180318 DIE Infografik 02 REDD EN - die-gdi.de · PDF fileDeforestation and Degradation...

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Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation mechanism aims to create financial incentives for forest conservation in developing countries. REDD+ has two main objectives: cutting greenhouse gas emissions by reducing deforesta- tion and providing alternative income sources for marginalised rural areas in the Global South. Moreover, REDD+ may serve as an offsetting mechanism for green- house gases emitted in the Global North. 1. A non-offsetting approach to REDD+: Investment in forest conservation is urgently needed in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity. As an offsetting mechanism, REDD+ does not reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Land conflicts could even give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions. >> Real and additional emissions reductions can be achieved by implementing non-offsetting approaches to REDD+. 2. Land reforms: Land conflicts should be resolved prior to implementing REDD+ by reforming land and forest tenure. Decision-makers should consider that tenure reforms and tenure formali- sation create both winners and losers. Successful reforms require strong politi- cal coalitions. Outlook Problem Land conflicts and REDD+ Conflicting property rights are hampering international conservation efforts www.klimalog.info #Klimalog Case study: Indonesia 94,432,000 ha covered by forest 10-15% of global greenhouse gas emissions are caused by deforestation, forest degradation and peatland conversion. Competing and ambiguous land tenure in many tropical frontier areas makes forest carbon offsetting a rather risky approach for mitigating climate change, especially if different actors lay claim to the very same piece of forest. One such actor may be the state, who has received REDD+ payments from an industrialised country for offsetting emis- sions, and another may be a local forest owner who has sold the very same piece of forest to an oil palm company. 3. What are the root causes of land conflicts? When it comes to designing socially inclusive land reforms, it is essential to understand the historical root causes of land conflicts and ambiguous and conflicting land tenure. Instead of cutting emissions, forest carbon offsetting could give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions if property rights are not clearly defined. Those actors that have paid forest owner A for offsetting emissions by conserving forests have emitted greenhouse gases. If forest owner B coverts the same forest area to an oil palm plantation, the greenhouse gases fixed in the forest are released additionally. + A B Consequence CO 2 I’m conserving the forest . I make money from oil palms. 30 Millionen Drivers of deforestation: expansion of oil palm cultivation, paper production and mining and pulp. are caused by deforestation and changes in land use Indonesians depend on forest products and forest ecosystems of Indonesia’s emissions Only 10 % of state forest is gazetted. Land conflicts: Sources: CAIT, Climate Data Explorer, http://cait.wri.org/historical (accessed 18.02.2016) Hein, J., Adiwibowo, S., Dittrich, C., Rosyani, Soetarto, E., & Faust, H. (2015). Rescaling of Access and Property Relations in a Frontier Landscape: Insights from Jambi, Indonesia. The Professional Geographer, 1-10. Indrarto, G. B., P. Murharjanti, J. Khatarina, I. Pulungan, F. Ivalerina, J. Rahman, M. N. Prana, I. A. P. Resosudar- mo, and E. Muharrom. 2012. The context of REDD+ in Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria. 2013. Laporan Akhir Tahun Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia: Sekretariat Nasional Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA). Van der Werf, G. R., D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. Randerson. 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature geoscience 2 (11):737-738. 369 land conflicts were recorded on 12.8 million ha in 2013. 60% Over I have to offset my greenhouse gas ! emissions
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Transcript of 180318 DIE Infografik 02 REDD EN - die-gdi.de · PDF fileDeforestation and Degradation...

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    The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation mechanism aims to create financial incentives for forest conservation in developing countries. REDD+ has two main objectives: cutting greenhouse gas emissions by reducing deforesta-tion and providing alternative income sources for marginalised rural areas in the Global South. Moreover, REDD+ may serve as an offsetting mechanism for green-house gases emitted in the Global North.

    1. A non-offsetting approach to REDD+: Investment in forest conservation is urgently needed in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity. As an offsetting mechanism, REDD+ does not reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Land conflicts could even give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions.

    >> Real and additional emissions reductions can be achieved by implementing non-offsetting approaches to REDD+.

    2. Land reforms: Land conflicts should be resolved prior to implementing REDD+ by reforming land and forest tenure. Decision-makers should consider that tenure reforms and tenure formali-sation create both winners and losers. Successful reforms require strong politi-cal coalitions.

    Outlook

    Problem

    Land conflicts and REDD+

    Conflicting property rights are hampering international conservation efforts www.klimalog.info

    #Klimalog

    Case study: Indonesia

    94,432,000 hacovered by forest

    10-15% of global greenhouse gas emissions are caused by deforestation, forest degradation and peatland conversion.

    Competing and ambiguous land tenure in many tropical frontier areas makes forest carbon offsetting a rather risky approach for mitigating climate change, especially if different actors lay claim to the very same piece of forest. One such actor may be the state, who has received REDD+ payments from an industrialised country for offsetting emis-sions, and another may be a local forest owner who has sold the very same piece of forest to an oil palm company.

    3. What are the root causes of land conflicts? When it comes to designing socially inclusive land reforms, it is essential to understand the historical root causes of land conflicts and ambiguous and conflicting land tenure.

    Instead of cutting emissions, forest carbon offsetting could give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions if property rights are not clearly defined. Those actors that have paid forest owner A for offsetting emissions by conserving forests have emitted greenhouse gases. If forest owner B coverts the same forest area to an oil palm plantation, the greenhouse gases fixed in the forest are released additionally.

