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  • 1. Neo-Dadaism Art 109A: Contemporary Art Westchester Community College Fall 2012 Dr. Melissa Hall

2. The Legacy of Marcel Duchamp Rediscovery of Marcel Duchamp in the 1950s Robert Motherwell, ed., The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology 1951 Eliot Elisofon, Marcel Duchamp, 1952 LIFE 3. The Legacy of Marcel Duchamp Dadaism: profoundly anK-art The Dadaist considers it necessary to come out against art, because he has seen through its fraud as a moral safety valve . . . . art . . . is a large-scale swindle. Richard Hulsenbeck 4. The Legacy of Marcel Duchamp The ready-made challenged accepted ideas about art Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913 Museum of Modern Art Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (1964 replica) Tate Gallery 5. The Legacy of Marcel Duchamp Art should be handmade Art should be original Art should be disKnct from the commonplace Art should be beauKful Art should express intended meaning Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (1964 replica) Tate Gallery 6. The Legacy of Marcel Duchamp Duchamp also challenged prevailing ideas about the nature of creaKvity All in all, the creaKve act is not performed by the arKst alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreKng its inner qualicaKon and thus adds his contribuKon to the creaKve act. Marcel Duchamp, The CreaKve Act, 1957 John D. Schi, Marcel Duchamp, 1958/1959 Image source: h^p://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/11/view/2045/designboom-x-mas-picks-from-art-and-design-aucKons- kunsthaus-lempertz.html 7. Neo-Dada These ideas had a deep inuence on Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, 1950s Image source: h^p://jameswagner.com/nyc/2008/05/ 8. Robert Rauschenberg Rauschenberg studied with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College where he met the American composer John Cage Allan Grant, Robert Rauschenberg , 1953 LIFE 9. John Cage Cage revoluKonized modern music with his exploraKon of aleatory music (sounds produced by chance) John Cage preparing a piano, c. 1964 Image source: h^p://usoproject.blogspot.com/2008/01/european-premiere-john-cage-variaKons.html 10. John Cage Cage re-conceptualized music as an an orchestraKon of concrete sounds assembled by chance He wanted to let sounds be themselves rather than vehicles for manmade theories or expressions of human senKment John Cage preparing a piano, c. 1964 Image source: h^p://usoproject.blogspot.com/2008/01/european-premiere-john-cage-variaKons.html 11. John Cage 4 33 performed before a live audience in Woodstock in 1952 John Cage, 4 33, 1952 h^p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HypmW4Yd7SY 12. John Cage Cage collaborated with the choreographer Merce Cunningham, who also taught at Black Mountain College John Cage and Merce Cunningham, London, 1962; photographed by Hans Wild. Courtesy of the John Cage Trust at Bard College. Image source: h^p://www.rbge.org.uk/the-gardens/edinburgh/inverleith-house/archive-exhibiKons/ inverleith-house-archive-main-programme/john-cage-and-merce-cunningham 13. John Cage Cunningham pioneered a new form of dance based on found movement Merce Cunningham Image source: h^p://www.senKreascoltare.com/arKcolo/949/merce-cunningham-lulKma-danza-di-merce.html 14. John Cage He used random movements based on ordinary acKviKes such as walking, falling, or jumping And he eliminated any kind of narraKve or emoKonal expressionism that would imply a pre-determined concept Theres no thinking involved in my choreography . . . I dont work through images or ideas . . . When I dance, it means: this is what I am doing. Merce Cunningham Merce Cunningham Dance Company, Way StaHon, 2001 Photo by Tony Dougherty: Flickr 15. Robert Rauschenberg Rauschenberg designed sets for Cunninghams dance performances and parKcipated in some of his producKons Robert Rauschenberg, set design for Merce Cunninghams, MinuHae, 1954 Private collecKon Image source: h^p://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibiKons/ig/rauschenberg_combines/rrc_02.htm 16. Merce Cunningham, MinuHae, 1954 Set design by Robert Rauschenberg Image source: h^p://www.voiceofdance.com/v1/features.cfm/1645/Merce-Cunningham-and-A-History-of-UnconvenKonal-CollaboraKon645.html 17. Robert Rauschenberg While sKll at Black Mountain College, Rauschenberg completed White PainHng, which consisted of seven panels of canvas painted a monochrome white Arnold Newman, Josef Albers, 1948 Photograph of Robert Rauschenberg seated on UnKtled (Elemental Sculpture) with White PainKng (seven panel) behind him at the basement of Stable Gallery, New York (1953). Photograph: Allan Grant Life Magazine 18. Robert Rauschenberg They were the inspiraKon for Cages 4 33 Robert Rauschenberg, White PainHng, 1951 Guggenheim Museum 19. Robert Rauschenberg The painKngs were so blank they became recepKve to the shadows and other eects caused by the surrounding environment In the words of Cage, these painKngs were