2014 evolution-week1

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QMUL SBCS Evolution week 1 Introduction

Transcript of 2014 evolution-week1

  • 1. SBC174 Evolution (& Ecology)
  • 2. Being a student... Taking notes...
  • 3. Course Outline and Timetable
  • 4. http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Yannick Wurm YW Dave Hone DH
  • 5. http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Semester A: Evolution Lectures from Yannick Wurm (YW), and David Hone (DH).! Week 1: YW Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism! Week 2: YW Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution! Week 3: YW Ultimate vs Proximate, learning from fossils, learning from DNA! Week 4: YW Human Evolution! Week 5: YW - Genetic Basis of Evolution! Week 6: DH Selection, Gene Flow, and Mutation! Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures.! Week 8: DH Founder Effects, Inbreeding, and Hybrid Zones! Week 8: Computer Practical (afternoon) [PopG Tutorial]! Week 9: DH Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection! Week 10: DH Systematics, Speciation! Week 11: DH - Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics! Week 12: DH Convergence, Revision Session Mondays: 9-10 a.m in Maths MLT (Maths Lecture Theatre) 12-1pm in Laws 2.10! Note: the workshops will be in week 8 of Semesters A and B. 20% Workshop Final Grade: 80% Exam
  • 6. Semester B: Ecology Week 1: Introduction to the course, Introduction to ecology! ! Week 2: Survivorship curves, Food webs and interactions! ! Week 3: Niches, Biomes and Habitats! ! Week 4: Ecosystem Services, Productivity! ! Week 5: Extinctions, Global Warming! ! Week 6: Invertebrates & global warming, Pollinators! ! Week 7: READING WEEK! ! Week 8: Invertebrate Ecology, Plants (global view) - WORKSHOP! ! Week 9: Microbes, Plankton! ! Week 10: Salt Marshes, Woodlands,! ! Week 11: Invasive species, Ecological Solutions! ! Week 12: UK Conservation, Review session All lectures by David Hone Final Grade: 80% Exam; 5% Workshop; 15% Fieldcourse
  • 7. 47 BL Bradwell Street Math Lecture Theater BL 38 60 53 52 Bancroft Road Leatherdale Street Moody Street Nuevo Burial Ground Bancroft Road Bancroft Road 9 Arts Quarter 35 37 25 24 34 23 22 33 19a 19 17 61 55 62 64 56 63 16 18 20 15 15 12 8 10 15 11 Grantley Street 6 7 5 4 Holton Street 3 2 2 14 54 40 39 13 27 26 31 29 28 46 46 49 58 57 59 55 44 41 48 51 50 45 43 42 32 36 Geography Square Library Square The Curve Godward Square Westfield Way West Gate East Gate Alderney Road Longnor Road Mile End Hospital Portelet Road Green Tube Station Mile End Road Mile End Tube Station
  • 8. SBC174/SBS110: Evolution (& Ecology) Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky 1973
  • 9. Recommended Reading
  • 10. Paperback 352 pages (2010)! Publisher: Profile Books! ! Amazon price: 5.89
  • 11. Paperback 596 pages ! (11 Aug 2005)! ! Publisher: Oxford University Press! Amazon price: 26.99
  • 12. +Lots of stuff on youtube. +Anything in Nature, Science, Trends in Ecology & Evolution
  • 13. Lecture 1: Introduction and some historical perspectives
  • 14. Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change? 350 B.C. Aristotle:! individuals in a Species are identical and unchanging 1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: ! The earth is very old. Species change. 1785 Hutton. Geologist: ! Uniformitarianism: Changes in nature are gradual. 1798 Cuvier: ! Fossils show extinct species (due to catastrophe). ! Species dont change.
  • 15. Define: Evolution by Natural Selection
  • 16. Are there other types of evolution?
  • 17. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s 2. Lamarck: 17441829! 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  • 18. Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) Swedish! 180 books classified nature: revealing the order of life created by God.: God created, Linnaeus arranged! Devised the binomial naming system: Genus species ! Thought that species do not change.
  • 19. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought Linneaus: each species was separately created.
  • 20. J-B. de Lamarck (17441829) Worked most of his life at the Musum dHistoire Naturelle (Paris)! He promoted the idea that species change.
  • 21. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s! 2. Lamarck: 1744-1829 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  • 22. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought Linneaus: each species was separately created. Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring.
  • 23. Giraffe necks Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring.! Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out-compete those with short necks.
  • 24. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s! 2. Lamarck: 17441829! 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  • 25. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Published on principle of population:! Human populations increase faster (geometrically=exponentially) ! than food production (increases arithmetically = linearly)!
  • 26. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: ! Accepted by all scientists:! 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time! 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. ! Debatable:! 3. Change is slow, steady, and gradual.! 4. Change is evenly distributed throughout space and time.!
  • 27. Darwin & the Voyage of the Beagle 1831-1836
  • 28. Galpagos finches 1 30' 1 0 30' 0 Equator 0 30' 1 1 30' 92 91 30' 91 90 30' 90 89 30' 89 PACIFIC OCEAN Marchena (Bindloe) Pinta (Abington) 777 m Cabo Ibbetson Canal de Pinta Punta Meja 340 m Punta Montalvo Punta Calle San Salvador (Santiago / James) Genovesa Canal de Marchena Bahia Darwin (Darwin Bay) El Bar