331942 flute news - Flute Society South...
Transcript of 331942 flute news - Flute Society South...
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 1
The Flute Society of South Australia Inc. PLEASE visit our new website at http://saflutesociety.org/
From the President
Founder Professor David
Patron Alison Rosser
Vice Patrons Associate Professor
Elizabeth Koch OAM Robert Brown
South Australian Flute News Print Post Pub. No. 100002101 ABN: 96 991 331 922
President’s Report 1
New Member 2
Coming Events 2-5
Notes and News 5-6
Music Review 15
Flute Society Info 16
Welcome to our second edition of South Australian Flute News for 2014. As I write this, it is hard to believe that we are moving at a very fast pace towards the Term 1 school holidays! Have you had the chance to visit our Facebook page yet? We would like to encourage our members to use our Facebook page. You could let us know about a concert which you may be involved in, or a new business venture which you would like to promote. We would love to hear from you and keep in touch with what is happening. Perhaps you have discovered on our Facebook page that Melissa Doecke has been very busy recording the new AMEB Series 3 Flute Grade Book pieces, accompanied by Peter de Jager. The recordings are available for download from iTunes and CD Baby as a complete album or by individual track. This is a fantastic resource to have access to as we familiarise ourselves with the large volume of new repertoire in the new AMEB Syllabus. Thanks Melissa and thanks for posting on our page! Our first Tutti Flutti Performance Afternoon for the year is approaching and we hope to see you on Sunday May 18 at Unley Uniting Church. Send your application form to Linda Pirie to secure your place in the program and gain some valuable performance experience in a relaxed and friendly environment. You can also enjoy afternoon tea and catch up with some fellow musicians. If you need a brochure, it is available on our website. The Adult Amateurs Flute Ensemble Afternoon will be held on Sunday June 15, also at Unley Uniting Church. The
wonderful Alison Rosser will direct this afternoon of music making. Alison will also provide an opportunity for you to discuss any flute playing problems as well as experience a mini masterclass using Alexander Technique principles in flute playing. The afternoon will conclude with an afternoon tea. You will find the brochure inside this newsletter. On Saturday June 21 Geoffrey Collins will adjudicate the Carolyn White Memorial Scholarship. The venue this year is the Seymour College Performing Arts Centre at Glen Osmond. The Flute and Fife Fun Day will be held on Sunday August 24 at Unley Uniting Church. We are still in the process of finalising program details but have included a flyer to remind you to save the date for this fun afternoon for our younger members, age 6-13. Slightly further afield, the Principal Flautist of the Metropolitan Opera in New York, Denis Bouriakov, will be touring Australia in May with a recital and masterclass in Sydney on May 26 and 27 and then in Melbourne on May 29 and 30. For more details go to flutesandflutists.com and look under events. Look forward to catching up with you soon!
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Playing. Sharing. Inspiring.
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 2
TUTTI FLUTTI – FLUTE PERFORMANCE AFTERNOON When: Sunday, May 18, 3-5 pm.
Booking in for performers from 2-45 pm. Where: Unley Uniting Church, 187 Unley Road, Unley Free admission! Come along for a relaxed afternoon of flute performances. A scrumptious afternoon tea will be provided. The information sheet and application can be downloaded from http://saflutesociety.org/.
**Sunday, September 14, 3-5 pm. Note the date for the second Tutti Flutti afternoon!
ADULT AMATEURS FLUTE ENSEMBLE AFTERNOON When: Sunday, June 15, 2-4 pm. Booking in from 1-45 pm. Where: Unley Uniting Church, 187 Unley Road, Unley See the brochure inside South Australian Flute News. Enquiries: Ph. 8333-0665
CAROLYN WHITE MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP 2014 When: Saturday, June 21, 12 noon Venue: Performing Arts Centre, Seymour College
546 Portrush Road, Glen Osmond Adjudicator: Geoffrey Collins
The Carolyn White Memorial Scholarship is for young flautists aged fifteen years or under on January 1, 2014. It provides them with the opportunity to prepare and perform works and to compete for cash prizes which may be used for tuition expenses or towards the cost of a new instrument or new music.
Entrants are required to perform the following on a C Concert Flute: a) Set Piece: Largo and Allegro: Locatelli, arr. Weretka, no repeats, AMEB Flute Fourth Grade Book, Series 3 (AMEB) b) Own choice piece, time limit is 6 minutes The Carolyn White Memorial Scholarship will consist of two prizes: First Prize $250 Second Prize $100
Closing date: Thursday, June 12 Enquiries: Ph. 8333-0665
Please e-mail [email protected] if you would like copies of the brochure and entry form or a map showing the location of the Performing Arts Centre at Seymour College to be e-mailed to you. Come along and support our young flautists as they compete for these awards.
