74632040 Buddhist Mudra

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Buddhist-Mudra

Transcript of 74632040 Buddhist Mudra

MUDRA Amudraisabodilypostureorsymbolicgesture.In HinduandBuddhisticonographyeveryBuddhais depictedwithacharacteristicgestureofthehands.Such gesturescorrespondtonaturalgestures(ofteaching, protecting,andsoon)andalsotocertainaspectsofthe BuddhistteachingoroftheparticularBuddhadepicted. Theoriginsofthewordmudraareuncertainasisthe preciseevolutionofitsmeaning.Ataveryearlyperiod inthepost-VedicliteratureofIndiathetermmudra designatedtheideaofasealortheimprintleftbya seal.Somewhatlaterusagetakesonthemeaningof wayofholdingthefingers,designatingveryprecisely aritualgesture.ThePaliwordformudra,muddika, derivesfrommudda,meaningauthority.Thereisthusa developinginter-relationshipinthesemeaningsofa gestureenhancingandauthenticatingthespokenword withmysticandmagicalvalues.Thegestureisasign,a ritualseal;sealimpliesauthenticity.AsBuddhism spreadtoChinaafurtherusageofthetermcameto identifymudrasasmarksofidentifyofthedeitybeing personified. Thesymbolichandgesturescalledmudrasareoftwo generaltypes.First,themostancientformofmudras, datingfrompre-Buddhisttimes,arethosepresented withthepurposeassignssymbolicofthemetaphysical aspectofEsotericceremonies.Mudrasusedinthissense areofsignificantimportanceintheritesofTibetan Tantrism,ChineseChen-yenandJapaneseShingon Buddhism.This,ofcourse,iswithinthelargercontextof TantricmeditationwheretheThreeMysteries,orthe forcesofthespirit,speech,andthebodyaredirectedat theoneandonlygoal:enlightenment.

WORLDRELIGIONSCOMPARED WORLDRELIGIONSCLIPART WORLDRELIGIONSHOME BUDDHISTSYMBOLS HINDUSYMBOLS

Mudras,alongwithasanas(reflectingthebody),mandalas(reflectingthespirit)andmantras (reflectingspeech)allprovideexpedientmeansinachievingenlightenment.Apartfrom acknowledgingthisimportantaspectoftheritualisticuseofmudrasincertainschoolsof BuddhismandtheimportanceofTantrismincontributingtotheexpandeduseofmudras,our attentionisinsteaddirectedtotheothergeneraltypeofmudra,thepurelyiconographic,as representedinBuddhist/Hindusculptureandpainting. TheuseofthemudrasisquitecommonintheHinduPoojas,Tantricworships,Yogaandalsoin ClassicalIndiandances.InHinduiconography,thedeitiesareoftendepictedwiththeirhands makingvariousmudras- likethetwingesturesofdispellingfearsandgrantingboons.Various deitieshaveseveralspecificmudraswhichareassociatedwiththem.Theyareusedbythe practitionerforvariouspurposes- likeactivatingthevariousnervecenters,toconveyafeelingor toappeaseadeityetc. Somethingtokeepinmind,inNatyaSastra(classicaldance)andinYogaalsothereareseveral similarlynamedmudraswhichareattimesquitedifferentfromthePoojamudras.Forexample theYonimudrausedinYogaistotallydifferentfromtheYonimudrausedinPooja. Eachfingerrepresentsoneofthefiveelementsthethumbisagni(fire),theforefingerisvayu (air),themiddlefingerisakash(ether),theringfingerisprithvi(earth)andthelittlefingerisjal (water). Therearetwotypesofmudras,single-handanddouble-hand.Thesingle-handedmudrasnumber 28andarecalledAasanyukta.Thereare23double-handedmudrascalledSawyakta. ABHAYA(ABHAYAPRADA):Gestureoffearlessnessandgranting protection. TheAbhaya,orfearlessnessgestureisoneofthemostcommonly depictedmudras,representingbenevolenceandtheabsenceoffear.The

gestureconfersontoothersthesamefreedomfromfear,sothismudra canalsobeinterpretedtomeanfearnot.Thegestureismadewiththe righthandraisedtoshoulderheight,withthearmbentandthepalm facingoutward.ABuddhistlegendtellsofwhenthehistoricalBuddhawas beingattackedbyanangryelephant,hesimplyhelduphishandinthe fearlessnessgestureandcalmedtheraginganimal. ADHARA:Perinealmudra.