    +

    A B

    Consequence CO2

    Im conserving the forest . I make money from oil palms.

    30 Millionen

    Drivers of deforestation: expansion of oil palm cultivation, paper production and mining and pulp.

    are caused by deforestation and changes in land use

    Indonesians depend on forest products and forest ecosystems

    of Indonesias emissions

    Only 10 % of state forest is gazetted.Land conflicts:

    Sources:CAIT, Climate Data Explorer, http://cait.wri.org/historical (accessed 18.02.2016)Hein, J., Adiwibowo, S., Dittrich, C., Rosyani, Soetarto, E., & Faust, H. (2015). Rescaling of Access and Property Relations in a Frontier Landscape: Insights from Jambi, Indonesia. The Professional Geographer, 1-10. Indrarto, G. B., P. Murharjanti, J. Khatarina, I. Pulungan, F. Ivalerina, J. Rahman, M. N. Prana, I. A. P. Resosudar-mo, and E. Muharrom. 2012. The context of REDD+ in Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria. 2013. Laporan Akhir Tahun Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia: Sekretariat Nasional Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA).Van der Werf, G. R., D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. Randerson. 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature geoscience 2 (11):737-738.

    369 land conflicts were recorded on 12.8 million ha in 2013.

    60%Over

    I have to offs

    et my

    greenhouse gas !emissions

  • The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation mechanism aims to create financial incentives for forest conservation in developing countries. REDD+ has two main objectives: cutting greenhouse gas emissions by reducing deforesta-tion and providing alternative income sources for marginalised rural areas in the Global South. Moreover, REDD+ may serve as an offsetting mechanism for green-house gases emitted in the Global North.

    Land conflicts and REDD+

    Conflicting property rights are hampering international conservation efforts www.klimalog.info

    #Klimalog

    10-15% of global greenhouse gas emissions are caused by deforestation, forest degradation and peatland conversion.

  • Problem

    Case study: Indonesia

    94,432,000 hacovered by forest

    Competing and ambiguous land tenure in many tropical frontier areas makes forest carbon offsetting a rather risky approach for mitigating climate change, especially if different actors lay claim to the very same piece of forest. One such actor may be the state, who has received REDD+ payments from an industrialised country for offsetting emis-sions, and another may be a local forest owner who has sold the very same piece of forest to an oil palm company.

    A B 30 MillionenIndonesians depend on forest products and forest ecosystems

    I have to offs

    et my

    greenhouse gas !emissions

  • Instead of cutting emissions, forest carbon offsetting could give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions if property rights are not clearly defined. Those actors that have paid forest owner A for offsetting emissions by conserving forests have emitted greenhouse gases. If forest owner B coverts the same forest area to an oil palm plantation, the greenhouse gases fixed in the forest are released additionally.

    +CO2

    Im conserving the forest . I make money from oil palms.

    Drivers of deforestation: expansion of oil palm cultivation, paper production and mining and pulp.

    are caused by deforestation and changes in land use

    of Indonesias emissions

    Only 10 % of state forest is gazetted.Land conflicts:

    Sources:CAIT, Climate Data Explorer, http://cait.wri.org/historical (accessed 18.02.2016)Hein, J., Adiwibowo, S., Dittrich, C., Rosyani, Soetarto, E., & Faust, H. (2015). Rescaling of Access and Property Relations in a Frontier Landscape: Insights from Jambi, Indonesia. The Professional Geographer, 1-10. Indrarto, G. B., P. Murharjanti, J. Khatarina, I. Pulungan, F. Ivalerina, J. Rahman, M. N. Prana, I. A. P. Resosudar-mo, and E. Muharrom. 2012. The context of REDD+ in Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria. 2013. Laporan Akhir Tahun Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia: Sekretariat Nasional Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA).Van der Werf, G. R., D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. Randerson. 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature geoscience 2 (11):737-738.

    369 land conflicts were recorded on 12.8 million ha in 2013.

    60%Over

    Consequence

  • 1. A non-offsetting approach to REDD+: Investment in forest conservation is urgently needed in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve biodiversity. As an offsetting mechanism, REDD+ does not reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Land conflicts could even give rise to additional greenhouse gas emissions.

    >> Real and additional emissions reductions can be achieved by implementing non-offsetting approaches to REDD+.

    2. Land reforms: Land conflicts should be resolved prior to implementing REDD+ by reforming land and forest tenure. Decision-makers should consider that tenure reforms and tenure formali-sation create both winners and losers. Successful reforms require strong politi-cal coalitions.

    Outlook

    3. What are the root causes of land conflicts? When it comes to designing socially inclusive land reforms, it is essential to understand the historical root causes of land conflicts and ambiguous and conflicting land tenure.

    Sources:CAIT, Climate Data Explorer, http://cait.wri.org/historical (accessed 18.02.2016)Hein, J., Adiwibowo, S., Dittrich, C., Rosyani, Soetarto, E., & Faust, H. (2015). Rescaling of Access and Property Relations in a Frontier Landscape: Insights from Jambi, Indonesia. The Professional Geographer, 1-10. Indrarto, G. B., P. Murharjanti, J. Khatarina, I. Pulungan, F. Ivalerina, J. Rahman, M. N. Prana, I. A. P. Resosudar-mo, and E. Muharrom. 2012. The context of REDD+ in Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria. 2013. Laporan Akhir Tahun Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia: Sekretariat Nasional Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria (KPA).Van der Werf, G. R., D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. Randerson. 2009. CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature geoscience 2 (11):737-738.

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