ADELAIDE EISTEDDFOD FLUTE AND WOODWIND DIVISIONS 2014
When: August 8-11 Venue: Rosefield Uniting Church, 2 Carlton Street, Highgate Adjudicators: to include Julia Grenfell, Lisa Gill (flute), Anna Lester
COMING EVENTS WELCOME TO OUR NEW
We hope you enjoy being part of the Flute Society and look forward to
seeing you at our events. Please visit our website!
Congratulations to Helen Seppelt and Nathan Royle, who were married in
Rome on April 5.
Ian ‘Splash’ Drinkwater, a member of the Flute Society, died on March 13. He was a well-known jazz musician.
The Flute Society Library is housed in Elizabeth Koch’s room (LG 14) at the Elder School of Music. There is a large selection of sheet music, flute ensemble music (duets, trios, quartets and quintets), magazines, books and cassettes. Elizabeth may be contacted during office hours on 8313-5343 or e-mail [email protected] to arrange a time for borrowing.
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 3
Enquiries for Flute and Woodwind Divisions to the Convenor, Robert Brown, Ph. 8431-0452, e-mail [email protected].
A summary of the session times will be given in the next issue. The programme for each Division will be placed on the Adelaide Eisteddfod website in due course (www.sacomment.com/aes).
FLUTE AND FIFE FUN DAY When: Sunday, August 24 Venue: Unley Uniting Church, 187 Unley Road, Unley, 2 pm. See the flyer inside South Australian Flute News. The brochure will be included with the next newsletter. Enquiries: Ph. 8333-0665
DAVID CUBBIN MEMORIAL PRIZE When: Wednesday, September 10 Where: Unley Uniting Church, 187 Unley Road, Unley, 7-30 pm Adjudicator: Geoffrey Collins
The David Cubbin Memorial Prize is open to non-professional flautists aged between 16 years and 30 years of age as of September 1, 2014. It aims to provide young flautists with the opportunity to prepare and perform works and to compete for a substantial prize. a) Set Piece: Courante from Partita for solo flute, J.S. Bach. b) Own choice of contrasting work or works, time limit approximately 8-10 minutes. The David Cubbin Memorial Prize will consist of two prizes: First Prize $500 Second Prize $250
Closing date: September 1 Enquiries: Ph. 8333-0665 See the brochure and entry form inside South Australian Flute News.
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SA FLUTE NEWS Page 4
THE FLUTE SOCIETY PROGRAM ON 5MBS - presented by Robert Brown
The Flute Society Program is broadcast on Monday evenings at 7 pm and repeated on the following Saturday at 5 pm. 5MBS is located at 99.9 on the FM Band.
Dates Program Monday, June 2 Saturday, June 7
Chamber Music for Flute and Strings, including Arnolds Sturms’ Suite Modale for Flute and String Quintet and Friedrich Kuhlau’s Flute Quintet No 1 in D Major, Opus 51
Monday, July 28 Saturday, August 2
The Dancing Flute. The flute music of Geoff Eales, performed by Andy Findon, flute, and Geoff Eales, piano
Monday, September 22 Saturday, September 27
Music for Flute Ensemble, including performances by the Monash University Flute Ensemble, Fisenden Flute Ensemble, 14 Berlin Flutes and National Flute Choir
The theme music used for the Flute Society Program is Rimsky-Korsakov’s Flight of the Bumblebee, played by Sir James Galway, flute, with Hiro Fujikake, synthesizer.
DATES FOR YOUR DIARY
CONCERTS Send your concert details to the Editor for inclusion in this section.
RECITALS Wednesday Lunch Hour Concerts 2014 Where: Pilgrim Church, 12 Flinders Street, Adelaide When: 12-10 pm and 1-10 pm Admission: Adults: $5, Concession: $4. Tickets at the door. Enquiries: Recitals Australia, Ph. 8266-4936. See http://www.recitalsaustralia.org.au/ for more information.
Wednesday, May 21 1-10 pm
Jessica Archbold, flute Taktakishvili Sonata
Wednesday, June 11 12-10 pm
Scott Gunn and Sophie Barritt, flute duo, piano
Music by Doppler
Wednesday, June 18 1-10 pm,
Arbor Wind Quintet Music by Ibert
Elder Hall Lunch Hour Concert Series 2014
When: 1-10 pm Admission: $10
See www.elderhall.adelaide.edu.au for more information.
Date Music by Friday, May 9 Lovely on the Water, Celia
Craig, oboe, with Artaria Mozart, Finzi, Vaughan Williams, Bax
Friday, May 30 Elder Conservatorium Wind Ensemble, conducted by Robert Hower
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 5
Perspectives, Intimate Concerts at Elder Hall Admission: $25/$18. See www.elderhall.adelaide.edu.au for more information.
