3G UMTS Radio Network Planning 20071115

75
3G UMTS overview &RF Planning Vinod BHOOSHAN November, 16 th 2007

description

3g concepts

Transcript of 3G UMTS Radio Network Planning 20071115

  • 3G UMTS overview &RF Planning

    Vinod BHOOSHAN

    November, 16th 2007

  • 2 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Agenda

    1. Introduction to UMTS & Architecture

    2. WCDMA overview

    3. Radio environment

    4. UTRAN overall dimensioning process

    5. Radio Network Planning Process

    6. Radio Frequency Aspects & GSM/UMTS Co-siting

    7. HSDPA overview

  • 3 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Introduction to UMTS & Architecture

  • 4 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UTRA - UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

    2 modes:

    W-CDMA FDD mode for the paired bandy uplink and downlink are separated in frequency

    TD-CDMA TDD mode for the unpaired bandy uplink and downlink are separated in timey flexible time duration for uplink and downlink for asymmetrical traffic

    FDD Mode

    FUL/DL

    TDD Mode

    1900 1920 1980

    FDD ULTDD UL/D

    L

    TDD UL/DL

    MSSUL

    2010 2025

    MSSDL

    2110 2170 2200

    FDD DL

    FUL

    FDL

  • 5 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UTRA FDD - Characteristics

    W-CDMA multiple access

    Frequency band Region 1 (Europe)

    Uplink: 1920-1980 MHz Downlink: 2110-2170 MHz

    Carrier Bandwidth

    2x5 MHz (theor. occupied bandwidth=Chiprate 3,84 Mcps) Services

    Both circuit and packet data and asymmetric bitrates User bitrate up to 384 kbit/s

    FDD foreseen for Macro- and Microcellular coverage

  • 6 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UMTS Radio Access Network

    Internet

    CoreNetwork

    RNC

    RNCISDN

    Node B

    Node B

    Radio AccessNetwork

    Node BNode B

    Node B

    Node B

    IubIu

    Iur

  • 7 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Introduction UTRAN Architecture

    Circuit CoreNetwork

    IPNetwork

    2G/3G GGSN3G SGSN

    GPRSbackbone

    3G MSC/VLR

    RNC

    Node IIu(PS)RNC

    Node B with RRU

    Node B

    Iub

    Uu

    Iur

    Iu(CS)

  • 8 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UMTS radio access network

    Node B

    Node BIur

    UTRAN

    RNC

    RNC

    Node B

    Node B

    Iub

    RNS

    RNS

    UMTS Radio Access Network

    Iu Node By radio station like the BTS in GSM.

    RNC-Radio Network Controller

    y controls radio resources of several Node Bsy supports the Iu interface to the core network

    RNS-Radio Network Subsystem

    y like BSS in GSM

  • 9 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UMTS radio access network interfaces

    Node B

    Node BIur

    UTRAN

    RNC

    RNC

    Node B

    Node B

    Iub

    RNS

    RNS

    UMTS Radio Access Network

    Iu Iur interfacey logical interface between RNCsy basic inter RNC mobility (e.g. soft

    handover)

    Iub interface

    y interface between RNC and Node B

  • 10 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA overview

  • 11 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Multiple Access Techniques

    FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access

    uses band pass for carrier signal which are non-overlapping in the frequency domain

    TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

    carrier signals are non overlapping in the time domain

    CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

    spreads the signal over the entire available bandwidth by using codes with good

    correlation properties

    FFrreeqquueennccyy

    TTiimm ee

    PPoowweerr

    OO nnee UUsseerr

    FFrreeqquueennccyy

    TTiimm ee

    PPoowweerr

    UUsseerr

    Power

    Time

    Frequency

    One User

    Carrier 1 Carrier 2

  • 12 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    W-CDMA

    W-CDMA = Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

    Users are separated with code sequences (spreading/de-spreading technique)

    All users are transmitting simultaneously on the same frequency

    In FDD mode, different frequencies are used on uplink and downlink

  • 13 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Spread spectrum technique

    The user bits are coded with a unique sequence (code).

