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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Machinery Principles

Summary:

1. Basic concept of electrical machines fundamentals:

o Rotational component measurements Angular Velocity, Acceleration

Torque, Work, Power

Newtons Law of Rotation

o Magnetic Field study

Production of a Magnetic Field

Magnetic Circuits

2. Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials

3. How magnetic field can affect its surroundings:

Faradays Law Induced Voltage from a Time-Changing MagneticField.

Production of Induced Force on a Wire.

Induced Voltage on a Conductor moving in a Magnetic Field

4. Linear DC Machines

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Introduction

1. Electric Machines mechanical energy to electric energy or vice versa

Mechanical energy Electric energy : GENERATOR

Electric energy

mechanical energy : MOTOR

2. Almost all practical motors and generators convert energy from one form to another through theaction of a magnetic field.

3. Only machines using magnetic fields to perform such conversions will be considered in this course.

4. When we talk about machines, another related device is the transformer. A transformer is a device

that converts ac electric energy at one voltage level to ac electric energy at another voltage level.

5. Transformers are usually studied together with generators and motors because they operate on thesame principle, the difference is just in the action of a magnetic field to accomplish the change in

voltage level.

6. Why are electric motors and generators so common?

- electric power is a clean and efficient energy source that is very easy to transmit over

long distances and easy to control.

- Does not require constant ventilation and fuel (compare to internal-combustion engine),

free from pollutant associated with combustion

1. Basic concept of electrical machines fundamentals

1.1 Rotational Motion, Newtons Law and Power Relationship

Almost all electric machines rotate about an axis, called the shaft of the machines. It is important tohave a basic understanding of rotational motion.

Angular position, - is the angle at which it is oriented, measured from some arbitrary reference point.Its measurement units are in radians (rad) or in degrees. It is similar to the linear concept of distance

along a line.

Conventional notation: +ve value for anticlockwise rotation

-ve value for clockwise rotation

Angular Velocity, - Defined as the velocity at which the measured point is moving. Similar to theconcept of standard velocity where:

drv

dt=

where:

r distance traverse by the body

t time taken to travel the distance r

For a rotating body, angular velocity is formulated as:

d

dt

where:

- Angular position/ angular distance traversed by the rotating body

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t time taken for the rotating body to traverse the specified distance, .

Angular acceleration, - is defined as the rate of change in angular velocity with respect to time. Itsformulation is as shown:

d

dt

Torque, 1. In linear motion, a force applied to an object causes its velocity to change. In the absence of a

net force on the object, its velocity is constant. The greater the force applied to the object, the

more rapidly its velocity changes.

2. Similarly in the concept of rotation, when an object is rotating, its angular velocity is constant

unless a torque is present on it. Greater the torque, more rapid the angular velocity changes.

3. Torque is known as a rotational force applied to a rotating body giving angular acceleration,

a.k.a. twisting force.

4. Definition of Torque: (Nm)

Product of force applied to the object and the smallest distance between the line of action of theforce and the objects axis of rotation

Force perpendicular distance

sinF r

= =

Direction

of rotation

rsin(180 ) = rsin

F

Work, W is defined as the application of Force through a distance. Therefore, work may be defined as:

W Fdr = Assuming that the direction of F is collinear (in the same direction) with the direction of motion and

constant in magnitude, hence,

W Fr=Applying the same concept for rotating bodies,

W d =

Assuming that is constant,W = (Joules)

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netIdlH =

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Power, P is defined as rate of doing work. Hence,

dWP

dt= (watts)

Applying this for rotating bodies,

( )d

Pdt

d

dt

=

=

=This equation can describe the mechanical power on the shaft of a motor or generator.

Newtons Law of Rotation

Newtons law for objects moving in a straight line gives a relationship between the force applied to the

object and the acceleration experience by the object as the result of force applied to it. In general,

F ma=where:

F Force applied

m mass of object

a resultant acceleration of object

Applying these concept for rotating bodies,

J = (Nm)where:

- TorqueJ moment of inertia

- angular acceleration

1.2 The Magnetic Field

Magnetic fields are the fundamental mechanism by which energy is converted from one form to

another in motors, generators and transformers.