Date Music by Sunday, May 11 3-00 pm
Divertimenti Greg Dikmans, flute, with Elysium Ensemble
Haydn’s six divertimenti
Sunday, May 25 3-00 pm
Evolution and Revolution: England Alexandra Castle, flute, with Kegelstatt Ensemble
Grainger, Holst, Arnold, Britten, Bliss, Walton
Saturday, July 5 6-30 pm
Darkness and Light Tim Nott, flute, with Ensemble Galante
Mozart, Beethoven, C.P.E. Bach, Beethoven, Mozart/Hummel
Saturday, October 11 7-00 pm
Between Heaven and Earth Jayne Varnish and Sam Yates, recorders, with Adelaide Baroque
Chamber music by Handel
When: Sunday, May 18, 2-00 pm Where: Mitcham Uniting Church, 103a Princes Road, Mitcham Conductor: Mike Kenny Soloists: Kate Worley, violin; Robert Brown, flute Admission: $12, Family $20 (2 Adults, 2 Children), at the door
Adelaide Eisteddfod Special Award Winners’ Concert
When: Monday, September 15, 7-30 pm Where: Salvation Army Citadel, 55 George Street, Norwood Admission: Adult, $10; Seniors/Students, $8; Children under 16 free.
Young Virtuosi 2014, SA Final (previously MBS Young Performer) When: Sunday, October 12, 4-00 pm Where: St John’s Anglican Church, 379 Halifax Street, City Admission: Adult $10, 5MBS Member/Student $5.
NOTES AND NEWS
EISTEDDFODS AND SCHOLARSHIPS The 18th Balaklava Eisteddfod
When: Friday, August 1 (Choirs, Instrumental Ensembles, Bands), Saturday, August 2 (Instrumental and Piano) Sunday, August 3 (Finale Concert)
Entries: Open from March 25 via GENI Visit https://geni.gaia.com.au/ and look for ‘Balaklava Eisteddfod’ under ‘Participating Eisteddfods’, or manual entry form.
Website: http://www.balaklavaeisteddfod.org.au/ E-mail: [email protected] Entries: Close on May 5
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 6
The Mount Gambier Eisteddfod is part of the ongoing work of Backstage Incorporated.
Enquiries: Secretary, Backstage Inc., PO Box 1711, Mount Gambier, SA 5290
Ph./fax: 8725-5905 e-mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.backstageinc.org.au/default.asp for further
information Entries: Via GENI, visit https://geni.gaia.com.au/ and look for ‘Mt
Gambier Eisteddfod’ under ‘Participating Eisteddfods’. When: The Music Division runs from August 11-16, and includes
wind and recorder sections, and an instrumental groups section.
Entries: Close on July 4 The Music Teachers’ Association of SA offers scholarships and performance days to the students of its members. Visit the website at www.mtasa.com.au and look for ‘competitions’ and ‘events calendar’ to obtain more information.
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSIC CAMP 2014
When: Monday July 7 to Friday July 11 Where: St Peter’s College
The Camp offers instrumentalists aged from nine to twenty-three years an opportunity to play in one of five orchestras or concert bands which cater for a wide range of ages, standards and levels of experience. The daily routine includes a mixture of tutorials and rehearsals. State Music Camp culminates with a concert in the Memorial Hall at St Peter’s College on Friday July 11 at 7-30 pm that showcases the achievements of the five ensembles. For more information please visit the website, www.samusiccamp.net.au. Applications close on May 6.
ANNUAL MUSIC SCHOLARSHIP The Metropolitan Male Choir of SA Inc. invites applications for the Annual Music Scholarship. Valued at $2,000, the scholarship is open to young musicians with proven musical ability and a strong desire to continue their musical development. A second prize of $1,000 may be awarded on the recommendation of the adjudicating panel. The award is designed to recognise the ability of outstanding young musicians, to encourage them to pursue their studies and to provide opportunities for the winners to perform publicly as associate artists with the choir. Applicants must be aged between 12 and 16 years as at January 1, 2014. The closing date for applications is Saturday, August 16. Auditions will be held on Saturday, August 30. Enquiries: Bill Scott, Ph. 8227-0472, e-mail [email protected], or Geoff Sieben, Ph. 8242-7333, e-mail [email protected], or visit the website at www.mmcsa.org. DAVID CUBBIN MEMORIAL FUND FOR 2014
Grants are available to assist young Australian flautists attend a Flute Festival or Flute Event during 2014. Please send a letter requesting financial assistance to David Cubbin Memorial Fund, C/- Robert Brown, PO Box 3228, Norwood, SA 5067 by Monday, May 5, 2014. Please include your contact information - postal address, telephone number, e-mail address. Applicants are required to provide a supporting letter from their teacher.