    The bits of the code are called chips and the chip rate is higher than the user bit rate

    Time

    Domain

    Bandwidth = 3.84 Mhz for UMTS

    Code Ci(t)

    Resulting spread signal

    Di (t) = Si (t) x Ci(t)Bit1 Bit2

    Source signal Si (t)

    before spreading

    Frequency

    DomainNarrowband signal

    Bit Rate =Rb

    Chip Rate =Rc = 3.84 Mcps in UMTS

    Chip Rate =RcSpreading Factor

    SF =Rc/Rb

  • 14 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Spreading

    SPREADING

  • 15 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Own and other signals

  • 16 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Despreading

    DESPREADING

  • 17 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

    [1 1 -1 1 -1] [1 -1 -1 -1 1]

    Spread Chip Sequence

    c

    s

    TTL =Spreading Factor

    Spreading Chips

    +1

    -1Symbol

    +1

    -1 -1 -1 -1

    Ts

    Tc

  • 18 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Spreading / Despreading

    In the receiving path, de-spreading is achieved by auto-correlation with the same code

    Due to low cross-correlation properties with other codes, the received signal energy is increased compared to noise and other signal interference

    The gain due to despreading is called processing gain

    Example for 12.2 AMR speech:

    dBkbpskcps

    RateBitUserRateChipPG 2575.314

    2.123840 ====

  • 19 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Spreading and scrambling codes

    Spreading codes (channelization codes)

    y used to differentiate mobiles and servicesy different lengths (spreading factor) according to service in UMTSy Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) in UMTS

    Scrambling codes

    y used to differentiate un-synchronized codes (from other UEs or Node-Bs)y 1 scrambling code per sector on downlinky PN code family in UMTS

    DL

    UL UEDescrambling Despreading

    SpreadingOVSF

    (Service identifier)

    ScramblingPN

    (User identifier)

    Node B

    SpreadingOVSF

    (Service/ user identifier)

    ScramblingPN

    (Cell identifier)

    DescramblingDespreading

  • 20 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Spreading codes: OVSF code tree

    1c4,1=

    c4,2=

    c4,3=

    c4,4=

    c2,1=

    c2,2=

    c1,1= 1

    1 1

    1 -1

    11

    1 1

    1 -1

    1 -1

    reverse

    copy 1 1copy

    reverse-1 -1

    1 -1

    -1 1reverse

    SF= 4SF= 1 SF= 2

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1

    1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1 1 1-1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1 1 1-1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1-1 -1 1 1-1 -1

    1 1-1 -1 1 1-1-1

    1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1

    1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -11

    Up to SF=256

  • 21 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    OVSF : Orthogonality property

    1c4,1=

    c4,2=

    c4,3=

    c4,4=

    c2,1=

    c2,2=

    c1,1= 1

    1 1

    1 -1

    11

    1 1

    1 -1

    1 -1

    1 1

    -1 -1

    1 -1

    -1 1

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1

    1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1 1 1-1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1 1 1-1 -1 -1 -1

    1 1-1 -1 1 1-1 -1

    1 1-1 -1 1 1-1-1

    1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1

    1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -11Codes free

    Codes used

  • 22 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    RNCSC#0SC#1

    SC#2

    NodeB

    NodeB

    SC#128SC#129

    SC#130

    SC: Scrambling Code

    Downlink Scrambling Code

    Downlink scrambling code

    y One code per cell (sector/carrier) : Configurable by operatory 512 codes

  • 23 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Radio environment

  • 24 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UMTS Radio EnvironmentPropagation model

    o No special propagation model currently used for broadband signals at 2GHz

    o Standard propagation model based on Hata-Okumura model for macrocellular

    y COST-HATA is only valid for 1500-2000 MHzy Calibration of morpho correction factors required

    o ITU is defining a new propagation model which will be valid for 30-3000 MHz with a particular attention to 2GHz range

  • 25 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Overall processInputs: WCDMA Radio parameters

    W-CDMA parameters

    such as UL cell loading, Common channel power, orthogonality factor Eb/No and sensitivity values for each service and required QoS