First, we are going to look at the basic principle A current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field

in the area around it.

Production of a Magnetic Field

1. Amperes Law the basic law governing the production of a magnetic field by a current:

where H is the magnetic field intensity produced by the current Inet and dlis a differential element oflength along the path of integration. H is measured in Ampere-turns per meter.

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HB =

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2. Consider a current currying conductor is wrapped around a ferromagnetic core;

mean path length, lc

I

N turns

CSA

3. Applying Amperes law, the total amount of magnetic field induced will be proportional to the

amount of current flowing through the conductor wound with N turns around the ferromagnetic

material as shown. Since the core is made of ferromagnetic material, it is assume that a majorityof the magnetic field will be confined to the core.

4. The path of integration in Amperes law is the mean path length of the core, lc. The currentpassing within the path of integration Inet is then Ni, since the coil of wires cuts the path of

integration N times while carrying the current i. Hence Amperes Law becomes,

c

c

Hl Ni

NiH

l

=

=

5. In this sense, H (Ampere turns per metre) is known as the effort required to induce a magnetic

field. The strength of the magnetic field flux produced in the core also depends on the material of

the core. Thus,

B = magnetic flux density (webers per square meter, Tesla (T))

= magnetic permeability of material (Henrys per meter)

H = magnetic field intensity (ampere-turns per meter)

6. The constant may be further expanded to include relative permeability which can be defined asbelow:

r

o

=

where: o permeability of free space (a.k.a. air)

7. Hence the permeability value is a combination of the relative permeability and the permeability of

free space. The value of relative permeability is dependent upon the type of material used. The

higher the amount permeability, the higher the amount of flux induced in the core. Relative

permeability is a convenient way to compare the magnetizability of materials.

8. Also, because the permeability of iron is so much higher than that of air, the majority of the flux

in an iron core remains inside the core instead of travelling through the surrounding air, which has

lower permeability. The small leakage flux that does leave the iron core is important in

determining the flux linkages between coils and the self-inductances of coils in transformers and

motors.

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9. In a core such as in the figure,

B = H =cl

Ni

Now, to measure the total flux flowing in the ferromagnetic core, consideration has to be made in

terms of its cross sectional area (CSA). Therefore,

A

BdA = Where: A cross sectional area throughout the core

Assuming that the flux density in the ferromagnetic core is constant throughout hence constant

A, the equation simplifies to be:

BA =

Taking into account past derivation of B,

c

NiA

l

=

2. Magnetics Circuits

The flow of magnetic flux induced in the ferromagnetic core can be made analogous to an electrical

circuit hence the name magnetic circuit.

The analogy is as follows:

+

-

A

RV+

-

Reluctance, RF=Ni

(mmf)

Electric Circuit Analogy Magnetic Circuit Analogy

1. Referring to the magnetic circuit analogy, F is denoted as magnetomotive force (mmf) which issimilar to Electromotive force in an electrical circuit (emf). Therefore, we can safely say that F is

the prime mover or force which pushes magnetic flux around a ferromagnetic core at a value of

Ni (refer to amperes law). Hence F is measured in ampere turns. Hence the magnetic circuit

equivalent equation is as shown:

F R= (similar to V=IR)

2. The polarity of the mmf will determine the direction of flux. To easily determine the direction of

flux, the right hand curl rule is utilised:

a) The direction of the curled fingers determines the current flow.

b) The resulting thumb direction will show the magnetic flux flow.

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3. The element of R in the magnetic circuit analogy is similar in concept to the electrical resistance.It is basically the measure of material resistance to the flow of magnetic flux. Reluctance in this

analogy obeys the rule of electrical resistance (Series and Parallel Rules). Reluctance is measured

in Ampere-turns per weber.