NOTES AND NEWS
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 7
Q AND A WITH LISA GILL
by Samantha Hennessy Lisa is a local success story. She is a former graduate of Brighton High School, Flinders Street School of Music and the Elder Conservatorium and proudly succeeded her teacher, Elizabeth Koch OAM, in winning the position of Second Flute with the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra at the age of 24. Lisa lives in the Southern suburbs with her husband (who is also a professional musician) and two young children. Q: What do you consider to be your role/s in the Flute Section and how do you achieve them? As a Second Flute player I see my role to be one of support and an ability to blend. To be unnoticed should be the ultimate goal of a second player. To be supportive to the Principal Flute you must be confident with entries whilst
still following any ‘leading’ given by the Principal Flute. A Second Flute player should also offer dynamic support. For example, when playing in octaves the second player should play at a louder dynamic for 2 reasons:
1. Low register will naturally be harder to discern; and
2. Helps to prevent the Principal Flute from feeling too exposed (particularly in soft passages).
Being supportive can even be as simple as counting rests accurately and not relying on other members of the section to do this for you. To ‘blend’ is basically a matter of matching as many parts of your playing as possible to those aspects of the other members of the flute section. You must be flexible in regard to dynamic, sound quality, vibrato speed, intonation and articulation in order to achieve a homogenous sound.
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SA FLUTE NEWS Page 8
To be able to do all these things you must constantly be listening to your colleagues and automatically adjusting. Sometimes requests may be asked of you but for the most part during orchestral rehearsals there isn’t the time for continual instructions so you need to take the initiative and follow, follow, follow! Q: I’ve always admired your concentration; how do you remain so focused for the entire duration of a concert? I think a big part of it is experience. Over time you get used to and better at focusing your mind and ‘getting in the zone’. Also after experiencing the embarrassment and frustration of ‘dobbing in’ (playing in the wrong place) earlier in my career, I now do everything in my power to prevent it from happening again! Adrenaline is also amazingly useful and powerful. I’ve found on several occasions if I have felt unwell or extremely tired those symptoms subside remarkably during a performance and it therefore becomes easier to keep your mind focused. Q: Students often roll their eyes when I suggest practicing with a metronome why is rhythm so integral in orchestral playing? Rhythm is so important because ensemble is so important in good orchestral playing. To be able to play together with the rest of the section (and even orchestra) you must be sub-dividing between beats and ‘thinking’ in the same rhythmical way as your colleagues. Also, if a conductor is preoccupied with phrasing or balance for example their beat may not always be rhythmically clear or helpful. Metronome practice is critical towards achieving a musician’s ‘inner rhythm’ which in turn aids ensemble playing. Q: How do you adjust your volume/colour to balance and blend with your Principal / other woodwind colleagues? Does the distance of interval and position in the chord affect your choice and why? Listening is such an important skill in orchestral playing. You must constantly
listen to both yourself and those players around you to achieve blend and balance. At times as a Second Flute player you simply imitate the Principal Flute in terms of volume, colour, style of vibrato, etc. However, at other times it may be more important to blend with the clarinets so you would change your sound accordingly. Sometimes, copying is not enough though. For example, if the Principal Flute is playing a soft high register passage and the Second Flute is in unison although an octave lower, I would play at one dynamic louder to offer support and prevent the First Flute from feeling too exposed and transparent. Balance and intonation go hand in hand so yes, it is necessary to adjust your volume depending on what note you play in the chord and also how many other players double that note! For example, a major third should be played on the low side, whereas a minor third can be placed slightly high as would a leading note. Q: How important is doubling and having strong Piccolo chops, for a Rank and File player in todays orchestral landscape? Doubling is extremely important as orchestral jobs (tragically!) seem to be on the decrease as full-time orchestras are threatened in today’s world. To be flexible and competent on both flute and piccolo can only be an asset when looking for and holding on to work. Unfortunately we have no Associate Principal Woodwind positions in the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra meaning that for Principal players to enjoy any respite, rank and file players must ‘step up’ and have the chops to cover these positions. Q: You are a strong Piccoloist (often playing Principal Piccolo) as well as a Flautist; how do you manage the switch between instruments so well? The fact that I do often play Principal Piccolo really helps me to make the switch relatively trouble free. The more often I do it, the less of a ‘shock’ it is to the chops! Organisation is important as I need to have a clear understanding of exactly when this situation will arise and also a thorough look
If you want to make beautiful music, you must play the black and the white notes together. Richard
Music is forever; music should grow and mature with you,
following you right on up until you die. Paul Simon
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 9
