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2016 Puget Sound Maritime Emission Inventory; 2016 NWSA Greenhouse Gas Inventory; and NWSA Greenhouse Gas Glidepath Item No.: 5B_Supp Date of Meeting: April 3, 2018
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  • 2016 Puget Sound Maritime Emission

    Inventory; 2016 NWSA Greenhouse

    Gas Inventory;and NWSA Greenhouse

    Gas Glidepath

    Item No.: 5B_SuppDate of Meeting: April 3, 2018

  • Maritime Emissions Regional Context

    3/29/2018 2

    73%

    11%

    13%

    3%

    4185Tons

    2011

    82%

    10%7%

    1%

    Diesel Particulate Matter

    2016

    2820 Tons

  • Summary and Highlights

    3

    • Results of the Puget Sound Maritime Air Emissions Inventory (PSEI) showed that NWSA and regional maritime emissions decreased significantly for all pollutants.

    • DPM down 80% and GHG down 17% per ton of cargo since 2005

    • Achieves 2020 reduction targets for NWPCAS

    • Results of the NWSA 2016 Greenhouse Gas Inventory indicate that mobile sources make up over 98% of total GHG Emissions

    • NWSA GHG Glidepath shows that GHG Resolution targets require significant decreases in carbon intensity across operations

    • Upcoming clean air programs: • Shore Power

    • 33% of ships calling are shore power capable (Starcrest, 2016)• Clean Cargo Handling Equipment

    • 39% meet tier 4i (2016 NWPCAS implementation report)• Clean Trucks

    • 53% meeting 2007 EPA emission standards (as of Dec 31 2017)

  • Importance of Emissions Inventories

    4

    • Data collection is the starting place for air quality programs

    • Can’t manage what you don’t measure

    • Demonstrates our commitment to transparency

    • Tracks progress towards goals

    • Helps prioritize emission reduction programs and policies• Allows emission reductions, environmental benefits, and societal benefits to be

    weighed against cost• Identifies areas where emissions are greatest and where they are easiest to

    control

  • Analytical Method of Emissions Inventories

    • Activity Based: Calculate emissions based on recorded and estimated “activity levels”

    • Use surveys and vessel, vehicle, and equipment records to determine activity levels

    • Type of equipment (e.g., top pick)• Intensity of operation (average horsepower)• Duration of operation (hours)

    • Emission factor translates activity level to emissions• Emissions per activity

    • Emissions = A [hp-hr] x EF [grams/hp-hr]

    5

  • 3/29/2018 6

    2016 Puget Sound Maritime Emission Inventory

  • Puget Sound Maritime Air Forum

    • The Northwest Seaport Alliance• Port of Anacortes• Port of Everett• Port of Olympia• Port of Port Angeles• Port of Tacoma• Port of Seattle• Northwest Clean Air Agency• Puget Sound Clean Air Agency• Puget Sound Regional Council

    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    • Washington State Department of Ecology

    • Washington State Department of Transportation

    • North West and Canada Cruise Association

    • Pacific Merchant Shipping Association

    • Western States Petroleum Association

    7

    The Air Forum is a partnership between Ports, government agencies, and industrial partners.

  • Geographical Extent

    • U.S. Portion of the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin Airshed (we’ll call this the Puget Sound Airshed)

    • From the Cascade to the Olympic Mountains and from Olympia to the Canadian border

    • NWSA Emission Scale• We focus on “Airshed scale” emissions

    • Includes all truck, train, OGV, and harbor craft emissions on and off port within the Airshed boundary

    • Maritime Industry-Wide Emissions• Emissions from all maritime related activity

    within the Airshed boundaries (not just NWSA)

    8

  • Source Categories• Ocean Going Vessels (OGV)• Cargo Handling Equipment (CHE)• Locomotives• Harbor Vessels• Trucks• Fleet Vehicles

    9

  • Pollutants Inventoried

    • Criteria Air Pollutants• Particulate Matter (PM)

