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  1. 1. : The Drive-thru
  2. 2. Lin Jiang MFA Design Management Team 2 Chatsuree Isariyasereekul MFA Design Management Stephanie Krell MFA Design Management SDES 704-01: Applied Theory in Design
  3. 3. 1 Introduction 1 Project Brief 2 - Goal - Scope - Opportunity - Topics Of Consideration & Research Market Survey 5 Research Questions 7 Process 8 - Methodology - Working Wall - Survey - Inteview - Archetype Synthesis 14 - Ideation / Sketch Deliverables 16 Value Proposition 17 25 Words Summary 18 Solution & Strategies 19 - A B CQ Sources 32 CONTENTSTABLEOFCONTENTS
  4. 4. 1 CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION America is a Fast Food Nation (Linklater, 2006). More people than ever are driven to use fast food facilities trying to feed themselves, and hungry families, during fast paced life schedules. Sometimes they are driven by hunger and desire. Other times, it is the price, timeliness, convenience, or the inability to get out of the car due to kids, pets, or disabilities. Fast food companies have many kinds of customers such as; eat-in, carry-out, and drive-thru. In this instance we are observing, specifically, the drive-thru user. Who uses these components the most? Why are they so profitable? What are the variables that need attention? Recent observation and experience made us aware that the most prominent variable that needs attention is communication. From visual affordances (such as Enter signs), clearly interpreting the menu, communicating an order, understanding which window to use for payment versus receiving an order, and the staffs ability to accurately fulfill an order, are all part of the process centered around interaction between the user and the company. Studying these interactions with a holistic approach assists in optimizing current industry standards and facilitates drive-thru efficiency. Addressing the functionality of legacy items such as the drive-thru path Layout, speaker systems, menu board, customer service protocols, or cook-line procedure gives better insight into serving the drive-thru user. The future of the fast food industry lines in improving drive-thru efficiency through innovation and reducing labor risk while increasing customer satisfaction through streamlined interaction.
  5. 5. 1 CONTENTS 2 PROJECTBRIEF Goal By identifying inefficiencies in the current system we will evaluate the application of current industry best practices and restructure communication and hardware design in response to trends in technology as it pertains to the entire user experience. Scope Our task is to identify the crucial factors in the drive-thru system where users experience an initial negative reaction. We will analyze complications that occur during continued attendance of the same or similar drive-thru systems. Our team will consider cultural, technological, social, and socio-economical data while conducting this research. Using experiential observation, interpersonal interviews, online surveys, and secondary research will allow us to use design to solve gaps in the current process. Opportunity In order to maintain the high volume of customers, several keys issues must be established. Research shows that certain factors are important to the consumer; Customer Service, Management, Look & Feel, Technology, Operation, and Design (QSR Magazine, 2011). Research identifies opportunities to recognize new ways to use innovative technologies, consider psychological and anthropomorphic changes to customer service interactions, and design new structure elements.
  6. 6. 1 CONTENTS 3 PROJECTBRIEF Upcoming research will revolve around the topics listed below. Consideration and development of these issues will help to identify which areas to focus on and what to avoid. Topics of Consideration & Research What kind of training or new protocols can be put in place in order to create a positive, less pressured environment for both employees and customers during their periods of interaction. Is it possible to create a positive environment for the customer that places them in a good mood while ordering? What aspects of the drive-thru system are communication based and how can technology or better visual affordances be used to problem solve and possibly save money. How can customers and employees time and energy be saved by more efficiently designing a new system? What causes the back-ups and what can be done about it? Does this issue begin with the customer? The cookline? The cashier? How can this process be sped up without creating a cost deficit? Which stores are better served by the new designs and how can it be implemented with as little inconvenience to the customer as possible. Is there other ways to create convenience? Is there opportunity to provide something that hasnt before that would create more customers? Communication : Timeliness : Convenience : Customer Service :
