L7

    '( -%(812S !+ /"$') '* $,#82-? !7 '( -%(812T !+ &-0/

    .#$-#)-) '* 59,#1 U7 '( -%(812/ 1+ 2(#$.

    VM;N

    ,4 3.#*"04(*

    >'12 12% -%(812 ,4 59,#1 L7 >5* &'*.,+%$%& '( 12%

    P2'*2#8,# W,$751',( '( X'("'5(8G Y2% IC $%.,($

    *1$#.1',( ,4 !+ &-0.#$-#)-) >5* .$%51%&