3D Modelling

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Business and Computing Deanery 3D Modelling Week 3 Advanced modelling

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3D Modelling. Week 3 Advanced modelling. Aims of today. Discuss your presentation Advanced modelling. Last week. Software Modelling concepts Polygon Spline Patch Parametric 3D parametric modelling Primitives Transformations Aligning Cloning Modifying primitives Boolean. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of 3D Modelling

  • Aims of todayDiscuss your presentationAdvanced modelling

  • Last weekSoftwareModelling conceptsPolygonSplinePatchParametric3D parametric modellingPrimitivesTransformationsAligningCloningModifying primitivesBoolean

  • Plan your modelMassing model?Use a graphic or scan?Set up your gridSet up a file/folder system

  • Sketch or StoryboardAdventure Gamers : Dreamfall: from sketch to 3D model (2005)

  • AccuracyImagine a penHow would you model it?Now look at a real pen

    Details make a big differencePractice to be imperfectWhy?

  • ReferencesUsing reference materials will improve the quality of your modelBuild a reference libraryThe object itselfPhotographsDrawingsVideo

  • 2DOne method of creating a complex 3D objectConvert the lines into 3D objectsVisualise and define cross-sectionsProper scale

  • 2D to 3D - Extrusion3ds max v7

  • 2D to 3D - LathingCreate a pathChoose an axis3ds max v7

  • 2D to 3D Sweep or LoftCreate a 2D shapeCreate a pathCap or close the ends?3ds max v7

  • 2D to 3D - SkinCreate a number of cross-sectionsSkin them

    3ds max v7

  • ActivityDraw a 2D shape and extrude itCreate another 2D shape and lath it Create a 2D shape, a path and create a loftFind out how to do a skin

  • File formats for modellingPortable or universal file formatDXF.dxfDrawing Interchange FormatWidely used in CAD (Computer Aided Design)OBJ .objComputer animation an visual effects NativeMay be converted3ds max .max

  • Exporting/importing filesFile conversion3D Studio (3DS)Adobe Illustrator (AI)ASC Scene Export (ASE)AutoCAD (DWG)AutoCAD (DXF)Shockwave 3DFiLMBOX (FBX)Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)Lightscape Material (ATR)Lightscape Blocks (BLK)Lightscape Parameter (DF)Lightscape Layers (LAY)Lightscape View (VW)Lightscape Preparation File (LP) Stereolithography (STL)VRML97 (WRL)

  • EdgesReal objects rarely have a sharp edgeBevel or chamferRadiusFillet3ds max v7

  • Surface ModellingMore free form than geometric (parametric) modelling. A subdivision surface is a surface that has been divided into more faces while retaining the object's general shapeSubdivision adds more detail to an object, or to smooth it out Use modifier stack to collapse a parametric model to some form of editable surface.

  • Why surface modelling?Great flexibility in modellingGame engines expect a meshDefault model type During rendering polygons are smoothed outMeshes allow the optimisation of modelsReduce the number of facesLow polygon modellingReduce rendering timeKey part of successful production

  • Mesh objectsEarly versions of Max used trianglesAll faces were coplanarGood for the rendering engineOver time rendering engines have been modifiedPolygon modelling without subdivisionMore efficient Eliminated extra edgesMore control over the polygon object

  • MeshesTrianglesVertex EdgeFacePolygonsVertex EdgeBorderPolygonElement

    3ds max v7

  • Mesh or poly - which to use?History lessonInitially Max only supported mesh objectsSubdividing the mesh into triangular faces ensured that all faces were coplanarGuaranteed to render wellOver time rendering engines have been modified to handle polygonsMakes the model more efficient Eliminates all the extra edges required to triangulate the meshMurdock K.L. (2005)

  • TessellationSubdivides the faces of the object into two or more: PolygonsorTriangles3ds max v7

  • Converting to editable objectsUse the Quad menuOrRight click the object in the Modifier Stack3ds max v7