Series Reluctance,

Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + .

Parallel Reluctance,

1 2 3

1 1 1 1...

eq R R R R= + + +

4. The inverse of electrical resistance is conductance which is a measure of conductivity of amaterial. Hence the inverse of reluctance is known as permeance, P where it represents the

degree at which the material permits the flow of magnetic flux.

1

since

P R

F

R

FP

=

=

=

Also,

,

c

c

c

c

c

NiA

l

ANi

l

AF

l

A lP R

l A

=

=

=

= =

5. By using the magnetic circuit approach, it simplifies calculations related to the magnetic field in a

ferromagnetic material, however, this approach has inaccuracy embedded into it due to

assumptions made in creating this approach (within 5% of the real answer). Possible reason of

inaccuracy is due to:

a) The magnetic circuit assumes that all flux are confined within the core, but in reality a smallfraction of the flux escapes from the core into the surrounding low-permeability air, and this flux

is called leakage flux.

b) The reluctance calculation assumes a certain mean path length and cross sectional area (csa) ofthe core. This is alright if the core is just one block of ferromagnetic material with no corners, for

practical ferromagnetic cores which have corners due to its design, this assumption is not

accurate.

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c) In ferromagnetic materials, the permeability varies with the amount of flux already in thematerial. The material permeability is not constant hence there is an existence ofnon-linearity

of permeability.

d) For ferromagnetic core which has air gaps, there are fringing effects that should be taken intoaccount as shown:

Example 1.1

A ferromagnetic core is shown. Three sides of this core are of uniform width, while the fourth side is

somewhat thinner. The depth of the core (into the page) is 10cm, and the other dimensions are shown in

the figure. There is a 200 turn coil wrapped around the left side of the core. Assuming relative

permeability r of 2500, how much flux will be produced by a 1A input current?

Solution:3 sides of the core have the same csa, while the 4 th side has a different area. Thus the core can be divided

into 2 regions:

(1) the single thinner side

(2) the other 3 sides taken together

The magnetic circuit corresponding to this core:

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Example 1.2

Figure shows a ferromagnetic core whose mean path length is 40cm. There is a small gap of 0.05cm in

the structure of the otherwise whole core. The csa of the core is 12cm2, the relative permeability of the

core is 4000, and the coil of wire on the core has 400 turns. Assume that fringing in the air gap increases

the effective csa of the gap by 5%. Given this information, find

(a) the total reluctance of the flux path (iron plus air gap)

(b) the current required to produce a flux density of 0.5T in the air gap.

Solution:

The magnetic circuit corresponding to this core is shown below:

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Example 1.3

Figure shows a simplified rotor and stator for a dc motor. The mean path length of the stator is 50cm,

and its csa is 12cm2. The mean path length of the rotor is 5 cm, and its csa also may be assumed to be

12cm2. Each air gap between the rotor and the stator is 0.05cm wide, and the csa of each air gap

(including fringing) is 14cm2. The iron of the core has a relative permeability of 2000, and there are 200

turns of wire on the core. If the current in the wire is adjusted to be 1A, what will the resulting flux

density in the air gaps be?

Solution:

To determine the flux density in the air gap, it is necessary to first calculate the mmf applied to the coreand the total reluctance of the flux path. With this information, the total flux in the core can be found.

Finally, knowing the csa of the air gaps enables the flux density to be calculated.

The magnetic cct corresponding to this machine is shown below.

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Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials

1. Materials which are classified as non-magnetic all show a linear relationship between the flux

density B and coil current I. In other words, they have constant permeability. Thus, for example,

in free space, the permeability is constant. But in iron and other ferromagnetic materials it is not

constant.

2. For magnetic materials, a much larger value of B is produced in these materials than in free space.Therefore, the permeability of magnetic materials is much higher than o. However, the

permeability is not linear anymore but does depend on the current over a wide range.