    Radio parameters

    Gains, margins and losses (shadowing, body losses, soft-handover gain ) Propagation models

  • 26 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Overall processKey dimensioning parameters (1/3)

    Environment

    Dense urban, urban, suburban, rural => impact on propagation models at 2 GHz

    Multi-path channel model (Vehicular A for macrocell deployment) and mobile speed (3km/h, 50km/h )

    => impact on Eb/No and fast fading margins in link budget

    Coverage objectives

    Coverage probability => impact on shadowing margin in link budget

    Wall penetration (deep or light indoor, incar, outdoor)=> impact on penetration margin in link budget

  • 27 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Overall processKey dimensioning parameters (2/3)

    Service offer strategy

    Offered services (bit rate) Quality (required BLER)=> impact on Eb/No and sensitivity values in link budget

    W-CDMA parameters

    Eb/No, sensitivity figures Mobile power classes (21, 24 dBm) Soft-handoff gains Other cell to intra-cell interference ratios Downlink orthogonality factor Max allowable cell load

  • 28 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Overall processKey dimensioning parameters (3/3)

    Critical parameters that strongly affects the design results:

    penetration margin (from 0 to 22dB) Offered service (from 128kbps to 384kbps, double the number of sites

    Propagation model parameters (morpho correction factor Kc)

    Probability of coverage (90, 95%)

    Mobile transmit power (21 or 24 dBm)

    Max allowable UL cell load (e.g. 65%)

    Implementation margin for Eb/No (1dB)

    Multipath channel model (Vehicular or Pedestrian) and speed (3-120km/h)

  • 29 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    n

    o

    UE 1

    UE 2

    Before despreading After despreading

    Near-Far-Problem

    Up to around 80 dB attenuation between UE1 and UE2 If UE1 and UE2 transmitted with the same power, UE1 would jam UE2 : so-

    called near-far effect

    Solution : power control Need for an efficient power control able to fight against slow AND fast

    fading!

  • 30 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Power Control

    TX Power is adjusted regularly so that each connection is received with the required Eb/Nt of its service

    Uplink: Avoid Near-Far-Problem Downlink: Power share allocation

    Policy: No one gets a higher quality (Eb/Nt) than he needs. Everyone gets exactly the required quality or is not served at all

    no unnecessary increase of interference for other mobiles no waste of common power resource in the downlink

  • 31 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Cell breathing

    Considering the limitation of maximal transmit power, the increase of required received power due to high traffic will lead to decrease the cell range

    The cell coverage decreases when the traffic increases : so-called cell breathing phenomenon

    Coverage and capacity are linked in CDMA systems

  • 32 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Cell breathing

    Load in the cell increases (increased number of subscribers, or higher transfer data rates)

    Power and the noise level will grow and finally hinder communication.

    Node B will decrease power per user reduction of coverage area

    The RET will partly compensate cell breathing effect by changing the tilt

    Then RET saves sites

    What is cell breathing ? It is variable coverage due to increased load and noise

    How ?

  • 33 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    CDMA Uplink capacity

    CDMA uplink capacity depends on the service bit rate, required Eb/No, load (interference) level =>Theory of Pole point formula (pole capacity) in monoservice

    Soft capacity : if a cell is surrounded by lower loaded cells, this cell can support a higher number of users

    1 11 b b

    o

    XNE RF

    N W

    = + +

    N : number of simultaneous users per

    sector

    F : ratio between intracell and extracell

    interference

    X : cell load level (related to noise rise)

  • 34 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Interference level as a function of capacity

    0 5

    10 15 20 25 30 35

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    Cell loading (%)

    50% of cell load(3dB of interference)

    max loading : 75%

    Interference level (dB)

    )1log(10 ULXNoiseRise =

    Note:For cell load above 75 %, the system gets unstable

    Uplink Cell load (monoservice)

    The UL cell load is directly linked to the so called Noise Rise or interference level

    100 % UL cell load means infinite mobile power required

    monoservice

  • 35 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UTRAN overall dimensioning process