    • Fine PM (PM2.5)• Coarse PM (PM10)• Diesel PM (DPM)

    • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)• Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)• Carbon Monoxide (CO)• Volatile Organic

    Compounds (VOCs)

    • Greenhouse Gasses (GHG) • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)• Methane (CH4)• Nitrous Oxide (N2O)• GHG are reported together in

    CO2 equivalents (CO2e)• Other

    • Black Carbon (soot)• Part of PM2.5• Climate forcer

    10

  • Maritime Industry-Wide Airshed Emission Changes

    11

    2005 - 2016

    2011 - 2016

    -9% -8%

    9%

    -96%

    -66% -62% -65%

    -30%

    -1%

    -100%-80%-60%-40%-20%

    0%20%

    NOx VOC CO SO2 PM10 DPM BC CO2ePM2.5

    -23% -29% -21%

    -97%-72% -69% -72%

    -41%

    -10%

    -100%-80%-60%-40%-20%

    0%NOx VOC CO SO2 PM10 DPM BC CO2ePM2.5

  • NWSA Airshed Emission Changes

    3/29/2018 12

    -35%-45%

    -37%

    -97%-81% -79% -81%

    -64%

    -20%

    -100%

    -80%

    -60%

    -40%

    -20%

    0%NOx VOC CO SO2 PM10 PM2.5 DPM BC CO2e

    2011 - 2016NOx VOC CO SO2 PM10 PM2.5 DPM BC CO2e

    2005 - 2016

    -13% -21% -16%

    -96%-74% -70% -73%

    -49%

    -5%

    -100%

    -80%

    -60%

    -40%

    -20%

    0%

  • Summary of Progress Towards NWPCAS Goals

    13

    20

    22

    24

    26

    28

    30

    0%

    20%

    40%

    60%

    80%

    100%

    120%

    2005 2011 2016

    Car

    go T

    hrou

    ghpu

    t (M

    Ton

    s)

    Emis

    sion

    s pe

    r Ton

    of C

    argo

    R

    elat

    ive

    to 2

    005

    Cargo

    CO2

    DPM

    CO2 Goal

    DPM Goal

    • Northwest Ports Clean Air Strategy (NWPCAS) goals are 15% reduction of CO2e and 80% of DPM emissions per ton relative to 2005 levels of cargo by 2020.

    • NWSA achieved 17% and 80% reductions for CO2e and DPM respectively on airshed scale. Met goals 4 years ahead of schedule.

  • 14

    868; 81%

    18; 2%53; 5%

    42; 4%89; 8%

    DPM EMISSIONS IN TONS/YEAR AND % OF TOTALOcean Going Vessels Harbor Craft Locomotives CHE Trucks

    NWSA Airshed DPM Emissions

    TOTAL DPM1,070

    622; 81%

    15; 2%37; 5%

    24; 3%66; 9%

    TOTAL DPM

    764105; 52%

    13; 6%

    26; 13%

    13; 6%

    47; 23%

    TOTAL DPM

    204

    2005 2011 2016

  • NWSA Airshed Scale GHG Emissions Distribution

    15

    OGV,458,066

    tons

    Harbor Vessels, 23,356

    Locomotives,

    82,659 tons

    CHE, 70,617

    tons

    Trucks, 162,720

    tons

    Fleet Vehicles,

    2,723 tons

    2005

    OGV, 333,889

    tons

    Harbor Vessels,

    24,195 tons

    Locomotives, 63,510 tons

    CHE, 43,581 tons

    Trucks, 177,909

    tons

    Fleet Vehicles, 592 tons

    2016

    Down20% Overall

    17% per Ton of Cargo

  • Reasons for NWSA Emission Changes• ECA: Fuel switched from bunker fuel (max 3.5% Sulphur) to low sulfur fuel oil

    (maximum 0.1% Sulphur) • Model fuel correction factors indicate: reduces vessel emissions of DPM by

    83%, SO2 by 97%, NOx by 6%, and CO2 by 5%. • Use of ULSD in equipment, harbor vessels, and trucks