  7. 7. 1 CONTENTS 4 PROJECTBRIEF How can the industry achieve the best possible accuracy with orders? Does is start with communication? Customer service? Management? Menu? Protocols? Procedures? What can be done to simplify the system? Take out the middle-man and keep it to a basic functions process? Where is the breakdown in the system? Observation of everything from the drive-thru car path to the infrastructure of the restaurant will occur to find a more efficient system of service. Looking at the customer process vs the employee process will give better insight. What decisions does a customer make while (hungry, under pressure, happy?) As well as what pressures do the employees face? What can be done to solve some of those pressures? Does a happy employee create a positive experience for a customer? What kind of expectations does management place on the employees and does that affect their interactions with customers? Who is the customer? Why do these people use a drive-thru? Is there a way to better serve them? A better way to market a product to them? What are their needs? What are their mainwants? How can this become the best experience possible for them? What kind of environment is most pleasing to the customer? Is there a new design that works best? Is there anything in the current system that needs improving? Is there anything in the current design that works extremely well? Research will begin of more technology options and the possibility of incorporating these ideas into current industry standards. System & Process : Customer : Environment : Technology : Accuracy :
  8. 8. 1 CONTENTS 5 MARKETSURVEY We identified many drive-thru restaurants around town. We randomly selected three to test the user experience. We documented our visit to each one with photographs and notations. Immediately following we logged how each one of us felt during our experience, and what we felt while observing the others. Our findings show strengths and weaknesses at all three restaurants. Some issues were more prevalent and there was a definitive connection to how we feel during our individual experiences. We observed some specific issues including; signage, menus, speaker clarity, use of window #1 and window #2, taste of food, attitude of employee, wait times, assessment of personal emotions during the experience. Market Survey
  9. 9. 1 CONTENTS 6 MARKETSURVEY Absence of visual direction for the entrance Observed no wait time as we were the only vehicle Customer Service was abrupt/ almost rude Experienced pressure and felt the need to rush the order Menu visuals were poor: pictures and letters were small Verbal direction to proceed to the 2nd window but no visual direction or indication Team members who were not familiar with the concept of what moving to the 2nd window means Facility only utilized one of two available windows The french fries delivered were tasty and the order was accurate Confirmed this facility did have a smallEntersign but hard to see in the dark A larger menu was easier to see but blocked from the back seat and was not organized well The menu visuals were bigger Customer service was friendlier- lead to ability to calmly order The time it took to get to order and receive our order was slow (4 cars ahead of us) Utilized both windows (pay and food delivery) Fries were not good tasting, the Frosty was good, and the order was accurate During the customer interaction phase the communication was terrible, it took over four tries to order a 6-piece chicken nugget Attempted to order a 4-piece nugget but neither the menu nor representative were clear that we could only order a 6-piece The cashier was obviously frustrated Observed no wait time as we were the only vehicle Menu visuals were the best menu setup and we enjoyed pre-menu Provided visual order confirmation on screen right underneath the speaker Observed a conflict of interest; cashier was handling both purchases and orders at the same time Taste of the french fries was by far the best, but our order was not accurate, no ketchup was provided after it was requested
  10. 10. 1 CONTENTS 7 RESEARCHQUESTIONS 1. What is a Drive-Thru Experience? a. What is the process? - How does one communicate their need? - Where does that function happen? - How to reinforce a correct order? b. How does it work? - From beginning to end what are the stages? c. Why was it created? d. Is it still used for this purpose? 2. Who uses the Drive-Thru? a. What demographic uses drive-thru most? Fast food - Moms - Low income - Disabled? - Busy people - Cops (i.e. people who primarily work in vehicles) Non-Fast food options (Starbucks/ Ice Creams/ Etc.) - People with disposable income - Moms/ pet owners - Disabled? - Busy people - Cops (i.e. people who primarily work in vehicles) b. Why do people use the drive-thru? Cheap/Affordable Convenient/ Easy Fast/ Time Taste/ Marketing Circumstances: Safety/Children/Pets/Disability/ Laziness c. Why do companies have them? Cost Effective - Overhead - Less paid workers Expand business Convenience 3. What is the client Drive-Thru Experience and how can it be improved? a. What negative issues does a person encounter? How can it be improved? b. What positive issues does a person encounter? How can it be improved upon? c. Once the issues are identified how can they be solved? Would technology to help? Technology is the hindrance? Research Questions