  • 36 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Overall methodology

    Coverage-based dimensioningy Based on the UL part of the Link Budgety Increase the number of sites if dimensioning is capacity-based

    Capacity-based dimensioningy UL Load Radio UL capacityy PA Radio DL capacityy TRM Codes DL capacityy CEM CEM UL/DL capacity

    If required, reduce or increase the loading and iterate

    Number of sites

    Base Station H/W Configuration

  • 37 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Link Budget Example

    Speech CS64 PS64 PS64 with HSDPAService Bit Rate kbps 12.20 64.00 64.00 64.00

    Target Eb/No dB 4.30 1.50 1.40 3.30Target C/I dB -20.68 -16.28 -16.38 -14.48

    Node-B Noise Figure dB 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50Node-B Noise Figure with TMA dB 2.36 2.36 2.36 2.36

    Node-B Sensitivity dBm -126.34 -121.94 -122.04 -120.14Node-B Sensitivity with TMA dBm -126.48 -122.08 -122.18 -120.28

    Antenna Gain dBi 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00Cable & Connector Losses dB 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50

    Cable & Connector Losses with TMA dB 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Body Loss dB 3.00 3.00 1.50 1.50

    Additional Losses dB 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

    Cell area coverage probability % 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95Outdoor Shadowing standard deviation dB 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00Indoor penetration standard deviation dB 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

    Overall standard deviation dB 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00Shadowing Margin dB 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65Fast Fading Margin dB 1.70 4.30 0.60 0.60Penetration Margin dB 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00

    Cell Load % 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50Noise Rise dB 3.01 3.01 3.01 3.01

    Interference Margin dB 2.97 2.91 2.91 2.86

    UE Max Transmit Power dBm 21.00 21.00 21.00 24.00UE Antenna Gain (UL diversity) dBi 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

    MAPL without TMA dB 131.51 124.58 129.88 131.03Cell Range without TMA km 0.74 0.47 0.66 0.72

    Nsites without TMA (1000km) 943.00 2304.00 1164.00 1004.00

  • 38 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    xCEM capacity figures with bi-dimension model

    Bi-dimension model for xCEM:

  • 39 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    RNC Dimensioning

  • 40 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    RadioNetwork Planning Process

  • 41 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessAlcatel-Lucents Tool A9155

    Alcatel-Lucent uses A9155 (based on Atoll from Forsk)

    A key advantage associated with this tool lies inthe full flexibility to change computationalgorithms and settings as required

    A9155 is fully aligned with Alcatel-Lucentsproducts and engineering tool chain

    y Interface compatible with Alcatel-Lucents OMC-Ry Alcatel-Lucent customers can fully benefit from this

    tool since it is included in Alcatel-Lucents productportfolio

    y Many customers already use A9155.

  • 42 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessInputs Required

    RNP requires a set of inputs, in additionto those required for the Radio NetworkDimensioning stage, including:

    Topology, morphology and trafficinformation

    Site co-ordinates, heights, tilts,patterns and azimuths.

    Morphology Clutter Database

    Topology Digital Elevation MapTraffic Maps

  • 43 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessRNP Coverage Predictions (2/2)

    Acceptable coverage is defined by severalrequirements that should be satisfied withinthe design coverage area:

    CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/Io -15 dB (based on field experience) Service Eb/No in DL UE service Eb/No for the target BLER Service Eb/No in UL Node-B service Eb/No

    for the target BLER

    HSDPA & HSUPA throughput Soft Handover status (for information purposes)

  • 44 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessRAN acceptance procedure

    Radio commissioning of a cluster

    Check of bearer coverage in moving conditions and in loaded context. Cluster loaded to check the quality of service as if several customer were

    using some 3G services

    y 70% power load in DL (OCNS)y 50% cell load in UL (3dB noise rise thanks to attenuator on UL path of the UE)

    Drive test performed to checky Radio service quality of the bearery Track interference problems (Pilot pollution)y Coverage holesy Missing neighbours

  • 45 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessFixed load Predictions (1/2)

  • 46 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessFixed load Predictions (2/2)

  • 47 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessPrediction Examples: CPICH RSCP Coverage (1/5)