3. Thus, the permeability is the property of a medium that determines its magneticcharacteristics. In other words, the concept of magnetic permeability corresponds to the ability of

the material to permit the flow of magnetic flux through it.

4. In electrical machines and electromechanical devices a somewhat linear relationship between B

and I is desired, which is normally approached by limiting the current.

5. Look at the magnetization curve and B-H curve. Note: The curve corresponds to an increase of DCcurrent flow through a coil wrapped around the ferromagnetic core (ref: Electrical Machinery

Fundamentals 4th Ed. Stephen J Chapman).

6. When the flux produced in the core is plotted versus the mmf producing it, the resulting plot lookslike this (a). This plot is called a saturation curve or a magnetization curve. A small increase in

the mmf produces a huge increase in the resulting flux. After a certain point, further increases in

the mmf produce relatively smaller increases in the flux. Finally, there will be no change at all as

you increase mmf further. The region in which the curve flattens out is called saturation region,

and the core is said to be saturated. The region where the flux changes rapidly is called the

unsaturated region. The transition region is called the knee of the curve.

7. From equation H = Ni/lc = F/lc and =BA, it can be seen that magnetizing intensity is directlyproportional to mmf and magnetic flux density is directly proportional to flux for any given core.

B=H slope of curve is the permeability of the core at that magnetizing intensity. The curve (b)

shows that the permeability is large and relatively constant in the unsaturated region and then

gradually drops to a low value as the core become heavily saturated.

8. Advantage of using a ferromagnetic material for cores in electric machines and transformers is thatone gets more flux for a given mmf than with air (free space).

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9. If the resulting flux has to be proportional to the mmf, then the core must be operated in the

unsaturated region.

10. Generators and motors depend on magnetic flux to produce voltage and torque, so they need as

much flux as possible. So, they operate near the knee of the magnetization curve (flux not linearly

related to the mmf). This non-linearity as a result gives peculiar behaviours to machines.

11. As magnetizing intensity H increased, the relative permeability first increases and then starts todrop off.

Example 1.5

A square magnetic core has a mean path length of 55cm and a csa of 150cm2. A 200 turn coil of wire is

wrapped around one leg of the core. The core is made of a material having the magnetization curve

shown below. Find:

a) How much current is required to produce 0.012 Wb of flux in the core?

b) What is the cores relative permeability at that current level?

c) What is its reluctance?

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Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core

I. Hysteresis Loss

1. Discussions made before concentrates on the application of a DC current through the coil. Now

lets move the discussion into the application of AC current source at the coil. Using our

understanding previously, we can predict that the curve would be as shown,

Theoretical ac magnetic behaviour for flux in a ferromagnetic core.

2. Unfortunately, the above assumption is only correct provided that the core is perfect i.e. there are

no residual flux present during the negative cycle of the ac current flow. A typical flux behaviour

(or known as hysteresis loop) in a ferromagnetic core is as shown in the next page.

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Typical Hysterisis loop when ac current is applied.

3. Explanation of Hysteresis Loop

Apply AC current. Assume flux in the core is initially zero.

As current increases, the flux traces the path ab. (saturation curve) When the current decreases, the flux traces out a different path from the one when thecurrent increases.

When current decreases, the flux traces out path bcd.

When the current increases again, it traces out path deb. NOTE: the amount of flux present in the core depends not only on the amount of currentapplied to the windings of the core, but also on the previous history of the flux in the core.

HYSTERESIS is the dependence on the preceding flux history and the resulting failureto retrace flux paths.

When a large mmf is first applied to the core and then removed, the flux path in the corewill be abc.

When mmf is removed, the flux does not go to zero residual flux. This is how

permanent magnets are produced. To force the flux to zero, an amount of mmf known as coercive mmfmust be applied inthe opposite direction.

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4. Why does hysteresis occur?

To understand hysteresis in a ferromagnetic core, we have to look into

the behaviour of its atomic structure before, during and after the presence of a magnetic field.

