2011 Introduction to Deep-Draft Navigation

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2011 Introduction to Deep-Draft Navigation. Economics of Deep Draft Navigation Analysis. Purpose - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of 2011 Introduction to Deep-Draft Navigation

Economics of Deep Draft Navigation Analysis

2011 Introduction to Deep-Draft Navigation

Economics of Deep Draft Navigation Analysis

Instructor Purpose of InstructionObjectiveOutline of Topic AgendaPurposeTo provide an overview of the maritime system as well as the requirements and procedures for conducting deep-draft navigation economic analyses in accordance with standards and guidance as applied by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).Student Learning Objectives:

Become familiar with the Maritime Transportation System and TerminologyIdentify the General Concepts and Procedural Steps for Economic Analysis Applied to the Study of Deep-Draft Waterway Improvements Under National Economic Development (NED) Criteria.

Identify primary sources of guidance and data and exposure to some of the general terminology applied for studies.The role of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers with respect to navigation is to provide safe, reliable, and efficient waterborne transportation systems (channels, harbors, and waterways) for movement of commerce, national security needs, and recreation. The Corps accomplishes this mission through a combination of capital improvements and the operation and maintenance of existing projects.-ER 1105-2-100Federal Involvement Why?The Federal Interest is established by the Constitution Commerce ClauseProvides means of commercial transportationIs part of national defense

The merits of Civil Works projects for improvement of navigation are currently measured against a single Federal objective--national economic development.Corps Involvement So How Did the Corps Get Involved?Gallatins 1808 report to Congress on waterways, canals and roads

Congressionally directed in 1824 to remove snags from Ohio & Mississippi Rivers

The Corps mission is considered to have begun in 1824 when funds were appropriated to clear snags from Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The Corps participates financially in general navigation features and special navigation programs only; all other features and facilities (e.g., piers) are non-Federal responsibilities.U.S. Ports: Vital to Tradeand to Our National EconomyMillionTonsOver 10050 - 10025 - 5010 - 25HoustonCorpus ChristiS. LouisianaNew OrleansBaton RougeTexas CityLake CharlesPlaqueminesTampaNew York/NJValdezLong BeachBeaumontLower DelawareRiver (9 harbors)Duluth/SuperiorLos AngelesPort ArthurSt. LouisPortlandSeattleFreeportHuntingtonRichmondOaklandTacomaBostonHampton RoadsPort EvergladesJacksonvilleMemphisDetroitClevelandSavannahCharlestonIndiana HbrCincinnatiPortlandTwo HarborsAnacortesHonoluluChicagoPittsburghBaltimorePascagoula53 harbors coastal, inland, Great Lakes - handled over 10 million tons each in 2008ToledoMobileMatagordaKalamaBarbers PtNearly 12,000 Miles 9 ft & Over192 Lock Sites / 238 ChambersMoving Nearly 600 Million TonsAbout 2/3rds Cost of Rail and1/10 Cost of TruckInland Waterway System:Principal US Harbor ImprovementsFunded in 2009*

* Includes 2-year ARRA funding.

Deep-Draft Navigation System: System of independent channels that serve individual ports. For Corps purposes, these channels are in excess of 14-feet deep, and are found in coastal waters, bays, major rivers and the Great Lakes.Deep-Draft Commercial Vessels: Ships and ocean-going tows.Harbors: Water Area partially enclosed to provide safe and suitable accommodation for vessels.Port: A sheltered harbor where marine terminal facilities are provided.Terminal Facilities: Part of a port or harbor which provides docking, cargo-handling, and storage facilities

Top 10 Coastal U.S. Ports, 2008(Millions of Short Tons)RankPortTonnage1Port of South Louisiana223.92Houston, TX212.23New York, NY & NJ153.44Long Beach, CA80.25Corpus Christi, TX76.76New Orleans, LA73.07Beaumont, TX69.48Mobile, AL67.69Port of Plaquemines, LA63.710Los Angeles, CA59.7Source: USACE Navigation Data CenterTop 10 U.S. Ports HandlingForeign Waterborne Commerce, 2008(Millions of Short Tons)RankPortTonnage1Houston, TX146.32Port of South Louisiana111.43New York, NY & NJ91.14Long Beach, CA67.25Corpus Christi, TX55.36Los Angeles, CA52.97Beaumont, TX46.78Texas City, TX38.79Norfolk, VA36.810New Orleans, LA36.4Source: USACE Navigation Data CenterU.S. Waterborne Traffic by State, 2008(Millions of Short Tons)RankStateTonnage1Louisiana484.92Texas442.33California190.14Florida122.55Illinois120.36Ohio119.47Pennsylvania115.38New Jersey110.19Washington100.910Kentucky100.1

Cargo Handling, Circa 1950

Cargo Handling, Circa 2004

The Need for Deeper Channels

Cargo

Functional Classifications of Maritime CargoesAll Maritime CargoGeneral CargoBulk CargoBreak BulkNeo-BulkContainerizedLiquid BulkDry BulkSacks Cartons Crates Drums Pallets BagsLumber Paper Steel AutosContainers Lift On/Lift Off (Lo/Lo)Roll On/Roll Off (Ro/Ro)