    • Nonroad, locomotive, and marine fuel: • Pre 2007: unregulated• 2007 – 2014: Low sulphur diesel (500 ppm S) • 2014 ULSD (15 ppm S)

    • On-road (trucks)• Pre 2006 : Low sulphur diesel (500 ppm S)• 2010: ULSD (15 ppm S)

    • Fleet turnover, stricter controls on PM, NOx, VOC• 2007 newer truck PM 90% lower than pre 2007• 2010 newer truck NOx 95% lower than pre 2010• Tier 4 equipment PM and NOx 90% lower than tier 3

    • Lower activity for locomotives, CHE, OGV

    16

  • 2016 Near Shore Emission Distributions

    17

    OGV Hot. + Maneuv.,16 tons

    Harbor Vessels, 13 tons

    Locomotives, 26 tons

    CHE, 13 tons

    Trucks, 47 tons

    Fleet Vehicles,

  • 3/29/2018 18

    2016 NWSA GHG Emission Inventory

  • Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Greenhouse Gas Resolution

    GHG Reduction Resolution:By 2030:• 50% below 2005 levels (scopes 1, 2 & 3 emissions)

    By 2050:• Carbon Neutral (scopes 1 & 2 emissions)• 80% below 2005 levels (scope 3 emissions)

    • Why Perform another inventory?• Fills in the gaps left by the PSEI, e.g. stationary sources• Assess strategies for meeting NWSA GHG Reduction Resolution

    19

  • GHG Emission Scopes

    20

  • NWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory Results

    21

    GHG Emissions (Tons CO2e)

    Emissions Scope Source 2005 2016

    Scope 1 None NA NA

    Scope 2 None NA NA

  • NWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory Results

    22

    Cargo Transportation

    Tenant, Purchased Electricity

    Employee Commuting, Tenants

    Refrigerants, bldgs

    Refrigerants, mobile sources

    Solid Waste Disposal andTreatmentWastewater Disposal andTreatmentEmployee Commuting, Port

    2016 Scope 3 Emissions, tons

    640,556 tons

    * Total: 654,518 tons

  • NWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory Results

    23

    2016 Scope 3 Emissions, tons

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,0002005 2016

  • 3/29/2018 24

    NWSA GHG Glidepath

  • Background – Why this is importantGreenhouse Gas Reduction Resolution

    3/29/2018 25

    26.253.7

    21.4

    18.1

    • Scientific consensus is climate change is already happening

    • Paris Agreement:• Countries aim to keep global temperature rise to below 2 degrees

    Celsius above pre-industrial levels• POT and POS have joined national ‘We Are Still In’ coalition in

    June 2017

    • POT and POS early leaders by adopting GHG reduction goals in Northwest Ports Clean Air Strategy in 2008

    • Public opinion – 71% Pierce Co. and 81% King Co. residents think global warming is happening, majority think caused by human activity

  • Emission Projections

    26

    0

    200,000

    400,000

    600,000

    800,000

    1,000,000

    1,200,000

    1,400,000

    2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060

    CO

    2e E

    mis

    sion

    s (to

    ns p

    er y

    ear)

    NWSA GHG Emission Projections

    Projections

    Targets

    * 2.2% projectedcompound growth rate

  • GHG Emission Reduction Glidepath

    27

    0

    200,000

    400,000

    600,000

    800,000

    1,000,000

    1,200,000

    1,400,000

    2005 2016 2030 2050

    GHG

    Emiss

    ions

    (Ton

    s per

    yea

    r)

    Year

    Electric Trucks

    IMO Efficiency

    Shore Power

    Electric CHE

    Electric Switchers

    Hybrid Tugs

    Truck Efficiency

    Renewable Fuels/Offsets

    Targets

    NWPCAS

    Emission Reduction Measures

  • High Level Cost Estimates of Emission Reduction Programs• High level estimates based on available information

    • Most estimates are very conservative based on their speculative nature• Costs were taken from previous work done by LA/LB and CARB