The atoms of iron and similar metals (cobalt, nickel, and some of their

alloys) tend to have their magnetic fields closely aligned with each other. Within the metal,there is an existence of small regions known as domains where in each domain there is a

presence of a small magnetic field which randomly aligned through the metal structure.

This as shown below:

An example of a magnetic domain orientation in a metal structure beforethe presence of a magnetic field.

Magnetic field direction in each domain is random as such that the net magnetic field is zero.

When mmf is applied to the core, each magnetic field will align with respect to the direction of

the magnetic field. That explains the exponential increase of magnetic flux during the early stageof magnetisation. As more and more domain are aligned to the magnetic field, the total magnetic

flux will maintain at a constant level hence as shown in the magnetisation curve (saturation).

When mmf is removed, the magnetic field in each domain will try to revert to its random state.

However, not all magnetic field domains would revert to its random state hence it remained in

its previous magnetic field position. This is due to the lack of energy required to disturb the

magnetic field alignment.

Hence the material will retain some of its magnetic properties (permanent magnet) up until an

external energy is applied to the material. Examples of external energy may be in the form of

heat or large mechanical shock. That is why a permanent magnet can lose its magnetism if it isdropped, hit with a hammer or heated.

Therefore, in an ac current situation, to realign the magnetic field in each domain during the

opposite cycle would require extra mmf (also known as coercive mmf).

This extra energy requirement is known as hysteresis loss.

The larger the material, the more energy is required hence the higher the hysteresis loss.

Area enclosed in the hysteresis loop formed by applying an ac current to the core is directly

proportional to the energy lost in a given ac cycle.

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dt

deind

=

dt

dNe

ind

=

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II. Eddy Current Loss

1. A time-changing flux induces voltage within a ferromagnetic core.

2. These voltages cause swirls of current to flow within the core eddy currents.

3. Energy is dissipated (in the form of heat) because these eddy currents are flowing in a resistive

material (iron)

4. The amount of energy lost to eddy currents is proportional to the size of the paths they followwithin the core.

5. To reduce energy loss, ferromagnetic core should be broken up into small strips, or laminations,

and build the core up out of these strips. An insulating oxide or resin is used between the strips, so

that the current paths for eddy currents are limited to small areas.

Conclusion:

Core loss is extremely important in practice, since it greatly affects operating temperatures, efficiencies,

and ratings of magnetic devices.

3. How Magnetic Field can affect its surroundings

3.1 FARADAYS LAW Induced Voltage from a Time-Changing Magnetic Field

Before, we looked at the production of a magnetic field and on its properties. Now, we will look at the

various ways in which an existing magnetic field can affect its surroundings.

If a flux passes through a turn of a coil of wire, voltage will be induced in the turn of the wire that isdirectly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time

If there is N number of turns in the coil with the same amount of flux flowing through it, hence:

where: N number of turns of wire in coil.

Note the negative sign at the equation above which is in accordance to Lenz Law which states:

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=

=N

i

iindee

1

=

=N

i

i

dt

d

1

= =

N

i

i

dt

d

1

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The direction of the build-up voltage in the coil is as such that if the coils were short circuited, it wouldproduce current that would cause a flux opposing the original flux change.Examine the figure below:

If the flux shown is increasing in strength, then the voltage built up in the coil will tend to

establish a flux that will oppose the increase.

A current flowing as shown in the figure would produce a flux opposing the increase.

So, the voltage on the coil must be built up with the polarity required to drive the current through

the external circuit. So, -eind

NOTE: In Chapman, the minus sign is often left out because the polarity of the resulting voltage

can be determined from physical considerations.

2. Equation eind = -d /dt assumes that exactly the same flux is present in each turn of thecoil. This is not true, since there is leakage flux. This equation will give valid answer if the

windings are tightly coupled, so that the vast majority of the flux passing thru one turn of the coil

does indeed pass through all of them.