So practice HELPS to make perfect!! Q: What instruments do you play and what process did you go through to choose them? Also, do you favour one over the other? I play a Burkart flute and Burkart piccolo, a matching set! I had the chance to play a Burkart piccolo belonging to a colleague about 7 years ago. I was very impressed and consequently ordered a new one for myself as my Hammig piccolo needed updating. I loved my new piccolo so much that a short time later I decided to upgrade my Murumatsu flute to a Burkart flute. After receiving both instruments I spent some time playing alternate head joints choosing the ‘Clarion’ style head joint for my piccolo and a silver head joint with gold lip-plate for my flute. My current aim is to acquire a wooden flute as I adore the unique sound of these instruments. Q: Why is good posture important, long-term for a working musician? Simply for longevity. As an orchestral musician you spend long hours in very static positions so this alone (without the added stress of holding an instrument in very unnatural positions) takes its toll on the body over time. Tension is even higher during performances and this is the case with the body too so any postural problems are amplified during concerts. To maintain a long and injury free career, good posture is absolutely vital! Correct posture is of course a contributing factor to excellence in playing. Because we are always sitting as orchestral players slouching must always be avoided so as to increase lung capacity and allow the body to function at its best. This is beneficial to general breathing, quality of sound and sustainability. Q: What’s the most exciting thing about your job? To be able to experience those ‘magical moments’ in performances where
at the repertoire. If it is a piccolo part with a lot of high register playing or some exposed soft passages that require a lot of control then I will attempt to begin my piccolo preparation (by practicing on the instrument) much sooner. Q: When do you start your Piccolo preparation if you know you have a Principal part to play, or, do you regularly incorporate Piccolo into your daily routine? How would you best advise students to tackle their Piccolo practice? Again, my starting point for preparation depends on the repertoire. As a general rule I would start some piccolo practice about 2 to 3 weeks before rehearsals begin so no, I don’t incorporate piccolo practice into my daily routine. I would advise students to approach piccolo practice in a similar way to their flute practice but to play for a shorter length of time. Embouchure fatigue is more of an issue with the piccolo as everything must be smaller and more precise, therefore working the muscles harder and in a different way. Also because of the penetrating nature of high register piccolo it is kinder to your ears to do shorter bursts on piccolo. Because of this it may be beneficial to practice some of the ‘note learning’ or technically difficult passages on flute so that the fingers are still learning the music without the extra exhaustion to the facial muscles. Q: How do you manage your nerves (if any)? I do still get nervous but try to put things in perspective and keep myself almost ‘open-minded’ when I worry about a performance. Yes, I want to play perfectly but I know that this is rarely achieved and I try to remember that there are more important things in my life than a wrong note in one concert! Aside from this, confidence is achieved through good preparation.
There are two means of refuge from the miseries of life: music and cats. Albert
My heart, which is so full to overflowing, has often been solaced and refreshed by
music when sick and weary. Martin Luther
Music is the voice that tells us that the human race is greater than it knows.
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 10
practice is much better during the day so when I have some time to myself I structure my day and am quite organized about getting everything done in the most efficient way. Looking ahead at the orchestra’s programming also helps and I start preparation for difficult music as early as possible because I know that just prior to the performance I may not have the practice time available that is required. Q: The Adelaide Symphony Orchestra performs in various locations - primarily the Festival Theatre and the Adelaide Town Hall. Which venue do you prefer and why? This is an easy one definitely the Adelaide Town Hall. This venue has a lovely acoustic and is so enjoyable to play in. It can really make a positive difference to the orchestra’s morale and a successful performance. The Adelaide Festival Theatre on the other hand, is a LOT of hard work. It feels as if your sound just disappears into thin air so you end up over-exerting and splitting notes. There is also an inability to hear your colleagues clearly
everything comes together, when myself and my colleagues are totally engrossed in the music and performing well enough to give the audience (and ourselves!) goose bumps and really bring the music to life. I feel incredibly lucky that my passion has become my career... who wouldn’t want to be submerged in beautiful sounds every day at work? Q: and the worst? If I had to name a part of the job as the worst I guess it would be the almost continuous Friday and Saturday nights out at work and the dinners, parties, weddings, etc. missed because of this. But, I feel that it’s really a small sacrifice to pay in order to do what I love! Q: When and how do you fit your practice in, around work, small children and a busy schedule? Basically whenever I can! I have learnt to make the most of the practice opportunities I have as they are rare and precious! I find that the quality of my
Music is the mediator between
the spiritual and the sensual life. Ludwig van Beethoven
Contact; Cristy Wilkins 0410 717 280
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SA FLUTE NEWSPage 11
