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Transcript of 2 The Italian peninsula is centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea, and the city of Rome sits...

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  • 2 The Italian peninsula is centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea, and the city of Rome sits toward the center of Italy. This location would benefit the Romans as they expanded first within Italy and then into the lands bordering the Mediterranean
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  • Because of its geography, Italy proved much easier to unify than Greece. Unlike Greece: Italy is not broken up into small, isolated valleys. The Apennine Mountains, which run down the length of the Italian peninsula, are less rugged than the mountains of Greece. Italy has broad, fertile plains in the north and the west. These plains supported the growing population.
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  • The ancestors of the Romans, the Latins migrated into Italy about 800 B.C. The Latins settled along the Tiber River in small scattered villages Greek colonists to the south and Etruscans in the north shared the peninsula and contributed engineering and religious ideas to Roman civilization. Legend held Rome was founded by twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, the sons of a Latin woman and the god Mars, giving Romans divine origins.
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  • 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic. Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free- born male citizens.
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  • The Romans felt a republic would prevent too much power from going to any one individual. A republic: from the Latin res publica, that which belongs to the people, where people chose some of the officials. In 509 B.C., the Romans drove out the Etruscan rulers and established a republic. Laws were made by 300 land- holding, upper-class patricians who made up the Senate.
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  • Struggle For Power: Class Conflict. Patricians Wealthy landowners who held most of the power: inherited power and social status. Plebeians (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population: can vote, but cant rule. Tribunes elected representatives who protect plebeians political rights.
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  • The Roman Republic A Balanced Government. Rome elected two consuls one to lead army, one to direct government. Senate chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy. Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians (commoners). Dictators leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate).
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  • In the early republic, the most powerful governing body was the senate. Originally, its 300 members were all patricians, or members of the landholding upper class. Senators, who served for life, strongly influenced the republics laws 9
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  • Each year, the senators nominated two consuls from the patrician class. Their job was to supervise the business of government and command the armies. Consuls, however, could serve only one term. They were also expected to approve each others decisions. By limiting their time in office and making them responsible to each other, Rome had a system of checks on the power of government 10
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  • In the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator, or ruler who has complete control over a government. Each Roman dictator was granted power to rule for six months. After that time, he had to give up power. 11
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  • 12 Romans particularly admired Cincinnatus as a model dictator. Cincinnatus organized an army, led the Romans to victory over the attacking enemy, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmlandsall within 15 days.
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  • 13 At first, all government officials were patricians. Plebeians (plih bee unz), the farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population, had little influence. The efforts of the plebeians to gain power shaped politics in the early republic
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  • 14 In time, the plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes, to protect their interests. The tribunes could veto, or block, those laws that they felt were harmful to plebeians. Little by little, plebeians forced the senate to choose plebeians as consuls, appoint plebeians to other high offices, and finally to open the senate itself to plebeians.
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  • 15 Another breakthrough for the plebeians came in 450 B.C., when the government oversaw the inscription of the laws of Rome on 12 tablets, which were set up in the Forum, Romes marketplace. Plebeians had protested that citizens could not know what the laws were because they were not written down
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  • 16 The Laws of the Twelve Tables made it possible for the first time for plebeians to appeal a judgment handed down by a patrician judge.
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  • The family was the basic unit of Roman society. Under Roman law, the male head of the household had absolute authority. Women could own property and run businesses, but most worked at home. Children were educated. The wealthy often hired Greek tutors. 17
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  • 18 Roman women played a larger role in society than did Greek women. They could own property, and, in later Roman times, women from all classes ran a variety of businesses, from small shops to major shipyards. Those who made their fortunes earned respect by supporting the arts or paying for public festivals. However, most women worked at home, raising their families, spinning, and weaving Over the centuries, Roman women gained greater freedom and influence. Patrician women went to the public baths, dined out, and attended the theater or other forms of public entertainment with their husbands.
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  • Both girls and boys from the upper and lower classes, all learned to read and write. By the later years of the republic, many wealthy Romans would hire private tutors, often Greeks, to supervise the education of their children. Under their guidance, children memorized major events and developments in Roman history. Rhetoric was an important subject for boys who wanted to pursue political careers. 19
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  • Roman religion develops out of Greek and Etruscan religions The Romans believed in numerous gods and goddesses, many of whom they adapted from Greek Mythology and Religion. 20
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  • 21 Throughout Rome, dozens of temples housed statues of the gods. In front of these temples, Romans took part in ritual activities such as worshipping the gods and asking for divine assistance.
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  • The Roman calendar was full of feasts and other celebrations to honor the gods and goddesses and to ensure divine favor for the city. As loyal citizens, most Romans joined in these festivals, which inspired a sense of community 22
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  • 23 As Romes political and social systems evolved at home, its armies expanded Roman power across Italy. Roman armies conquered first the Etruscans and then the Greek city-states in the south. By about 270 B.C., Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula
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  • Romes success was due to skillful diplomacy and to its loyal, well-trained army. All citizens were required to serve The basic military unit was the legion, each of which included about 5,000 men. As in Greece, Roman armies consisted of citizen-soldiers who originally fought without being paid and had to supply their own weapons 24
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  • 25 Eventually, they received a small stipend, or payment, but their main compensation was always a share of the spoils of victory. Roman citizens often made good soldiers because they were brought up to value loyalty, courage, and respect for authority.
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  • To ensure success, Roman commanders mixed rewards with harsh punishment. Young soldiers who showed courage in action won praise and gifts. If a unit fled from battle, however, one out of every ten men from the disgraced unit was put to death. 26
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  • Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice. Conquered peoples had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army. In return, Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local government. 27
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  • 28 To a few privileged groups among the conquered people, Rome gave the highly prized right of full citizenship. Others became partial citizens, who were allowed to marry Romans and carry on trade in Rome. As a result of such generous policies, most conquered lands remained loyal to Rome even in troubled times.
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  • To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers throughout the land. It also built a network of all-weather military roads to link distant territories to Rome. As trade and travel increased, local peoples incorporated Latin into their languages and adopted many Roman customs and beliefs. Slowly, Italy began to unite under Roman rule. 29
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  • When Octavian came to power in 31 B.C., he ended the Roman republic and made Rome an empire Rome added many conquered lands to the republic and gained control of important trade routes
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  • Roman civilization spread to faraway lands Romans also borrowed ideas from other cultures The blending of Greek, Hellenistic