    In Red :CS64 CPICH w/o TMA

    In Green :CS64 CPICH w/ TMA

    In Yellow :Speech CPICH

    w/o TMA

    In Blue :Speech CPICH

    w/ TMA

  • 48 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process Predictions Examples: CPICH Ec/Io Coverage (2/5)

    CPICH Ec/Io Threshold = -15dB

  • 49 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process Predictions Examples: UL / DL Speech Coverage (3/5)

  • 50 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process Predictions Examples: UL / DL CS64 Coverage (4/5)

  • 51 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessPredictions Examples: UL / DL PS384 Coverage (5/5)

  • 52 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessRNP Network Simulations (1/2)

    Objective: To account for:

    The dynamic nature of the interactions betweenusers (through iterative power control simulations)

    and the typically non-uniform distribution of the traffic between sites (defined by the traffic map)

    Uniform loading assumptions implicit with simple predictions studies Two common types of RNP network simulation studies that are performed:

    Load Distribution Simulation Studies for estimating the UL and DL loading on a per cell basis (to facilitate enhanced predictions studies)

    Detailed Simulation Studies to assess the network performance in a more rigorous manner in terms of call failures, hotspot analysis, radio feature evolution, rollout analysis

  • 53 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessSimulation Examples (1/2)

    Based on Monte Carlo analysis

    Random distribution of the users over the network according to a traffic map

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    150 151 152

    1

    6

    9

    1

    7

    0

    150 151 152

    169170

    User 759Service: PS64Mobility: 3 km/hTerminal: MobileActivity: Active UL

  • 54 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process Simulation Examples: Call Connections & Failures (2/2)

    For each simulatedmobile:

    Mobile Status : connectedUL, DL or not connected

    Reason for Call Failure Mobile Power Active set status

    Allows the identificationof hotspot locations thatare suffering performanceproblems facilitating targeted fine tuning of the design (add sites, carriers, features, etc).

  • 55 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessExample RNP Benefits

    This Radio Network Planning illustrates clearly a lack of sites in several areas of the network. This is mainly due to the huge inter-site distance

    As the coverage is limited in Uplink, these results could be improved by introducing TMA in most of the sites and thus decrease the required number of Node Bs

    1800m

    2100m

  • 56 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    WCDMA Radio Network Planning ProcessSummary

    The Radio Network Planning process for WCDMA does not redo the designderived from the radio network dimensioning process

    Serves rather to enhance and refine the design Accounts for field constraints such as topology, morphology and traffic

    distribution

    Site positions, antenna heights, antenna tilts can be optimized

    Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations can be used to better model the dynamic system behaviour and account for more realistic traffic distributions.

    A9155 forms the RNP part of Alcatel-Lucents consistent tool chain for the radio network design process

  • 57 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Radio Frequency Aspects GSM/UMTS

    Co-siting

  • 58 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Alcatel-Lucents guideline is to ensure there is 40 dB isolation between 2G system and 3G system

  • 59 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Worst Cases (in order to maintain 40dB isolation)

    II I (90)

    dd d d

    III (180) IV (Horizontal)

    d

    V (Vertical)

    d

    Case Offending Antenna type WCDMA antenna Crossbeam Recommended isolationI up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N >0.25mII up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N Same mast is okIII up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N Same mast is okIV 65 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N >0.4mIV 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N >0.8mIV 115 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW N >1mIV 65 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW 10-40 degrees >0.5m - 1mIV up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW 10 degrees >0.7mIV up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW 20 degrees >0.8mIV up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW 30 degrees >0.9mIV up to 90 degrees HPBW 65 degrees HPBW 40 degrees >1mV 7 degrees V-HPBW 65 degrees HPBW Normal tilting >0.25m depends on tilting

    Disclaimer:This table can be treated as a rough guide only. If the required separation cannot be strictly met, then the degradation in performance will vary case by case.

