20 Pronouns · PDF file 2020. 4. 23. · a) Personal Pronouns b) Demonstrative...

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Transcript of 20 Pronouns · PDF file 2020. 4. 23. · a) Personal Pronouns b) Demonstrative...

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    Read

    Joanna is a young girl. Joanna helps her friends with studies. Joanna is good in art too. One day Joanna’s teacher asked Joanna to participate in an art competition. Joanna was thrilled at the opportunity. Joanna practised drawing every day. Finally the day came, and Joanna went for the competition. At the end of the day the winners were announced. Joanna danced for joy on hearing her name. Joanna had won the first prize.

    In the above passage the word ‘Joanna’is repeated.

    This word can be replaced in the following manner using other words. Read the following passage to see how it’s done–

    Joanna is a young girl. Joanna helps her friends with studies. She is good in art too. One day her teacher asked her to participate in an art competition. She was thrilled at the opportunity. She practised drawing every day. Finally the day came, and she went for the competition. At the end of the day the winners were announced. She danced with joy on hearing her name. She had won the first prize.

    All the highlighted words in Passage 1 are proper nouns. In Passage 2 the proper noun has been replaced by other words like ‘She’ and ‘Her’. These words are called Pronouns.

    A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or noun- equivalent.

    Let’s Learn

    The use of pronouns helps us to avoid repetition of nouns. Pronoun= Pro (instead of) + noun. The noun for which the pronoun stands is called the antecedent. Example:

    Dev wants to buy a sofa set. He will go to some shops to enquire about it.

    (Pronoun–‘he’, antecedent–‘Dev’ ; pronoun–‘it’, antecedent–‘sofa-set’)

    Let’s learn about the different types of pronouns.

    Pronouns20

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    a) Personal Pronouns b) Demonstrative Pronouns

    c) Interrogative Pronouns

    d) Possessive Pronouns e) Reflexive Pronouns f) Emphatic Pronouns

    g) Relative Pronouns

    A. Personal Pronouns y A personal pronoun is used for a specific object, name/person or thing. It changes its

    form to indicate gender (he/she) and number (they/it).

    y Personal pronouns are of two types:

    Subjective – as a subject of a sentence. (They are playing.) Objective- as object of a verb or preposition. (Amy likes her.)

    Example:

    ○ Madhav and Riya were walking down a quiet lane. Madhav heard a sudden sound of quick breathing from behind the bushes.

    Let’s replace the nouns with Personal Pronouns.

    Example:

    ○ They (Madhav and Riya) were walking down a quiet lane. He (Madhav) heard a sudden sound of quick breaths from behind the bushes.

    y Singular pronouns replace singular nouns. Plural pronouns replace plural nouns.

    Person Singular Plural Subjective Objective Subjective Objective

    First I me we us Second you you you you Third Masculine he him they them

    Feminine she her they them Neuter it I they them

    B. Demonstrative Pronoun A demonstrative pronoun is used to point out the object/objects to which the speaker refers.

    Example:

    When the person/animal / thing is…

    Singular Plural

    nearby This is a tired camel. These are tired camels. far away That is a pot full of curd. Those are pots full of curd.

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    Difference between Demonstrative Pronouns and Demonstrative Adjectives

    A demonstrative pronoun replaces a noun.

    Example:

    y This is the book I was looking for.

    y That is my T-shirt.

    A demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun and answers the question ‘which’

    Example:

    y I was looking for this book.

    y That T-shirt is mine.

    C. Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question. It is usually used at the beginning of a sentence. What, who, whom, whose, which are interrogative pronouns.

    y ‘What’ is used for things.

    Example:

    ○ What are you going to buy? (a book, a phone, etc.) y ‘Who/whom/whose’ is used for people.

    Example:

    ○ Who has spilt the coffee? (he /she /Rohan ) ○ Whom did you invite? (neighbours, friends ) ○ Whose is this? (his, theirs, Kavita’s )

    y ‘Which’ is used for both people and things.

    Example:

    ○ Which of the siblings came to your house? (people- brother/sister) ○ Which is your pair of shoes? (things- heels, canvas, sports shoes etc.)

    Difference between Interrogative Pronouns and Interrogative Adjectives

    An interrogative pronoun replaces a noun.