ARTICLES which negatively affects balance, intonation, ensemble, etc whereas, audibly, the Town Hall is crystal clear. The Adelaide Symphony Orchestra really needs their own concert hall with the Town Hall’s acoustic but with a greater capacity maybe one day!? Q: If you weren’t a Flautist, what other career would you consider? This is a tricky one for me as the flute has been a big part of my life for almost 30 years. I’ve never really imagined myself doing anything else but I guess if I had to decide on something ... mmm ... because I am a dog lover, maybe a career involved in the care and welfare of animals. ♫
MOZART’S FLUTE CONCERTOS AND QUARTETS by Robert Brown In August 1777, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), aged 21, resigned his position as a court musician in Salzburg because of the stifling environment imposed by his new employer, Archbishop Colloredo, whose predecessor was easygoing and had allowed the Mozart family time off for touring. Accompanied by his mother, Anna Maria, he left Salzburg on September 23 for planned visits to Augsburg, Mannheim, Paris and Munich. It was hoped that the young composer would secure work in one of these cities. After visiting Munich and Augsburg they reached Mannheim on October 30. Mannheim had one of the finest orchestras of the day and orchestral and chamber music thrived under the art-loving patron Prince Karl Theodor. The Prince advised that there were no appointment available for Wolfgang. The Mozarts remained in Mannheim for a time while Wolfgang did some teaching and playing and enjoyed a social life with the musicians he met there. At this time most court musicians played a wooden flute with a key operated by the fourth finger of the right hand. The 4-keyed flute was used by some players. Playing accidentals required half holing or forked fingerings, the tone quality varied for different notes and intonation was difficult. When Mozart met the outstanding flautist Johann Baptist Wendling at Mannheim and heard him perform he reached a new understanding of the flute’s possibilities and potential. Through his friendship with Wendling, Mozart met Ferdinand Dejean, a surgeon with the Dutch East India Company and an amateur flautist. Dejean commissioned Mozart to write ‘three short simple concertos and a couple of quartets for the flute’ for which he was to receive two hundred Gulden. Mozart completed the Quartet in D Major on December 25, 1777, and then lost impetus because his interests were
The aim and final end of all music should be none other than the
glory of God and the refreshment of the soul. Johann Sebastian
Flautist Roger Bourdin
accompanies Jacques Dutronc on Paris s’éveille (Paris Awakens):
Mozart in 1777
starts near the bottom of the stave, such as F Major or G Major, and gradually add another note until you can comfortably play the whole scale. As for double tonguing, keep the articulations even. Sometimes, rapid tonguing with odd numbered note groupings is required. The fourth movement of Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony has rapid notes in groups of five. A suggested articulation pattern for this is ‘DGDGD’. This could be classed as multiple tonguing. When should one use double, triple or multiple tonguing? Russell King, former Principal Flute of the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, once asked a conductor to play a piece of music either faster so he could double tongue it or slower so he could single tongue it. The tempo chosen by the conductor had placed him in an articulation ‘no mans’ land’! Comfort is the key word. If it is comfortable for you, then that is the articulation to use. The general public shouldn’t be able to tell if you’re single, double, triple or multiple tonguing. They should just be impressed! ♫
Continued from page 14
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ARTICLES mind. The Duke never paid the composer for this work and it is not known if the Duke and his daughter ever performed it. Mozart did not have a high opinion of the harp, an instrument that was still being developed at the time. He never wrote another piece that used it. Among other works that Mozart wrote in Paris are the A Minor Piano Sonata, KV 310/300d and Symphony No 31, ‘Paris’, KV 297/300a; these were performed on June 12 and 18, 1778. The visit to Paris was soured when Anna Maria Mozart died there on July 3. While Mozart was in Paris, Leopold was pursuing opportunities for his son in Salzburg. Mozart was offered a post as court organist and concertmaster. The yearly salary was 450 florins, but Mozart was reluctant to accept because he didn’t want to return to the stifling life in Salzburg. After leaving Paris in September 1778, he visited Mannheim and Munich, still hoping to obtain a position outside Salzburg, but with no success. Mozart finally reached Salzburg on January 15, 1779 and took up the post that he had been offered. Flute Quartet No 4 in A Major, KV 298 was, unlike the other three quartets, believed to have been written for recreational purposes and not commissioned. The low Köchel number is misleading. It is thought to have been composed sometime in 1786 or 1787, possibly for Baron Jacquin’s drawing room concerts. Mozart’s Flute Concertos in G Major and D Major are among the most important works in the flute’s repertoire. Despite his negative remarks, Mozart wrote brilliantly for the flute. LIST OF MOZART’S COMPOSITIONS FOR FLUTE Flute Sonatas, KV 10-15 (composed for violin or flute) Four Flute Quartets (flute, violin, viola and ‘cello), D Major, KV 285; G Major, KV 285a; C Major, KV 285b; A Major, KV 298 Concerto for Flute and Harp, KV 299 Flute Concerto No 1 in G Major, KV 313 Flute Concerto No 2 in D Major, KV 314 Andante in C Major, KV 315 Adagio and Rondo for flute, oboe, viola, ‘cello and glass harmonica, KV 617 ♫
