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### Transcript of 15. 10% of the energy is passed on 9, 000 kc 90 kc 900 kc 9 kc.

15.

10% of the energy is passed on

9, 000 kc

90 kc

900 kc

9 kc

Energy Pyramid• An energy pyramid is a diagram that

shows the amount of energy at each level of a food chain.

• The bottom of the pyramid shows the The bottom of the pyramid shows the producersproducers. The producers hold the . The producers hold the mostmost energy in an ecosystem. energy in an ecosystem.

• The The upperupper levels show the consumers. levels show the consumers.

Energy Pyramid

• The shape of the diagram represents two things: – the decrease in the amount of energy

moving from producers to primary consumers to secondary consumers to tertiary consumers

– the decrease in the number of organisms in an ecosystem as you move up the food chain.

» Video

Energy Pyramid

16. The triangular face shows that there are more organisms at the bottom (producers) and fewer organisms as you move up to higher trophic levels.

17. There are multiple faces to show the population sizes and the amount of energy available at each level, and that the amount of energy decreases as you move up to the top.

Questions

1. Why is there less energy available to move from one level to the next?

1. The reason there is less energy available from one level to the next is because most (90%) of the energy taken in is used up by organisms to carry out life processes.

Only about 10% of the energy taken in is passed on to the next level.

2. Why would an ecosystem have fewer organisms as you move up the food chain?

2. If there is less energy passed on to each level, then there is not enough energy to support a lot of organisms at the higher levels.

• What happens when populations of organisms increase or decrease dramatically?

• If a population increases dramatically, the organisms will run out of food and starve.

• If a population decreases dramatically, the predators will run out of food and starve.

• Let’s take a look! interface

Biomes

HO

T T

EM

PE

RA

TU

RE

CO

LDTUNDRA

SAVANNA- Tropical Grasslands

TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

TAIGA

TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

LOW RAINFALL HIGH

coniferous

trees with cones and thin, needle-shaped leaves; evergreen trees such as pine, fir, and spruce

deciduous

trees that have flat leaves that change color and fall off before winter

Desert

Desert

deserts

• Land covered by rocks or sand. Poor soil.

• Extreme temperature changes between day and night. 77-120oF

• Very little rain--receives less than (10 in.) 25 cm of rain each year

• Some have cold winters, some have cold nighttime temperatures, but they have high daytime temperatures

deserts

• A few plants that are able to store water such as the saguaro cactus and creosote bushes.

• Animals mainly come out at night

• Snakes, other reptiles, rodents

• Very few large animals.

• Barren, windblown sand dunes (hot deserts).

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

18. Deserts The equatorHot days,Cool nights

Low, fewer than 10 inches per year

Few plant and animal species

Tundra

Tundra

tundra

• Land covered with ice for most of the year

• made up of permafrost—a layer of permanently frozen soil

• a cold biome that does not support trees

• Extremely cold and dry.

• Ave. temp -10-40oF; ave. rainfall 8 in. (a cold desert)

tundra

• Low grasses and lichens. No/few trees.

• Fewer species than other biomes.

• caribou, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, owls, voles (rodents)

• Amphibians and reptiles are rare.

• A cold, treeless plain; Arctic regions

• The largest biome—covers about 20% of Earth’s land.

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

19. tundra The poles Extremely cold—the coldest

Low--fewer than 10 in./year

Fewest plant and animal species—NO TREES

Taiga

Taiga

taiga (ty-guh)

• Land covered by coniferous trees.

• Long, cold winters with little precipitation, but warmer and wetter summers.

• Ave. temp. 14-60oF; ave. rainfall 12 in.

• Plants include evergreen trees such as pine, fir, and spruce (coniferous forests)

taiga (ty-guh)

• Deer, elk, caribou, wolves, moose, black bears, shrews, other rodents, and migratory birds.

• Some animals migrate to warmer climates in the winter; some hibernate

• A cold forest of coniferous trees.

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

20. taiga The tundra (one level down)

Cold winters, cool summers

Low amounts of rainfall

Some plant and animal species—A FOREST OF CONIFER-OUS TREES

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Temperate Deciduous Forest

• Land covered by deciduous trees.

• Moderate temperatures (average 50oF)

• Abundant rainfall throughout the year. (average 30-60 in.)

• Four distinct seasons.

temperate deciduous forest

• Mostly deciduous trees such as beech, oak, maple, elm, hickory and some coniferous trees.

• Animals include earthworms, birds, white-tailed deer, foxes, squirrels, raccoons, etc.

• Deciduous trees.

• Georgia is located in this biome.

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

21. Temperate deciduous forest

GA! Eastern half of the US is TDF. The central part is temperate grassland.

Cold winters, warm summers (4 distinct seasons with temperature variations)

Moderate rainfall (all year round)

Many plant and animal species

Temperate Grasslands

Temperate Grasslands

temperate grassland

• Covered with grasses, not trees;

• found at the same latitude as temperate deciduous forests

• Not enough rain to support many trees.

• Ave. temp -40-70oF; ave. rainfall 10-30 in.

• Grasses such as wheat. Scattered trees.

• Also called pampas, steppe or veldt.

temperate grassland

• Mostly grazing animals like antelope,, bison/buffalo; also prairie dogs, coyotes skunks, badgers, and songbirds.

• Called the “Bread baskets of the world” because of the crops grown there. (cereals—wheat, barley, corn)

• Great Plains in the US/prairie

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

22. Temperate grasslands

Central US; same latitude as TDF; called the Breadbasket of the World

moderate low to moderate

Many plant and animal species; FEW TREES

Tropical Grasslands

Savanna

tropical grassland or savanna

• a grassland biome near the equator

• Warm temperatures (~70o F)

• Wet and dry seasons

• Dry 4” of rain, wet 15-25” of rain

• Grasses, shrubs, and a few trees

• Animals like zebras, giraffes, wildebeest, gazelles, lions, leopards, elephants

• Where the zoo animals live. (Lion King)

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

23. Tropical grassland/ savanna

The equator warm Moderate to low (wet and dry seasons)

Many plant and animal species; FEW TREES

Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical Rainforest

tropical rain forest

• Located around or near the equator.

• Land covered by tall trees and lush plant growth.

• Warm/hot temperatures year round 68-93oF

• high amounts of rain 50-260”

• Ferns, orchids, and tall (canopy) trees

• Parrots, snakes, frogs, monkeys, lizards

• Thousands of species of trees and other plants.

• Thousands of species of animals: monkeys, frogs, birds, insects, etc.

• A lot of rain and an astonishing variety of organisms.

• Produce 40% of Earth’s oxygen

Biome Located near Temperature (hot, cold, moderate)

Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)

Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

24. Tropical rainforest

The equator Warm/hot High (highest amount of rainfall)

The most plant and animal species

HO

T T

EM

PE

RA

TU

RE

CO

LDTUNDRA

SAVANNA- Tropical Grasslands

TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

TAIGA

TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

LOW RAINFALL HIGH