  11. 11. 1 CONTENTS 8 PROCESS Methodology 1. Primary Research a. First & Third Party Experience Go to Drive-Thru and see how it works? Observe other people as they use the drive-thru b. Personal Observation Go through the Drive-Thru - Document with pictures - Take notes: how was the experience? c. Draft Online Survey Draft questions related to the topic Post online survey Analyze results d. Interpersonal Interviews Interview customers with various backgrounds - What is their POV? - Cultural probe Interview employees from various restaurants and positions - What is their POV? e. Summary: Analyze results and Synthesize Data Define issues, problem solve using reframing methods Focus research and design concepts on certain areas 2. Secondary Research a. Scholarly research b. Online website c. Journals/ articles/ statistics d. Background/ history 3. Analysis & Synthesis a. Analyze primary research we found to identify trends Mind-mapping Affinity diagram b. Synthesize secondary research to limit framework Brainstorming Heuristic approach c. Design Models Ideation 2-D Sketches 3-D Prototyping Refinement Model 4. Strategic Execution a. Visualize the plan b. Develop and modify the strategy c. Align Management and Organizational team d. Plan Procedure e. Actualize Design
  12. 12. 1 CONTENTS 9 PROCESS Experience Working Wall Discussion Survey Synthesis
  13. 13. 1 CONTENTS 10 PROCESS Survey Why people use the drive-thru? When using the drive-thru what kind of problems do you encounter? Would you use new technologies during your drive-thru experience? yes 60% no 40% convenience 29.6% in a rush 20.4% eating alone 17.3% general laziness 13.3% kids/pets in car 13.3% small order 2% disabled 1% other 3.1% cannot read the menu 15.2% cannot hear speaker 15.2% inaccurate order 13.4% speaker cannot hear 13.4% waiting too long 13.4% bad weather 10.7% window problem 5.4% entrance confusion 5.4% employee attitude 4.5% other 4.5%
  14. 14. 11 PROCESS Interview An interview was conducted with an employee of McDonalds. The Employee is an 18 year old female located in small-town Ohio. The Transcribed Interview is below: I: Interviewer E: Employee I: So I know you are an employee at McDonalds. Please answer the following questions. I: When customers use the drive-thru what kind of problems do you encounter as an employee? E: Most of the time the customers want to just get out of there as quick as possible. They are mostly polite but the slower we are the ruder people become. I: What are the biggest problems you encounter with the drive-thru? What do people complain about? E: Since our extra sauces have gone up in price most customers complain about that. I: What do you think could fix it? E: Making them(the cost) go back down. I:Do you think a touch screen menu system would work better over speaking with a cashier? E: Yes because if something goes wrong then it's their own fault and they have no one to blame but themselves. I: Do you think it would increase wait time if customers could swipe their own card at the time of order? E: No I think it would decrease so that it's in order and not all over the place. I: Do you think that having a smartphone app with early ordering would help shorten wait time for drive-thru customer? E: Yes. It would be easier for is as the crew to have things ready and waiting for the customer to pick up. I: Any other comments about the drive-thru that you would like to share? E:Not at this time.
  15. 15. 1 CONTENTS 12 PROCESS Archetype Working Wall Brainstorming Diagram Chart Drive-thru Customers/Archetype - Picky Girlfriend - The Usual Suspects - The Late Night Snacker
  16. 16. 1 CONTENTS 13 PROCESS Picky Girlfriend The Usual Suspects The Late Night Snacker Who are they? - Indecisive - Special order - Finicky - Change mind during order - Causes long waits - Princess - Cannot commit to an order - Calm & friendly customer service can assist this fussy orderer in making good and timely decisions - Thein&out-er - Knows what they want; prepared decisive - Orders same thing every time - Possibly workaholic and often a lone- ranger - The franchise in near work or on route to home and convenience is the biggest factor - Constantly hungry and ready for some deep fried fulfillment; this person is up late hours possibly a gamer - Thied-shift worker or partier - Calorie counter, they are NOT; this person relies on convenience - Technology is a plus and the less personal interaction, the better What do they do? know? understand? - This person lives in leisure time! Who cares?! - Might be high-school, college kids, trust-fund baby or typically someone who has less concern for time and decisive action - They know that they DONT know what they want to eat - Their day is just full of time - Single guy or girl, Workaholic, Type-A, Secretary, or Construction worker - This persons is almost always the same - They like things a certain way and live on a tight budget - They know what time is easiest to get through the drive-thru and know the menu items they like by heart - They enjoy getting in and out of the drive-thru in under 5 minutes - Typically night owl - Third-shift worker - College students - Club or bar goers - these people like the late night menu - Dont mind if its not as robust - Generally dont order salads, they prefer sugary and fatty foods What challenges do they face? - Holding up the line - Possible difficult customer service - Difficult and slow - Communication - Pressured to make decision causes them to make a wrong order - Menu clarity could be a problem - Accuracy of order - Getting stuck in long lines - If menu changes or shifts it cause confusion - Any change in the system can cause problems for this user - Dont enjoy change - Might have a more limited menu - Slower service - Less healthy options? - Drunk drivers - Annoying bar and club goers - Order accuracy Archetype