AHAMKARA:Self-confidence. Self-confidenceandself-assertion.Forcounteractingfearandtimidity. Bendindexfingersslightlyandputtheupperphalanxofthethumbtothe sideofthemiddlephalanxoftheindexfinger,attheupperpart.Other fingersarestraight. AHAYAVARADA:Beckoningtobestowafavor.

AKASH(AAKASH/AKASHI):Skyposture. Theskyhasanattribute- recessorspace.Anotherattributeissound. Soundisregardedastheeternalspirit.Soundtravelsinwaves,whichare scatteredinthesky.Bycatchingthesoundwaves,weareabletohear theseonradio.Astheskyprovidesspaceoutside,soistheskyspreads inside.Thelackorexcessofelementsintheskyoutsideleadsto imbalance.Thethirdattributeoftheskyisvacuumornothingness.Thisis theattributethatfillsthesky.Theskycanbefilledonlywhenithas nothing.Howcanalreadyfilledskybefilled?Theyogahelpspractice meditationintheinnerspace.Emotionsgetpurifiedwhenone concentratesintheheart.Themiddlefingerandtheheartare interrelated. Thumbandmiddlefingerarejoined.Index,ring,andpinkyfingersare extended.Mana(head)mudra.Manamudrasformanintegralpartof kundaliniyogabecausetheyutilizeeyes,ears,nose,tongueandlips. ALAPADMA(ALAPADMA):OpenedLotus.

AasanyuktaSingle Hand

AMALAKA:AmalakaTree. TheSamyamaNayakahand,i.e.,theforefingerandthesecondfinger togetherinthemiddleofthepalm,therestofthehandextended.

ANGARAKHA:Mars. LefthandShuchi,righthandMushthi. ANJALI(GASSHO/HRIDAYA/NAMASKARA):Gestureofgreeting andadoration,veneration,honororcelebration,thediamondhandclasp. Thegestureoftwopalmspressedtogetherandheldneartheheart, meansto"honororcelebrate".ItisourHindugreeting,twojoinedas one,thebringingtogetherofmatterandspirit,theselfmeetingtheselfin

all.Thismudraisreservedforprayingfigures,whichoftenaccompanya statueoftheBuddhaintheartofIndiaorSouthEastAsia.TheAnjaliis madewithtwohandsjoinedverticallyinfrontofthechest,asinthe attitudeofprayer.Thismudraevokesanofferingofgoodfeelingsofone towardsanother.Thismudracanalsoindicatevenerationifitismadeat theleveloftheface.Hasta(hand),meditativemudra.Redirectsthe pranaemittedbyhandsbackintobody.SawyaktaDouble Hand

UniversallyusedbypeopleinIndiaandSouth-EastAsiaforsalutation,it evokesanofferingofgoodfeelings,ofonesperson,etc.andalso indicatesvenerationifitismadeattheleveloftheface. ANJALYMUDRA: Bothhandsareheldabovethehead,theheelsofthepalmsaretouching, thefingersandthumbsspreadoutwardandupward.Frequentlyanobject isheld,e.g.animageofAmitabhaisheldbyatantricformof Avalokiteshvarawiththismudra. ANKUSHA(ANKUSA): TheAnkushamudraisthemudraofthegoadorcurvedsword,which symbolizesproddingseekersontowardstheirultimategoal,orcutting downtheiniquitiesoftheego.

ANUSHASAN:Disciplineposture. Disciplineisthevitalelementofmeditation.Withoutdiscipline,meditation isnotsuccessful.Thepractitionercanmaintaindisciplinethroughhisown discretion.HemustremainunderthedisciplineoftheGuru(teacher),so longashiswisdomdoesnotbecomeawakenedandheisnotenlightened. Keeptheindexfingerstraight.Jointheremainingthreefingerswiththe thumb. APANA(APAN): Givesenergyandmakesonemoreself-confident.Thetipofthesecond andthethirdfingersshouldbeslightlypressedagainsttheinnerpartof thetipofthethumbasshown.Theothertwofingersshouldbekept straight.Improvestheexcretorysystembycleaningthewastefromthe body,curesconstipationandstomachachescausedduetowhich. APANMUDRA(APAAN):Flatusposture. Relaxation,heart,physicalandmental.Helpsinclearingthebodyby eliminationofwastematterfromthemouth,eyes,ears,noseetc.Helps whenurineisobstructed,reducesconstipation.Thetipofthethumbis touchedtothemiddleandringfinger.