    • Many factors play in to the actual future costs• Technology development and penetration of the market• Public Policy

    • Carbon tax• Global shore power requirements• Global fuel requirements

    • Programs will be prioritized based on emission reductions required to meet targets, cost, and operational effectiveness

    3/29/2018 28

  • 2030 Emission Reduction Measures

    Shore Power

    All vessel calls

    Shipside: $511,500,000

    Terminals: $90,000,000

    83,208 tons CO2e/yr

    Electric Trucks

    33% of fleet

    $197,505,000

    74,395 tons CO2e/yr

    Cargo Handling

    Equipment

    33% Electric

    Equipment: $165,868,725

    Infrastructure: $257,519,559

    17,967 tons CO2e/yr

    Truck Efficiency

    Improvements

    New fuel efficiency

    regulations

    11,093 tons CO2e/yr

    Hybrid Tug Assist

    Vessels

    50% of fleet

    $20,000,000

    4,827 tons CO2e/yr

    29

    * Total Cost: $1,242,393,284

  • 2050 Emission Reduction Measures

    Electric Trucks

    90% of fleet

    $580,095,000

    305,163 tons CO2e per year

    IMO Efficiency Improvements

    EEDI 30% improvement

    150,090 tons CO2e per year

    Shore Power

    All vessel calls

    Shipside: $549,360,000

    120,120 tons CO2e per year

    Cargo Handling Equipment

    100% Electric

    Equipment: $610,033,775

    Infrastructure: $947,290,341

    77,811 tons CO2e per year

    30

    * Total Cost: $2,829,779,116

  • 2050 Emission Reduction Measures

    Electric Switching Locomotives

    100%

    $60,000,000

    39,021 tons CO2e per year

    Hybrid Tug Assist Vessels

    100%

    $38,000,000

    13,936 tons CO2e per year

    Truck Efficiency Improvements

    New fuel efficiency regulations

    2,390 tons CO2e per year

    31

    * Total Cost: $2,829,779,116

  • 3/29/2018 32

    Future Emission Reduction Projects

  • Future Emission Reduction Projects: Shore Power for Container Terminals

    • Terminal 5 – Seattle• Permit condition expects 30% implementation in first 10 years, 50%

    in years 10-20, and 70% thereafter

    • Working with Seattle City Light to update a planning study for scoping shore power at T18 and T46.

    • Working with Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) to scope shore power in South Harbor

    • PCT, Husky, WUT, and reefers ($7 million infrastructure improvements from TPU)

    33

  • Hoteling Cost Analysis

    34

    • Hoteling cost burning fuel: $16,483

    • Hoteling cost plugging in: $15,119 ($13,344 without additional labor)

    • Sensitive to: Cost of fuel, cost of electricity, number of ships plugging in per month

    • Goal: Work with utilities to create financial incentive for the shipping lines to plug in through electricity rates

  • Clean CHE Program

    • EDF Climate Corps Fellow, summer 2018

    • Develop schemes to incentivize CHE fleet turnover without compromising performance for customers.

    • Challenges are long equipment lifespans and high price point

    • Focus on cost and financial sustainability

    • Climate Smart

    35

  • Trucks• Lessons learned from current clean truck program:

    • It is difficult to convert the entire fleet at once• There is little data on trucks serving the gateway• There is opportunity to improve efficiency in the drayage system to

    reduce wait times. • Reduces emissions and increases number of turns for drivers

    • Staff developing truck study to evaluate fleet size

    • Focus future efforts on Electric Trucks• Prioritize electric trucks once technology is available due to reduced

    emissions, reduced fuel costs, reduced O & M costs• Diesel truck efficiency standards projected to reduce GHG emissions by

    25% in new trucks by 2027, electric up to 100%

    36

  • Funding• Volkswagen Mitigation Fund

    • Total fund for Washington State: $112.7 million• Applications in late 2018• Funding available:

    • Up to $50.7 million for maritime projects (e.g. shore power)• Up to $50.7 million for heavy duty vehicles• Up to $5.6 million for cargo-handling equipment• 50% DERA grant match