3. Now consider the induced voltage in the ith turn of the coil,

ii

de

dt

=

Since there is N number of turns,

The equation above may be rewritten into,

ind

de

dt

=

where (flux linkage) is defined as:

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1

N

i

i

=

= (weber-turns)4. Faradays law is the fundamental property of magnetic fields involved in transformer operation.

5. Lenzs Law in transformers is used to predict the polarity of the voltages induced in transformer

windings.

3.2 Production of Induced Force on a Wire.

1. A current carrying conductor present in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B, would produce

a force to the conductor/wire. Dependent upon the direction of the surrounding magnetic field, the

force induced is given by:

( ) F i l B= where:

i represents the current flow in the conductor

l length of wire, with direction ofldefined to be in the direction of current flowB magnetic field density

2. The direction of the force is given by the right-hand rule. Direction of the force depends on the

direction of current flow and the direction of the surrounding magnetic field. A rule of thumb to

determine the direction can be found using the right-hand rule as shown below:

Right Hand rule

3. The induced force formula shown earlier is true if the current carrying conductor is perpendicular

to the direction of the magnetic field. If the current carrying conductor is position at an angle to the

magnetic field, the formula is modified to be as follows:

sin F ilB

=Where: - angle between the conductor and the direction of the magnetic field.

4. In summary, this phenomenon is the basis of an electricmotor where torque or rotational force ofthe motor is the effect of the stator field current and the magnetic field of the rotor.

Example 1.7

The figure shows a wire carrying a current in the presence of a

magnetic field. The magnetic flux density is 0.25T, directed into the

page. If the wire is 1m long and carries 0.5A of current in the

direction from the top of the page to the bottom, what are the

magnitude and direction of the force induced on the wire?

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3.3 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field

1. If a conductor moves or cuts through a magnetic field, voltage will be induced between the

terminals of the conductor at which the magnitude of the induced voltage is dependent upon the

velocity of the wire assuming that the magnetic field is constant. This can be summarised in terms

of formulation as shown:

eind= (v x B) lwhere:

v velocity of the wire

B magnetic field density

l length of the wire in the magnetic field

2. Note: The value of l (length) is dependent upon the angle at which the wire cuts through the

magnetic field. Hence a more complete formula will be as follows:

eind= (v x B)l cos

where:

- angle between the conductor and the direction of (v x B)

3. The induction of voltages in a wire moving in a magnetic field is fundamental to the operation ofall types ofgenerators.

Example 1.8

The figure shows a conductor moving with a velocity of5m/s to the right in the presence of a magnetic field. The

flux density is 0.5T into the page, and the wire is 1m length,

oriented as shown. What are the magnitude and polarity of

the resulting induced voltage?

Example 1.9

Figure shows a conductor moving with a velocity of 10m/s

to the right in a magnetic field. The flux density is 0.5T, out

of the page, and the wire is 1m in length. What are the

magnitude and polarity of the resulting induced voltage?

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4. The Linear DC Machine

Linear DC machine is the simplest form of DC machine which is easy to understand and it operates

according to the same principles and exhibits the same behaviour as motors and generators. Consider the

following:

VB

Switch

R

eind

+

-

B

Equations needed to understand linear DC machines are as follows:

Production of Force on a current carrying conductor

( ) F i l B=

Voltage induced on a current carrying conductor moving in a magnetic field

eind= (v x B) l

Kirchoffs voltage law

0

0

B ind

B ind

V iR e

V e iR

= = + =

Newtons Law for motion

Fnet = ma

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Starting the Linear DC Machine

1. To start the machine, the switch is closed.

2. Current will flow in the circuit and the equation can be derived from Kirchoffs law:

, B ind

B ind

Since V iR e

V ei

R

= +

=

At this moment, the induced voltage is 0 due to no movement of the wire (the bar is at rest).

3. As the current flows down through the bar, a force will be induced on the bar. (Section 1.6 a current

flowing through a wire in the presence of a magnetic field induces a force in the wire).