  • Editing a polygon modelConvert an object into a editable polygon Removes all parametric controls, including the creation parametersIf a modifier has been applied to an object you need to use the Collapse All command firstCombines the stack operationsCannot undo, save a backup file

  • Editable Mesh Surface Polygon mesh3ds max v7

  • Edit faceFaces provide the renderable surface of an object. 3ds max v7

  • ExtrudeSoft selectionExtrude Bevel3ds max v7

  • ActivityMake a crownCreate a tubeConvert to an editable meshExtrude polygons

  • Soft selectionThe Soft Selection controls allow you to partially select sub-objects in the vicinity of an explicit selectionThis causes the explicit selection to behave as if surrounded by a "magnetic field" 3ds max v7

  • Working with verticesSelect one or more verticesMagnetic of soft selectionUse for transforms of verticesThe program applies a spline curve deformation to unselected vertices surrounding the transformed selected sub-object A magnet-like effect with a sphere of influence around the transformation 3ds max v7

  • ActivityCreate a sphereConvert to an editible polygonPush and pull vertices to make a faceNot easy!

  • Edit EdgeAn edge is a line, visible or invisible, forming the side of a face and connecting two verticesTwo faces can share a single edge 3ds max v7

  • OptimizationSimplifies a smooth model with a high number of faces Does not greatly change the models appearance 3ds max v7

  • Building Organic FormsHumans are really hard to doWorking with Meshes and VerticesSkinningWorking with cross-sectionsCan be provided by a scanMagnetic Resonance (MR)3D laserMetaballs or Blobby surfaces

  • Metaballs or Blobby surfacesBuild a form from various sized objectsBlend the surfaces together into a single mass

  • TerrainsTerrain objects can be created from contour line data Editable splines are selected a mesh surface created over the contours3ds max v7

  • Low polygon modellingWhat happens to a game if the polycount in a model is too high?Too slow to playMay crash the systemOverlapping meshes or undeleted faces may affect the appearance

    Planning of low polygon models is important

  • Spec-ing a low polygon modelFile formatNumber and type of polygonsUse of texture mapsParticular type?Colour depth?Specific size?Transparency?Examine any sample models

  • Poly countsTotal number of polygons that make up a given object3D engines have limitsNumber they can move around in a given sceneSoftware has a Polygon Counter utility You can set a budget fop elected objectsUnnecessary polygons can be removedUse MultiResPolygons can be made to look softerUse MeshSmooth

  • Level of DetailModels are created in two or more levels of detailUse high polygon model when the object is large in the sceneSwap for the low polygon version when zoomed outUsed in VRML or X3D

  • BillboardDefine a flat surface which is camera alignedApply a textureRenders faster than if a 3D object is used

    3ds max v7

  • Box models and texturesSimple way to add detailKeeps model simpleBox with a texture addedMore later with materials3ds max v7

  • Low poly techniquesNo new skillsGreater precisionDecisions on where to invest detailDecisions on where to simplify3ds max v7

  • Mesh structureSeveral meshes are attached to make a single objectEitherWeld the meshes together to form one meshOr separate them by a fractional amount

    Do not intersect meshesDelete any hidden faces

  • Game enginesReal time 3D engines may use rendering which smoothes out your model

    You may need to take special steps to avoid thisDetaching groups to make them sharp

  • Self assessment What are the four types of modelling concepts used by modelling software?What is the most useful for gaming?Why is this used for gaming?Why does it not work well forRendered views?Organic shapes?Discuss the four methods of converting 2D shapes to 3DGive an example of each for constructing everyday objects

  • ReferencesAdventure Gamers : Dreamfall: from sketch to 3D model http://www.adventuregamers.com/article/id,477/p,2, accessed 23/09/2005 Giambruno M, (2002) 3D Graphics & Animation, 2nd Edition, New Riders, ISBN: 0-7357-1243-3Kerlow I. V., (2003) The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and Effects , 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc; ISBN: 0471430366 Murdock K. L., 3ds max7 Bible, Wiley Publishing; ISBN: 0-7645-7971-1Screen shots taken from 3ds max 7 User Reference and tutorials