airports for shadows and for dust, but you could also say that they were mirrors of the air. Robert Rauschenberg, White PainHng, 1951 Guggenheim Museum 20. Robert Rauschenberg What Rauschenberg was geong at was a kind of painKng in which the arKst -- his personality, his emoKons, his ideas, his taste -- would not be the controlling element. He was thus moving in a direcKon contrary to the subjecKve art of the New York Abstract Expressionists the so- called acKon painters, who have sought to make their own encounter with paint and canvas the subject of their art. Calvin Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors: Five Masters of the Avant Garde, p. 204 Robert Rauschenberg, White PainHng, 1951 Guggenheim Museum 21. Robert Rauschenberg There was something about the self-confession and self-confusion of abstract expressionism -- as though the man and the work were the same -- that personally always put me o because at that Kme my focus was in the opposite direcKon. I was busy trying to nd ways where the imagery, the material and the meaning of the painKng would be, not an illustraKon of my will, but more like an unbiased documentaKon of what I observed, leong the area of feeling and meaning take care of itself. Robert Rauschenberg Martha Holmes, Painter Jackson Pollock working in his studio, cigare^e in mouth, dropping paint onto canvas, 1949 LIFE 22. Robert Rauschenberg The picture is no longer about the arKst Its content is the viewers own perceptual experience Robert Rauschenberg, White PainHng, 1951 Guggenheim Museum Ellsworth Kelly, Colors for a Large Wall, 1951 Museum of Modern Art 23. Robert Rauschenberg In 1957 Rauschenberg created Factum I and Factum II -- two pictures that were idenKcal to one another He wanted to see if there was any dierence between the original and its copy He said he couldnt tell the dierence Robert Rauschenberg, Factum I and Factum II, 1957 Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles and Museum of Modern Art 24. Which one is authenKcally expressive and which one is faked emoKon? Robert Rauschenberg, Factum I and Factum II, 1957 Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles and Museum of Modern Art 25. Robert Rauschenberg Erased de Kooning draws on a familiar Dada strategy the act of defacing a work of art Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919, Private collecKon Image source: About.com Robert Rauschenberg, Erased de Kooning, 1953 SFMOMA 26. Robert Rauschenberg In 1955 Rauschenberg created his rst combine "Combine" is Rauschenbergs term for a work that joins elements of painKng and sculpture. . . A Combine is not only a painKng transformed into a sculpture but a turbulent collision of a threadbare downtown lifestyle with the demands of high art. Frances Colpi^, Art in America h^p://ndarKcles.com/p/arKcles/ mi_m1248/is_11_94/ai_n27084087/ pg_1?tag=artBody;col1 Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Museum of Modern Art 27. Robert Rauschenberg It consists of actual bed sheets, pillow, and quilt, spla^ered with paint and scribbles, and hung verKcally like a painKng Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Museum of Modern Art 28. Robert Rauschenberg Is this painKng? Is this sculpture? Is this art? Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, in Museum of Modern Art Image source: h^p://seamslikely.blogspot.com/ Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Museum of Modern Art 29. Robert Rauschenberg Pollock had already challenged the idea that art must be made from ne art materials Martha Holmes, Jackson Pollock pouring sand into his painKng, 1949 LIFE 30. Robert Rauschenberg Rauschenberg took this one step further by suggesKng that art could be made, literally, from anything PainKng relates to both art and life. Neither can be made. (I try to act in the gap between the two). A pair of socks is no less suitable to make a painKng than wood, nails, turpenKne, oil, and fabric. Robert Rauschenberg Wallace Kirkland, Robert Rauschenberg creaKng artwork using blueprint paper and sun lamp. 1951 LIFE 31. Robert Rauschenberg Rauschenberg was looking for a way to make art that did not involve simulated realiKes or emoKons I dont want a picture to look like something it isnt. I want it to look like something it is Robert Rauschenberg Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Museum of Modern Art 32. Robert Rauschenberg He liked to work with real things because it leaves room for the viewer I would like to make a painKng and a situaKon that leaves as much space for the person looking at it as for the arKst. Robert Rauschenberg Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Museum of Modern Art 33. Robert Rauschenberg What is the dierence between a painKng and an object? Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, in Museum of Modern Art Image source: h^p://seamslikely.blogspot.com/ Un-made Bed I Image source: h^p://denisefotheringham.wordpress.com/2009/03/13/the-narraKve-conKnued/ 34. Robert Rauschenberg We expect a picture to expres