LNG / LPG Petroleum Molasses Chemicals Vegetable OilGrain Sand & Gravel Scrap Metal Coal/Coke Clinker FertilizerShipboard Measurements

Foreign Flag General Cargo CharacteristicsDWT11,00014,00016,00020,00024,00030,000Length442478498535568610Beam656972778186Draft262930333538Hourly Cost at Sea453516564664760900Hourly Cost in Port367413448523595701Note: All measurements in feet; Cost in US $Source: USACE Economic Guidance Memo 00-06, 01 June 2004

General CargoPure Car Truck Carrier (PCTC)

Roll On/Roll Off (Ro/Ro)

Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH)Lift On/Lift Off (LO/LO)Heavy Lifters

Sea BargeIntegrated TowFloat On /Float Off

Width 8

Height 8 6

Length 20

TEUTwenty-Foot Equivalent Unit (TEU)Foreign Flag Containership CharacteristicsTEU6001,6002,5003,0004,8006,000DWT9,00023,00035,00042,00066,00082,000Length4276117167689841,044Beam6889100105122140Draft243237394346Immersion Rate (tpi)53101136154229279Hourly Cost at Sea4858421137132718402298Hourly Cost in Port3835526977999281215Note: All measurements in feet; tpi tons per inch; cost in US $ Source: USACE Economic Guidance Memo 04-01 June 2004

Containership

ContainershipLoading Containers

Top 20 Container Ports by TEUs

Top 10 U.S. Container Ports, 2008Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs)RankPortTEUs (X 1,000)1Los Angeles, CA5,5212Long Beach, CA4,8433New York, NY & NJ4,1034Savannah, GA2,0865Norfolk, VA1,6456Oakland, CA1,5487Tacoma, WA1,4588Houston, TX1,3719Charleston, SC1,30710Seattle, WA1,224Source: USACE Navigation Data CenterBulk Carrier

Great Lakes - CoastersOil Tankers carry about 40% of the worlds seaborne trade.About 60% of the worlds crude oil is transported by seagoing tankers.Crude is generally transported in larger vessels.Tanker Size Groupings: Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs) > 320,000 DWTVery Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs) 200 320,000 DWTSuezmax (long to medium haul) 120 200,000 DWTAframax (medium to short haul) 80 120,000 DWTPanamax (short haul) 55 - 70,000 DWTHandysize (smallest in world fleet) to as little as... 10,000 DWTOil and Tanker BusinessForeign Flag Tanker CharacteristicsDWT20,00060,00080,000120,000200,000325,000Length4986857458389731,121Beam79113124141167195Draft304246526070Immersion Rate (tpi)79159191247343468Hourly Cost at Sea6478409301,0801,3891,782Hourly Cost in Port5126537218221,0391,292Note: All measurements in feet; tpi tons per inch; cost in US $Source: USACE Economic Guidance Memo 06-01 June 2006Oil Tanker

ULCC - Jahre Viking - 565,000 DWT) Length 1,504 ft; Beam 226 ft; Draft 81 ft

Cruise Ships

Duluth - Superior

Mobile Harbor

Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP)

Freeport Harbor

Long Beach

Port of Los Angeles

Port of OaklandMore Information on Dredginghttp://education.usace.army.mil/navigation/dredging.html

USACE Education Center website (for students, teachers, librarians and other educators). Some TriviaState of _______ has deep draft port facilities on 4 Great Lakes.__________ &_________ have ports along the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Coast.The deep-water port farthest from the sea is ______________ (at miles 168 to 255 up the Mississippi River)On the West Coast, ________&__________ operate the largest # of container cranes (80)On the East Coast, ________&__________ operate the largest # of container cranes (50)State of Michigan has deep draft port facilities on 4 Great Lakes.Pennsylvania & New York have ports along the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Coast.The deep-water port farthest from the sea is Baton Rouge (at miles 168 to 255 up the Mississippi River)On the West Coast, Long Beach & Los Angeles operate the largest # of container cranes (80)On the East Coast, New York & New Jersey operate the largest # of container cranes (50)Issues in Economics of Container Ship Driven Channel Deepening BackgroundThe Corps experience in many Districtshas mostly been for bulk cargo.Bulk cargo ships generally have a simple itinerary, back and forth between only 2 portsAll economic analyses by the Corps of ports for containers have been done with homegrown spreadsheets, unique for each application, some of them developed by consultants.What is Different about Container Traffic?They have a scheduled itinerary calling at multiple portsPort rotations dynamicVessels on rotation dynamicServices at any port are complex with multiple rotations

Container Ship Operations & LoadingsContainer ship cargo is diverse so that the draft a vessel needs to call at a port is variable from trip to tripWhat a ship can carry depends on the number of container slots, design draft, the weight of the cargo, and other factorsSome containers are empty meeting need to be repositioned to the exporting ports (see return route of previous slide)Container PosersSailing drafts almost always significantly less than design drafts even in the deepest ports around the