2 Road To Wwi
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- 1. ROAD TO WORLD WAR ONE OR Who did what to whom first, and why? (Maybe)
2. IN MANY WAYS IN 1914 THERE WAS A NEW EUROPE 3. WITH SOME BITS CRUMBLING 4. Assassination in Sarajevo
- JUNE 28 1914
- Gavrilo Princip, a nineteen-year-old student assassinatedArchduke Franz Ferdinandheir to the Austrian throne and his wife in their car.
- There were a number of secret societies in the Balkans. One of these was Young Bosnia, trying to absorb Bosnia into Serbia.
- Princip was closely involved with a Serb organization called Union or Death better known as the Black Hand. Black Hand had a young group as its members, a young group of Bosnian Serbs, which had dedicated their lives to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
5. THE BALKANS
- The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Austro/Hungarian Empire happened on October 6, 1908. The reasons for this were complicated. One purpose was to remove any hopes Turkey might have for getting the provinces back.
- However, the annexation aroused mixed feelings in Europe.
- Russia was upset because Austria had promised to help Russia in her military problems before the annexation.
- Austria paid Turkey a cash settlement. However the Serbs wanted control of the provinces.
6. Reaction in Austria
- Franz Ferdinand not very popular in Austria and no great immediate cry for revenge.
- However, the Austrian Government suspected that Serbia was behind the killing and that Serbian Nationalism (AND NATIONALISM SPREADING TO HUNGARY) posed a threat to the foundations of the Austrian Empire.
- Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia which was a threat to Serbias existence as a sovereign state.
- Serbia did not want war but ordered mobilization of their army.
7. HUNGARIAN NATIONALISM FEARED BY VIENNA 8. The Dominos Fall
- In reaction Austria mobilized its army
- Russiapartiallymobilized its army in a show of support for Serbia.
- Russia was now afraid of Prussia joining to help Austria so it placed all its armies in a state of readiness.
- Austria Hungary now fully mobilizes to face the Russian threat.
- Germans issued an ultimatum ordering Russia to stand down-declared war on Austrias side on 1 stAugust.
- France ordered general mobilization: 3 rdAugust Germany declared war on them.
- 4 thAugust Germany invaded Belgium.
- By Mid-night Germany and Great Britain were at war.
- No one went to war for the sake of Franz-Ferdinand
9. A jolly Little War was the way to solve European Diplomacy
- War expected to be 6-10 weeks. (1859 Solferino, Magenta: 1866 Prussia-Austria: 1871 France-Prussia)
- Wars did not really involve the civilian population
- Wars kept peoples minds away from other things.
- BUT INDUSTRIAL WAR HAD ARRIVED
10. War MobilizationPatriotic Celebrationsand Dancing in the Streets(Join up before you miss it) 11. How did they get to this situation?
- Old European alliances now unstable as relative strengths of Countries changed.
- Huge rising economic and military power of Germany. (Made itself a country by war)
- As long asBismarckwas chancellor his policy was to uphold thestatus quoand prevent an anti-German coalition forming by
- a) Developing a series ofalliances.
- b) Believing it was impossible to make France friendly he had to forestall a war of revenge by depriving France of allies.
12. DREIKAISERBUND 1872-1873
- League of the Three Emperors
- Not a formal alliance
- Talking shop of reactionary countries interested in retaining the system in place: and keeping them from French republican influence.
13. TRIPLE ALLIANCE
- France recovering faster than Bismarck first thought.
- To deprive France of the most likely ally: offered Austria alliance in 1879 guaranteeing her against attack by Russia
- Italy joined the Triple alliance in 1882 (Now safe from Austria)
- Russia drawn into a new Dreikaiserbund
14. Diplomatic Genius of Bismarck
- Complicated checks and balances: it achieved.
- A) Deprived France of allies.
- B) Established Germany as a protector of the status quo.
- C) Placated the Junkers in Germany by cementing conservative regimes in place despite the huge increase in an industrial middle class.
15. However: A New Kaiser (Wilhelm II) 1888
- (1859 - 1941) was born as Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern.He was born in Berlin to Crown Prince Friedrich and his wife, Britain's Princess Royal, Victoria.
- His mother was the aunt of Empress Alexandra (the wife of Tsar Nicholas II), and the sister of King Edward VII.
- Queen Victoria was his grandmother.Birth damaged him physically, leading to a withered left arm, which he tried with some success to conceal.
- Recent analyses of records of his birth in the former Imperial Archives have also suggested that he may have experienced some brain trauma, possibly leading to some brain damage.
- Historians are divided on whether such a mental incapacity may have contributed to his frequently aggressive, tactless, headstrong, and occasionally bullying approach to problems and people, which was evident in both his personal and political lives.Such an approach certainly marred German policy under his leadership, most notably in his dismissal of his cautious chancellor,Otto von Bismarck in 1890
16. A New Strategy
- Kaiser Wilhelm believed that Bismarcks cautious strategy was no right for the greatest military and economic power on the Continent of Europe. (But Germany was a young country, ruled by an aristocratic clique, and now without restraint.
- This new strategy involved dropping the alliance with Russia and strengthening the one with Austria. In 1887 he declined to renew theRe-insurance pactwith Russia which assured no war between the two countries.
- This new course would inevitably force Russia and France together to counter the rising Germanic power.
17. But Germany had a cunning plan (The Schlieffen Plan)
- Problem : Bismarcks alliances aimed at preventing a war on two fronts.
- Solution : (Used Twice) A two front war can be fought as long as one is a very quick war such as 1871.
- Russiawas the long term problem soFrancehad to be dealt with first andquickly.
- A) The assumption by Germany is thatanywar with Russia would automatically involve war with France.
- B) Germany needed a quick war with France as any expansion of its army to face two enemies would involve a dilution of the Prussian officer corps.
- C) Expansion of the German army would also drag in many of the urban proletariat as soldiers which the ruling class thought was internally dangerous.
- German army very strong but domestic problems forced it to go for knock out blows.
- Germany needed an accommodation with Britain and a treaty with Italy to keep them out of any conflict.
19. Another Cunning German Plan
- A)Build a powerful fleet to challenge Britain to keep them out of any war. (Also good for middle classes in Germany)
- B) Bring Italy into the alliance with a promise to protect her against France and thus not attack Austria at any time. (Italy wanted Great Power status)
- A) Britain would not countenance a German policy so obviously aimed at her economic life-lines.
- B) Italy was very much a fair weather friend and could not go against France or Britain who both had Mediterranean interests.
20. So: The Dual Alliance(1891)
- On the face of it the alliance ofFranceandRussiaan astonishing event.
- Revolution and Republicanism allied with Autocratic stability and despotism.
- A triumph of common interests over ideas My enemies enemy is my friend
- France must be supported to keep Germany out of the Russian east
- Huge manpower but an infant industrial power. Could she quickly go on the offensive?
- Would the autocratic regime face defeat in war that would bring down the foundations of the regime?
- But one of the pillars of the Tsarist rule was his claim to act on behalf of orthodox Christians particularly if threatened by Muslims (Ottoman)
- Also since the Crimea Russia was anti-Austrian
- Still smarting from defeat by Prussia in 1871.( Alscace-Lorranine, Declaration of Germany, Reparations paid in 2 years as a matter of honour ) Bismarck realized he must keep France without allies.
- France since 1871 had become a great colonial power: Indo-China and North Africa. (Note Fashoda in Sudan 1898) and had rebuilt her army.
- Eventuallyrvancheover Alsace-Lorraine (need for a huge army) proved more powerful than c