    • 2018 DERA Grants• Total fund for the U.S. is expected to be at least $20 million• Maximum project award for Region 10 TBD; Maximum award in 2017

    was $800,00 • Application criteria expected in Spring 2018• Recommend applying for Clean CHE Program

    37

  • Conclusions/Next Steps• PSEI released 3/22 outreach through community presentations ongoing

    • Emissions are down, we met 2020 goals of the NWPCAS in 2016

    • Still work to be done to be done to address local impacts and meet GHG targets

    • Work collaboratively with industry and other ports to accelerate technology development

    • Developing emission scenario evaluation tool• Allows staff to project the effects of implementing air quality programs

    • NWPCAS Update:• Community outreach

    38

  • Supplementary Slides

    3/29/2018 39

  • DPM Emission Changes by Sector

    40

    -83%

    -13%-30%

    -43%-29%

    -71%-100%

    -80%

    -60%

    -40%

    -20%

    0%OGV Harbor Vessels Locomotives CHE Trucks Fleet Vehicles

    2011 - 2016

    -88%

    -26%

    -51%-68%

    -47%

    -91%-100%

    -80%

    -60%

    -40%

    -20%

    0%OGV Harbor Vessels Locomotives CHE Trucks Fleet Vehicles

    2005 - 2016

  • GHG Emission Changes by Sector 2005 - 2016

    41

    -27%

    4%

    -23%-38%

    9%

    -78%-90%-70%-50%-30%-10%10%30%

    OGVHarborVessels Locomotives CHE Trucks Fleet Vehicles

    2005 - 2016

    -8%

    5% 2%

    -18%

    3%

    -73%-80%-60%

    -40%

    -20%

    0%

    20%OGV

    HarborVessels Locomotives CHE Trucks Fleet Vehicles

    2011 - 2016

  • Potential for Current Implementation

    42

    TerminalPercentage of

    Calls Shore Power Capable

    Average Calls Per Month Shore

    Power Capable

    Expected Shore Power Capable

    Hoteling Hours per Month

    PCT 51% 4.55 252

    Husky 23% 2.38 132

    WUT 15% 1.75 77

    • Fraction of shore power capable vessels is expected to increase over time

    • Depends on global regulations, and technology

    �2016 Puget Sound Maritime Emission Inventory; �2016 NWSA Greenhouse Gas Inventory;�and NWSA Greenhouse Gas Glidepath � Maritime Emissions Regional ContextSummary and HighlightsImportance of Emissions InventoriesAnalytical Method of Emissions Inventories2016 Puget Sound �Maritime Emission InventoryPuget Sound Maritime Air ForumGeographical ExtentSource CategoriesPollutants Inventoried Maritime Industry-Wide Airshed Emission ChangesNWSA Airshed Emission ChangesSummary of Progress Towards NWPCAS GoalsNWSA Airshed DPM EmissionsNWSA Airshed Scale GHG Emissions DistributionReasons for NWSA Emission Changes2016 Near Shore Emission Distributions 2016 NWSA �GHG Emission InventoryGreenhouse Gas Inventory: Greenhouse Gas ResolutionGHG Emission ScopesNWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory ResultsNWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory ResultsNWSA 2016 GHG Emissions Inventory ResultsNWSA GHG GlidepathBackground – Why this is important�Greenhouse Gas Reduction Resolution�Emission ProjectionsGHG Emission Reduction GlidepathHigh Level Cost Estimates of Emission Reduction Programs2030 Emission Reduction Measures2050 Emission Reduction Measures 2050 Emission Reduction Measures Future Emission Reduction ProjectsFuture Emission Reduction Projects: �Shore Power for Container TerminalsHoteling Cost AnalysisClean CHE ProgramTrucksFundingConclusions/Next StepsSupplementary SlidesDPM Emission Changes by SectorGHG Emission Changes by Sector 2005 - 2016Potential for Current Implementation