  17. 17. 1 CONTENTSSYNTHESIS Ideation 14
  18. 18. 1 CONTENTS 15 SYNTHESIS Sketches
  19. 19. 1 CONTENTS 16 DELIVERABLES Timeline March April May June April 7 Project Brief (first draft) April 9 Delivery Project Brief April 16 Conceptualization May 7 Design Process and Prototyping May 19 Digital Presentation for Final (draft) May 28 Delivery Final Presentation and Process book March 31 Research: Primary and Secondary research April 23 Midterm Video/ Presentation
  20. 20. 1 CONTENTS 17 VALUEPROPOSITION For fast food businesses who operate drive-thru systems that value a faster, more discernible way of delivering their product, Sterling Stainless Systems will offer easier ordering, shorter waits, and innovative new ways of providing services to current and new customers that could establish new markets. This will be accomplished by redesigning the layout of vehicle approach while creating a clear ordering process and integration with customerspersonal digital devices, and synchronization with the enterprise software system. Unlike other systems, this product minimizes the amount of error caused by the breakdown in verbal communica- tion, sales have the potential to increase between 10-15% with touch screen technologies, allows the client to reach new markets (such as international speakers or the non-hearing communities), and through additional options they would be able to link with a third party delivery service to reach people who have up-until-now been inaccessible. Value Proposition
  21. 21. 1 CONTENTS 18 25WORDSSUMMARY Provide a solution and identify problems within the drive-thru market and develop a strategic plan that integrates current and innovative designs into a unified system. 25 Words Summary
  22. 22. 119 SOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Digital System In phase one of design, a Digital System is created to reduce communication error. Digital software that connects a Pre-menu to a touch screen menu, to an internal cookline, to an accuracy checklist on cashier screen to an accuracy checklist at car pick-up window is added for better efficiency and viewing. The customer external checklist and internal employee checklist assist users to feels like each order is personalized and correct. It might be considered to add pressure sensors in the drive-thru path so that when activated, it pushes and pulls the screen towards and away from the car to assist in protecting cars from getting too close and damage to the screens. Installation of touch-screen menus, with video assistance, is connected to a central call center and is available for people in need of service. Research shows touch screens can increase sales by 10-15%. An itemized menu system will make ordering easier for both customers and employees by increasing clarity in finding the item a customer wants. This phase of design allows Sterling to upgrade from a parts distributor to a systems designer: all stages and software work together as a unit AND solves for the current market flaws of accuracy and communication error-- the cost of the upgrade should not outweigh the benefits of
  23. 23. 20 SOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Method A: Mechanical Arms Mechanical arms that are extendable and foldable, let the customers move and rotate the screen to the right angle that is easiest to use.
  24. 24. 121 SOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Method A: Digital System i car sensor transmitter pre-menu touch screen external checklist internal checklist internal cook-line traffic area accuracy scanner
  25. 25. 1 CONTENTS 22 SOLUTION&STRATEGIES Touch Screen Menu Menu Page Video Assistance My Order Page Check-Out Page
  26. 26. 1 CONTENTS 23 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Customer Loyalty In phase two the clients request for a unified system requires more services to be available to their customers. In preparation of offering long term services a Customer Loyalty feature has been designed to increase customer traffic and assist in brand identification. An Application for smart media was created. This includes: customer data, automatic payment, company media, Menu, Stored billing data, Express Ordering, Games, Locator, and Reward points. This App will wirelessly send the customers pre-order to the intended restaurant once they reach a certain distance . The more the customer interacts with the App and features, the more reward points and free items they receive. By adding this feature to the basic systems package it encourages customer interaction with brand technology. This allows the client to design and add logos, mascots and integrate corporate information into the users daily life.