diverted by Aloysia Weber, an elder sister of his future wife, Constanze. He explained in a letter to his father, Leopold, that he became ‘quite powerless’ when he was ‘obliged to write for an instrument which he cannot bear’. During January, Mozart worked further on the flute concertos and quartets. On February 14, 1778 he wrote to his father saying that he had finished two concertos and three quartets. In this letter he said ‘my mind gets easily dulled, as you know, when I’m supposed to write a lot for an instrument I can’t stand’. Mozart is also reputed to have said ‘that the only thing worse than one flute is two!’ Mozart’s remarks are belied by the quality of the music that he composed for Dejean. Eventually, at the end of his life, Mozart made the flute the central character in his opera, The Magic Flute. Aloysia rejected Mozart later that year and married actor and painter Joseph Lange. The Flute Concerto No 1 in G Major is an original work for flute. Mozart’s Oboe Concerto in C Major was composed in early 1777 for the oboist Giuseppe Ferlendis from Bergamo. Mozart transposed this work into D Major and reworked it as a flute concerto. The Andante in C Major, KV 315 is believed to be either the only movement that Mozart completed of the ‘third flute concerto’ or an alternative second movement for the G Major Concerto. It has been suggested that Dejean either didn’t like the original slow movement of the G Major Concerto or found it was too difficult to play. Because Mozart hadn’t fully completed the commission Dejean sent him 96 Gulden. The Mozarts left for a six month visit to Paris on March 14, 1778. The Flute and Harp Concerto was written in April 1778. The concerto was commissioned by Adrien-Louis de Bonnières, Duc de Guînes, an amateur flautist, for him to perform with his older daughter, Marie-Louise-Philippine, a harpist, who was taking composition lessons from Mozart. In a letter to his father Mozart stated that he thought the Duke played the flute ‘extremely well’ and that Marie played the harp ‘magnifique’. As a composition student, however, Mozart found her to be inept. A concerto for flute and harp was an unusual combination. Mozart seems to have composed the concerto with the abilities of the Duke and his daughter in
Irish March with Wouter Kellerman:
Flute Bansuri, Binod katuwal from Nepal:
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 13
MUSINGS ON MOZART by Scott Gunn Interpretation can bring with it a number of difficulties. This is certainly the case with Mozart’s Concerto in G Major for Flute and Orchestra, KV 313. It is for this reason that I decided to delve into the work when writing my honours thesis. In researching Mozart’s only true flute concerto, I set out with the aim to examine the varying interpretations of the work, to inspire the reader to think carefully about their interpretation, and to also encourage creativity. To achieve this, I analysed the work through the use of printed scores and studio-recorded performances in order to have an understanding of the music both in its notated form and in terms of performance practice. Taking multiple editions, ranging in publication from 1803 to the present day, I sought to remove any editorial additions that may have infiltrated the work, and create my own ‘master’ edition. Shortly after the work was composed, the original manuscript was lost and, as a result, alterations and changes have occurred. While some of these changes may be simple editorial errors, others are due to differing stylistic interpretations imposed on the music. In studying the scores, I compared all later editions to the oldest one sourced, and marked where any differences lay. While this is not the ideal situation, a certain degree of trust must be placed in the 1803 edition. Being the earliest available edition, albeit it published 25 years after the work was composed, and 12 years after Mozart’s death, one can assume that any discrepancies are minimal. Although not always historically accurate, where discrepancies lay, the most frequently occurring option across all editions was taken for my ‘master’ edition, creating a score agreeable to most published editions. My research, however, did not lie in
the notation alone, but also in the performance of the music. To compliment my study of the scores, I also provided a commentary on three wildly different recordings of the concerto. Interpretation of a work cannot be wholly shown in notation alone, and so this aspect of the research set out to further demonstrate changing interpretations. The three recordings I selected were performed by Marcel Moyse, Kathinka Pasveer and Sandra Miller, dated 1931, 1985 and 1997 respectively. Each influenced by polar extremes when compared to the others, the selection provided for an interesting commentary. Dating from the late French romantic school of flute performance, Moyse’s recording was the most expressive and virtuosic, yet he also took the most tempo and rhythmic liberties. With Karlheinz Stockhausen conducting, Pasveer provides a radical alternative to Moyse’s interpretation. Quantz writes that a cadenza must ‘surprise the listeners’, and Pasveer’s certainly do. Teeming with flutter tonguing and extended techniques, Pasveer provides for a virtuosic display. And lastly, a performer ‘devoted to preserving and performing the repertoire of 17th to 19th century composers, [using] historic performance practice techniques ’, Sandra Miller presents a performance relying more on interplay between herself and the orchestra, than a display of dominance. Often, one will hear that music must be performed as it was intended. This certainly was my view when starting my research. However, with the changing atmosphere of music, coupled with the steady advance in the mechanics of the flute, it is becoming increasingly more challenging to present music in a period setting. It is much more important to remember when preparing a work, that interpretations can be wild and varied; more than one might expect. This was certainly demonstrated to me when comparing the three recordings. If an idea can be effectively demonstrated, then the music is at the liberty of the performer. ♫
W. A. Mozart
James Moody, Mmm Hmm: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
Mickey Mouse and Friends, The Band Concert (1935):
The Waterfall, Opus 3 by K. James Peace, with flautist Thomas Richter with scenes of beautiful Wiesbaden: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
London Symphony Orchestra masterclasses, flute and piccolo:
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 14