    Example:

    a) Which is your phone?

    b) Which is the train that goes to Delhi?

    An interrogative adjective qualifies a noun.

    Example:

    a) Which phone is yours?

    b) Which train goes to Delhi?

    D. Possessive Pronoun A possessive pronoun shows possession, i.e. belongingness. It indicates that something belongs to someone.

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    Example:

    ○ This villa is theirs. ○ That shop is ours. ○ Those clothes are hers. ○ These papers are yours.

    Personal Pronoun Possessive Pronoun

    Person subject object

    First person (person speaking)

    I me mine

    we us ours

    Second person (person spoken to)

    you you yours

    Third person (person spoken about)

    he him his

    she her hers

    it it its

    they them theirs

    Difference between Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

    A possessive pronoun replaces a noun.

    Example:

    ○ The green water-bottle is mine. ○ The football is ours. ○ That mansion in the woods is hers.

    A possessive adjective qualifies a noun. and answers the question ‘Which’.

    Example:

    ○ That is my green water-bottle. ○ This is our football. ○ That is her mansion in the woods.

    E. Reflexive Pronoun

    When the subject and the object of the verb refer to the same person, a reflexive pronoun is used for the object. Here, the action of the subject reflects/goes back to the doer (antecedent).

    Example:

    ○ She taught herself to read and write. The subject ‘She’ and the object ‘herself’ refer to the same person.

    ○ The acrobat fell and hurt himself. The subject ‘the acrobat’ and the object ‘himself’ refer to the same person.

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    Person Number Singular Plural

    Reflexive Reflexive First I myself we/our ourselves

    Second you yourself you yourselves Third he himself they themselves

    she herself it itself

    F. Emphatic Pronoun When a pronoun is used to put emphasis on a particular noun or pronoun (antecedent), it is called an emphatic pronoun.

    Example:

    ○ I myself am travelling tomorrow. ○ You yourself should try and go for a walk. ○ We ourselves made this rangoli.

    Difference between Reflexive Pronouns and Emphatic pronouns.

    y An emphatic pronoun can be removed from the sentence without affecting its core meaning. A reflexive pronoun is necessary. The sentence wouldn’t make complete sense on removing the reflexive pronoun.

    y Don’t touch that wire. You will hurt yourself.

    (‘yourself ‘is a reflexive pronoun, because deleting the word will make the sentence incomplete)

    y I will give myself a week to complete the assignment.

    ( ‘myself’ is a reflexive pronoun, because deleting the word will make the sentence incomplete)

    Example:

    y I painted the picture myself.

    Example:

    y I myself painted the picture. Here, ‘myself’ is a emphatic pronoun, because deleting the word will not change the meaning of the sentence.

    y He ate the food himself. y He himself ate the food. Here, ‘himself ‘is a emphatic pronoun, because deleting the word will not change the meaning of the sentence.

    A reflexive or an emphatic pronoun is formed by the addition of the suffix ‘-self’ (singular) or ‘-selves’ (plural) to pronouns such as my, you, her, him, it, them and our.

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    Person Number Singular Plural

    reflexive/emphatic reflexive/emphatic First I myself we/our ourselves

    Second you yourself you yourselves Third he himself they themselves

    she herself it itself

    G. Relative Pronouns Pronouns that link a phrase or a clause in a sentence are called relative pronouns. They relate the phrases or clauses to the nouns (antecedents) that come before them.

    The words ‘who, which, that, whom, whose and what’ are Relative Pronouns.

    Example:

    ○ I know a girl who stood first in the class. who- relative pronoun, the girl– antecedent

    ○ This is the dog whose leg was broken. whose- relative pronoun, the dog- antecedent

    Difference between interrogative pronouns and relative pronouns.

    The words ‘who, which, whom, whose and what’ are used as interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The same words, when used as relative pronouns link a noun to the rest of the sentence.

    Interrogative Pronoun

    ○ Which is your book? ○ Whom are you complaining about?

    Relative Pronoun

    ○ The book which you mentioned is lying on the table.

    ○ The person whom you are complaining about is my cousin.

    Let’s Exercise

    1. Underline the pronoun and state its kind.

    a) This is Radhika’s house.

    b) They were looking out of the window.

    c) What is the name of your teacher?

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    d) That black Ferrari is ours.

    e) She cleaned the wi