  27. 27. Method B: Customer Loyalty Design a series of Apps to help the customer to order and manage their meals Customer Data Automatic Payment Company Media Menu Stored Billing Data Express Order Games Location Reward Points 1 CONTENTS 24 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES
  28. 28. 1 CONTENTS 25 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Method B: Customer Loyalty Increased Activity = Added Rewards
  29. 29. 1 Mobile Application Application Icon Home Screen Menu Page My Order page Check-Out Page 1 CONTENTS 26 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES
  30. 30. Express Lane 127 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Express customers are the future, with smart phones, apps, and technology so prevalent we will see an upsurge of customers using this feature. The express customer should have access to quick pick-up, there are two feasible options for this: The first is adding a second lane for express customers who have pre-ordered through their customer loyalty App. There is both a traditional and express lane available for customers. The second (for smaller satellite stores) includes 3-10Pick-upparking spots where food can be delivered straight to your car. This reduces wait time for both express & traditional customers. This connects aspects of all three phases of the system allowing it to be used as an integrated whole.
  31. 31. 128 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Method C: Layout pick-up window order area traffic area car sensor transmitter pre-menu pick-up window order area traffic area car sensor transmitter pre-menu Express Lane Pick-Up Section pick-up window order area pick-up section Adding a Second Lane
  32. 32. Delivery The second (for smaller satellite stores) includes 3-10Pick-upparking spots where food can be delivered straight to your car This reduces wait time for both express & traditional customers. This connects aspects of all three phases of the system allowing it to be used as an integrated whole. There are currently hundreds of available delivery apps, these are still new in American culture and have not yet populated, however they have the capacity to be the new innovation for the drive-thru. While some of these technologies are already being used in similar markets, this design is the first of its kind to combine multiple tools to create a faster more convenient way to receive food. This app can track the customers order as it moves through the system, from receiving the order, to it being picked up by your driver, to the route in which it is being delivered as well as to the customer location for the final delivery. App Feedback allows the customer to rate the accuracy of their order, the speed of receiving their order, the level of difficulty using the app, as well as any customer service interaction. With this feature I could see the possibility of phasing out the drive-thru for the wave of the future. Who needs a drive-thru when your order is ready when you get there? Or if it can be delivered to your destination? When feeding your family or yourself is no longer inconvenient and where the food chases you instead of you chasing the food! 1 CONTENTS 29 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES
  33. 33. 130 PROJECTBRIEFSOLUTIONS&STRATEGIES Method D: Delivery Hunger App Order Express Select Delivery Order information transferOrder is picked up Order is delivered Cash or digital payment Customer Satisfaction
  35. 35. 132 PROJECTBRIEFSOURCES Brindal, Emily. (2010) Exploring fast food consumption behaviours and social influence HM Electronic, Inc.(2013) HME presents: Optimize Drive-thru Operations with Speed-of-Service Timers. Retrieved from http://www.hme.com/qsr/link/pr08-13_timer_white_paper.pdf Insula Research.(2006) IR presents: Impact of Digital Communication Systems On Drive-Thru Customer Experience. Retrieved from http://www.hme.com/qsr/link/insula_research_study_impact_of_digital_speakers.pdf Quick Service Restaurants. (2014) QSR presentsThe Drive Thru Experience. Retrieved from http://www.qsrmagazine.com/reports/drive-thru- experience Quick Service Restaurants.(2014) QSR presentsThe Drive-Thru Performance Study: Order Accuracy. Retrieved from http://www.qsrmagazine.com /content/drive-thru-performance-study-order-accuracy Quick Service Restaurants.(2014) QSR presents 2011 Drive-thru Study: Order Accuracy, Retrieved from http://www.qsrmagazine.com/con- tent/2011-drive-thru-study-order-accuracy Slawsky, R. NEXTEP Helps an Asian Restaurant Move Its Buns, Kiosk Marketplace Self Service News, Trends & Commentary, Retrieved from http:// global.networldalliance.com/downloads/white_paperstep_CS_Wow%20Bao_To%20Launch.pdf Villalobos, R. (2009), New fast food self-order kiosks released, The Renegade Rip: Bakersfield College. Retrieved from http://www.therip.com/reviews/2009/10/07/new-fast-food-selforder-kiosks-released/ References