APANVAYU(MRITSANJEEVINI): Firstaidforheartattacks.Thetipoftheindexfingershouldbepressed slightlyagainsttherootofthethumbandsecondandthethirdfinger shouldtouchtheinnertipofthethumb.Curespalpitationoftheheart, strengthenstheheartandisgoodforheartpatients. APAVIDHDHA:Osprey. THeSuchihandrelaxed. ARAALAM(ARALA/ARELE):Bentorcrookedhand. DevaVayurighthand.

AasanyuktaSingle Hand

DevaHand

ARALA-KATAKAMUKHA:Givingpiecesofbetelleaf. ARDHACHANDRA(ARDHACANDRA):Halfmoon. DevaSaraswati'slefthand.BothhandsofDevaParvati,leftup,right down(abhayaandvarada,fearnotandcharity).

AasanyuktaSingle Hand DevaHand

ARDHAPATAKA:Halfflag. DevaVayulefthand.

AasanyuktaSingle Hand DevaHand

ARDHARECHITA:Invitation. ARDHASUCHI:half-needle.

ARJUNA:ArjunaTree. Simhamukhahand. ASHOKA:AshTree. Patakahandscrossed,i.e.,touchingatthewristsandmovingfreelyto andfro. ASHWINI(ASHWANI/ASHWATER):Mule. Nagabandhahandsdirectedupwardindicatingcow-ear.Contractionof analsphincter. ASVATHTHA:PipalTree. Alapadmahandswavingthefingers. AVAHANA(AVAHANI): TheAvahanimudraisthemudraofinvitation.Itisusedtoinvokethe deityintothepresenceoftheworshiper.

AVAHITTA(AVAHITHA):Dissimulation.

DoubleHandGesture

AVAKASHA:Gestureofleisure,thisisalefthandgesture. Thesittingpersonisholdingtheirlefthandontheirlapwithpalmupward. BALARAMA:TenAvatars

LefthandMushthi,righthandPataka. BANAHASTA:Arrow.

BARA: BANDHANANA(BANDHA/BAKU):Innerbinding,heartand compassionofBuddha. Handgestureformedbyclaspingbothhandstogetherwiththefingers interlocking.Whenthefingersareinterlockedontheoutside,itiscalled gebaku(lit."outerbind"),whilewhentheyareinterlockedontheinside, itiscallednaibaku(lit."innerbind").Naibakuconstitutesinnerbinding andrepresentsthevowofthemanyBuddhatohelpallsentientbeings. Gebakurepresentsone'svowtobecomeenlightened.Italsosymbolizes theheart,andcompassion,oftheBuddha. BHAILUKA:Bear. LefthandPadmakoshafacedownward,righthandPatakaplacedonthe backofthelefthand. BHAIRAVI: Hasta(hand),meditativemudra.Redirectsthepranaemittedbyhands backintobody. BHARTRI:Husband. BHARTUR-BHRATRI:Brother-in-law. DenotesCaste

BRAHMANA: Shikharawithbothhandsasifholdingthesacredthread,therighthand movingtoandfro.

SawyaktaDouble Hand

BHERUNDAHASTA:Apairofbirds.

BHOOCHARI: Practiceoftheexternalstageofdharana;gazingintospaceafterfocusing onthefingernailofthehandheldinfrontoftheface.Mana(head) mudra.Manamudrasformanintegralpartofkundaliniyogabecausethey utilizeeyes,ears,nose,tongueandlips. BHRAMARA(BRAHMARA):Bee. Goodforallergies.Placetheindexfingerinthefoldofthethumbandthe tipofthethumbonthesideofthemiddelfingernail.Theringandlittle

fingerarerelaxedandextended.Dothiswitheachhand.

AasanyuktaSingle Hand

BHUDI(BHUDDI/BHUDY/BHUDDY/BUDDHI): Improvesfeelingandintuitionan