( )sin90

F i l BilB

ilB

= =

=

Direction of movement: Right

4. When the bar starts to move, its velocity will increase, and a voltage appears across the bar.

Direction of induced potential: positive upwards

5. Due to the presence of motion and induced potential (eind), the current flowing in the bar will reduce(according to Kirchhoffs voltage law). The result of this action is that eventually the bar will reach

a constant steady-state speed where the net force on the bar is zero. This occurs when eind has risen

all the way up to equal VB. This is given by:

B

V e v Bl

V

v Bl

= =

=

22

ilB

vBl

lBveind

=

=

=

90sin

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6. The above equation is true assuming that R is very small. The bar will continue to move along at

this no-load speed forever unless some external force disturbs it. Summarization of the starting of

linear DC machine is sketched in the figure below:

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R

eVi

indB

=

EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices

Chapter 1

The Linear DC Machine as a Motor

1. Assume the linear machine is initially running at the no-load steady state condition (as before).

2. What happen when an external load is applied? See figure below:

3. A force Fload is applied to the bar opposing the direction of motion. Since the bar was initially at

steady state, application of the force Fload will result in a net force on the bar in the directionopposite the direction of motion.

net load ind F F F =

4. Thus, the bar will slow down (the resulting acceleration a = Fnet/m is negative). As soon as thathappen, the induced voltage on the bar drops (eind = v Bl).

5. When the induced voltage drops, the current flow in the bar will rise:

6. Thus, the induced force will rise too. (Find = i lB)

7. Final result the induced force will rise until it is equal and opposite to the load force, and thebar again travels in steady state condition, but at a lower speed. See graphs below:

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EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices

Chapter 1

8. Now, there is an induced force in the direction of motion and power is being converted fromelectrical to mechanical form to keep the bar moving.

9. The power converted isPconv = eindI = Find v An amount of electric power equal to eindi is

consumed and is replaced by the mechanical powerFind vMOTOR

10. The power converted in a real rotating motor is: Pconv = ind

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EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices

Chapter 1

The Linear DC Machine as a Generator

1. Assume the linear machine is operating under no-load steady-state condition. A force in the

direction of motion is applied.

2. The applied force will cause the bar to accelerate in the direction of motion, and the velocity v willincrease.

3. When the velocity increase, eind = V Bl will increase and will be larger than VB.

4. When eind > VB the current reverses direction.

5. Since the current now flows up through the bar, it induces a force in the bar (Find= ilB to the left).This induced force opposes the applied force on the bar.

6. End result the induced force will be equal and opposite to the applied force, and the bar willmove at a higher speed than before. The linear machine no is converting mechanical powerFind v

to electrical powereindi GENERATOR

7. The amount of power converted : Pconv = ind

NOTE:

The same machine acts as both motor and generator. The only difference is whether theexternally applied force is in the direction of motion (generator) or opposite to the direction

of motion (motor).

Electrically, eind > VB generator

eind < VB motor

whether the machine is a motor or a generator, both induced force (motor action) or inducedvoltage (generator action) is present at all times.

Both actions are present, and it is only the relative directions of the external forceswithrespect to the direction of motion that determine whether the overall machine behaves as a

motor or as a generator.

The machine was a generator when it moved rapidly and a motor when it moved moreslowly. But, whether it was a motor or a generator, it always moved in the same direction.

There is a merely a small change in operating speed and a reversal of current flow.

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AR

Vi

B

start2500

1.0

250 ===

EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices

Chapter 1

Starting problems with the Linear Machine

1. Look at the figure here:

2. This machine is supplied by a 250V dc source and internal resistance R is 0.1 ohm.

3. At starting, the speed of the bar is zero, eind = 0. The current flow at start is:

4. This current is very high (10x in excess of the rated current).

5. How to prevent? insert an extra resistance into the circuit during starting to limit current flowuntil eind builds up enough to limit it, as shown here:

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Example 1.10

The linear dc machine is as shown in (a).

(a) What is the machines maximum starting current? What is the steady state velocity at