  • 60 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Azimuths may Change

    Horizontal separation >= 1m and Vertical separation >= 0.5m can be used as the guideline. Some safety margin is

    included to take into account the different antenna types used, and crossbeams.

    we cannot control the orientation of 2G equipment

    Hence, the separation distance guideline is to PLAN FOR WORST CASE.

    This takes into consideration possible changes of antennas azimuth and yet able to maintain a reasonable amount of isolation so as to minimize the impact of interference.

  • 61 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Worst Case Example (1)

    Single case measurement example

    Below 1m, rapid roll-off towards low isolation

    GSM1800 115 deg to UMTS 65 degHorizontal measurements

    30.00

    35.00

    40.00

    45.00

    50.00

    55.00

    60.00

    0.00

    1.00

    2.00

    3.00

    4.00

    5.00

    6.00

    7.00

    8.00

    9.00

    10.00

    11.00

    12.00

    Distance (m)

    I

    s

    o

    l

    a

    t

    i

    o

    n

    (

    d

    B

    )

    1900MHz1950MHz1980MHz

    50dB marker

  • 62 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Worst Case Example (2)

    Beam Crossing

    This is to show that the closer the main beams of 2 antennas cross, the lower the isolation between them.

    Variable azimuth GSM1800 65 deg to UMTS 65 deg - cross-polar

    35.00

    40.00

    45.00

    50.00

    55.00

    60.00

    65.00

    70.00

    75.00

    -45 0 +45 +90

    Bearing from fixed antenna (degrees)

    I

    s

    o

    l

    a

    t

    i

    o

    n

    (

    d

    B

    ) 1900MHz1950MHz1980MHz

    50dB marker

  • 63 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Solutions

    Additional methods to achieve the required isolation

    Physical Antenna Separation

    Tighter filtering of the GSM BTS TX signaly Adding filters to the GSM BTS tx port to reduce the spurious emissions.

    Diplexer in the case of feeder and antenna sharing between different systemsy Diplexer typically has >50 dB isolation.

    Guideline:

    H-separation > 1m

    V-separation > 0.5m

  • 64 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    UMTS and UMTSUMTS and UMTS

    Interference between Different UMTS Operators sharing same UMTS Antenna

    3GPP Specification TS 25.942 defined a minimum coupling loss of 30 dB between antennas.

    Antennas providing isolation of >30 dB (which is commonly available) between ports is sufficient.

  • 65 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    IS95 with UMTSIS95 with UMTS IS95/CDMA2000 is in the 800/900 MHz band, the impact of IS95 on WCDMA

    2GHz band is very unlikely. Besides, the spectral density of IS95, which is a Spread Spectrum technology,

    would be very low to cause impact.

  • 66 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    SUMMARYSUMMARYInterfering

    WCDMA WCDMA Solution

    Spurious Emissionsguideline: require >30

    dB isolation (worst case)

    UMTS Tx filter for both operators

    1) This isolation guideline is based on eg. worst case BTS/Node B specifications etc..

    2) So, even if the isolation requirement is not met, it doesnt necessarily mean there would definitely be isolation issues.

    3) The guideline gives a safety reference that we should try to achieve to give us a certain level of confidence over possible isolation issues.

  • 67 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Radio Frequency AspectsGSM/UMTS Co-siting

    feeder

    Single band antennas

    GSMBTS

    UMTSNode B

    feeder feeder

    Dual Band Antenna

    GSMBTS

    UMTSNode B

    feeder

    Decision criteria:

    planning philosophy of the network operators aim environment (visual impact...)

    Feeder sharing solution

    Without Feeder sharing

    Dual Band Antenna

    GSM 900BTS

    UMTSNode B

    feederDiplexer

    Diplexer

    BroadbandAntenna

    UMTSNode

    B

    GSMBTS

    Diplexer

  • 68 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    Co-location with GSM system

    UMTS Cell range depends on Traffic density and the service data rate

    Comparison of UMTS cell ranges with GSM

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    Dense Urban (20 dB) Urban (15 dB) Suburban (15 dB) Rural (6 dB)

    Cell Ranges

    GSM900

    GSM1800

    UMTS128

    UMTS384

    900m

    550m

    350m

    1500m

    900m

    650m

    3000m

    2000m

    1200m

  • 69 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    HSDPA overview

  • 70 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    What is HSDPA?

    HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access

    Part of 3GPP Release 5 (R5) and later releases

    Purpose: Enhance 3G Mobile systems by offering higher data rates in the Downlink Direction

    Direct evolution of 3GPP R99 networks (UMTS)

    To further extend your UMTS network performancesTo further extend your UMTS network performances

  • 71 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    HSDPA Evolution phases

    Phase 1: Basic HSDPA (3GPP R5) with peak data bit rates up to 14 Mbps

    High speed Downlink shared channel supported by control channels

    Adaptive Modulation (QPSK & 16 QAM) and rate matching

    Shared Medium Access Control (MAC-hs) located in Node-B

    Support of Best Effort and Background services

    Phase 2: HSDPA Enhancements with Antenna Array Processing Technologies (3GPP R7) with peak data rates up to 30 Mbps

    Smart Antennas with beam-forming techniques for Mobiles with 1 antenna

    MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technologies for Mobiles with more than 1 antenna up to 4 antennas

    Support of Streaming services

    Phase 3: New air interface (OFDM) with increased bit rates OFDM physical layer with Higher Modulation schemes and array processing MAC-hs/OFDM with fast scheduling for selection of sub-carrier set Mx-MAC (Multi-standard MAC) to enable switching between OFDMA and CDMA channels

    3GPP R5 3GPP R6 Beyond

  • 72 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    HSDPA BasicsHSDPA: Key Features (2)

    HS-PDSCH uses adaptive

    modulation (QPSK or 16 QAM) coding (Turbo Coding)

    The Turbo encoder has fixed code rate of 1/3

    Variable effective code rates are achieved by rate matching (puncturing or repetition)

    Replaces Power Control and variable SF

    Higher dynamic More efficient for users close to Node-B

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding

    Throughput vs. C/(I+N) [Vehicular A 30 km/h]

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10

    C/(I+N) [dB]

    T

    h

    r

    o

    u

    g

    h

    p

    u

    t

    [

    K

    b

    p

    s

    ]

    QPSK_1_724QPSK_2_1430QPSK_3_2159QPSK_5_3630QPSK_10_7168QPSK_15_1082116QAM_1_143016QAM_2_287616QAM_5_716816QAM_15_21754Envelope

  • 73 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    High Order modulation: 16QAM

    Code Multiplexing: up to 15 codes in parallel

    User can be code and time multiplexed (TTI= 2ms)

    1011 1001 0001 0011

    1010 1000 0000 0010

    1110 1100 0100 0110

    1111 1101 0101 0111

    i2 i2i1

    q1

    q2

    q2

    0.4472 1.34160.4472

    1.3416

    Codes TTI = 2ms

    User 1

    User 2

    User 3

    Time and Code multiplexing in HSDPA

    Fixed Spreading Factor, SF=16

    -> 3.84Mcps/16 = 240 K symbols/s -> @ 16QAM -> 240 x 4 = 960 kbps -> @ code rate = 3/4 -> 720 kbps

    720 kbps bit rate can be achieved per code -> 10.8 Mbps over 15 codes

    HSDPA BasicsHSDPA: Key Features (4)

  • 74 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    HS-DSCH category

    Maximum number of HS-DSCH codes

    received

    Modulation supported (QPSK and/ or 16-QAM)

    Maximum bit rate

    (in Mbps)1 5 Both 1.22 5 Both 1.23 5 Both 1.84 5 Both 1.85 5 Both 3.66 5 Both 3.67 10 Both 7.28 10 Both 7.29 15 Both 10.2

    10 15 Both 14.411 5 QPSK only 0.912 5 QPSK only 1.8

    HSDPA BasicsTerminal categories

    HSDPA will require new terminals to support:

    a new protocol stack new modulation & coding

    12 categories have been defined by 3GPP for W-CDMA / FDD

    Most probable first category of terminal for HSDPA launch

    in 2006

  • 75 | WCDMA Architecture | December 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

    www.alcatel-lucent.com