SINGLE, DOUBLE, TRIPLE AND MULTIPLE TONGUING by Robert Brown (From April 2001 issue) In the first lesson, most wind instrument students are taught to say a ‘T’, ‘D’, ‘Too’, ‘Doo’, or something similar by their teacher, sometimes without being told why they have to do this! By saying ‘T’, the tongue goes up until the tip touches the ridge behind the upper teeth, momentarily obstructing the flow of the airstream coming up the windpipe from where it has been stored in the lungs. This obstruction causes a sudden build up of air pressure, and the sudden gust of air that is released when the tongue comes down gives each note a good start. This is why we tongue! It is essential that as little of the tongue as possible is used for tonguing. Try pretending to spit out a hair or piece of rice that is sitting on the tip of your tongue. You will find that you only use the extreme tip of your tongue to do this spitting. This is how much of your tongue should be used for tonguing, which should be a gentle, non-aggressive activity. Remember, when tonguing, your tongue is behaving like a valve. It shuts off the airstream and then releases it again. Eventually, the student is taught to do double, and later, triple tonguing. Yes, these do allow us to tongue more rapidly, but sometimes this is all the student is told. Double tonguing is used to tongue rapid notes that are grouped in twos or fours, while triple tonguing is used for notes that are grouped in threes. Either articulation could be used for notes grouped in sixes. With fewer tongue movements required, double tonguing is, in theory, the more rapid of these two articulations. In reality, we are all endowed with different metabolisms and the degree of rapidity for each articulation for each individual will vary considerably. To get an idea about how little tongue movement is required for double and triple tonguing, try watching a percussionist doing a roll on a side drum. The sticks hardly move – the percussionist is seen to bounce the sticks on the playing surface of the drum. It helps to think of the tongue
action for double and triple tonguing in this way. The objective of double and triple tonguing is to use the back stroke of the tongue to sneak in an extra articulation. It is this back stroke that increases the tongue’s rapidity. ‘D’ and ‘G’ are suggested for double and triple tonguing. Some instruction books advocate the use of ‘T’ and ‘K’, but the danger with the ‘K’ is that it can also be articulated in the throat, which, if used, will slow down the articulation considerably. ‘D’ and ‘G’ also provide a softer, less explosive articulation. To learn the double tonguing action, start without the flute, and practice alternating ‘D’ and ‘G’, making sure that the back stroke (‘G’) is very close to the forward stroke (‘D’). Very little tongue movement should be used for these alternating articulations. Think of the drum roll. Now we are ready for the flute. To strengthen the ‘G’, try it on its own, playing any of the notes from the middle part of the stave. Don’t start too low, because these notes are slower to respond, and the ‘G’ gives a softer articulation than the ‘D’. Choose a two octave scale that starts near the bottom of the stave, such as F Major or G Major. Use a ‘DG’ on each note, and start with, say, just five notes, playing up and down from the keynote. When you can do this comfortably, include another note. Over the next few days, keep adding an extra note until you can eventually play the whole scale. Make sure that the articulation is even, and doesn’t sound jerky. For triple tonguing, alternate ‘DGD’ with ‘GDG’. Some books instruct the student to say ’DGD’, ’DGD’ or ‘TKT’, ‘TKT’. The problem with this pattern is that two adjacent D’s or T’s are being re-articulated, which can potentially slow down triple tonguing. Alternating ‘DGD’ with ‘GDG’ prevents re-articulating the same consonants. Try saying the articulations without the flute until they have become a reflex action. Again, very small tongue movements should be used. Then, as for double tonguing, use a two octave scale that
Mozart Flute Quartets (Rampal, Stern, Accardo, Rostropovich):
Funky Flute with Bill McBirnie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X
Continue to page 11
SA FLUTE NEWSPage 15
MUSIC REVIEW by Robert Brown
Wonderful Winds, music publishers Website: www.wonderfulwinds.com E-mail: [email protected] Wonderful Winds specialize in publishing interesting arrangements for woodwind instruments. It was established by English flautists Mel Orriss and Anna Cooper, who explain that ‘all our pieces are created by specialist musicians with an expert understanding of the instruments they write for’. Their catalogue includes studies and music for ensembles ranging from duets to six or more instruments, with arrangements for flutes, double and single reed instruments and mixed winds included. Over the last thirty years, flute ensembles have become very popular. With the added voices of the now readily available lower flutes, there is a growing demand for new repertoire. The flute arrangements from Wonderful Winds are intended to ‘inspire and delight players from beginners to professionals, and their audiences’ and include the piccolo and lower flutes. The music sent for review includes So Long, Farewell (Sound of Music) by Rodgers, for flute quintet (piccolo, three flutes, alto flute). This was arranged as an encore item, and encourages the departure of the performers by cuing when they are to leave on the parts so they all finish the performance offstage. The performance notes give hints about how to make the departures more entertaining. Also sent were arrangements of Dance of the Reed Flutes (Nutcracker) by Tchaikovsky for three flutes and alto flute and Carol of the Bells (Schedryk) by Leontovych for six flutes: these will soon ‘inspire and delight’ performers and listeners. Visit the website to find out more about the ever increasing selection of arrangements and to place an order. ♫
SA FLUTE NEWS Page 16
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