123262427 Shankara Bhashya Isha Kena Mundaka Upanishads s Sitaram Sastri Sanskrit English

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"".; en THE l 11 n, I t n n & Jllu n o n k n UPANISHADS ANU SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY S. SITARAMA SASTRI, B. A., PUHT,ISIIIW BY V. 0. SESHACHARRI, B. A., B. L., J'"ctkil, 1-Pi,gh Cowrt, ... Vadras. FIRST VOLUME. {;fl.Cii.drC!!s: G. A NATESAN & 00., PRINTERS & PUBLISHERS, ESPLANADE. 1898

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Adi Shankara's commentry on vaqrious Upansishads

Transcript of 123262427 Shankara Bhashya Isha Kena Mundaka Upanishads s Sitaram Sastri Sanskrit English

  • "".; en

    tr~r~a~ir: THE

    l 11 n, I t n n & Jllu n o n k n






    V. 0. SESHACHARRI, B. A., B. L., J'"ctkil, 1-Pi,gh Cowrt, ... Vadras.



    BY KIND P./!.,'RJ1'!IBSJON '1'0

    m t i. 1\. n n i e JJ3 e 9 n n t..


    PREFACE ...








  • Pft~JF .A.OE.

    rrhe: increasing interest evinced by the thinking \Vorld in the Philosophy and Religion of the Hindus has led me to undertake the publication of the transla-tion of the principal Upanishads.

    rrhe special feat.nre of this puhlieation is tlu~ t,rans-lation of the commentary of Sri 8t:mkmadu1rya, thP greatest exponent of the Advaita system of philosophy.

    'l'he v..ark has hePn undertaken chiefly with a view to bring wit,hin t,0achings of the U pauisbn.ds, in t.he light of the interpretat,ion of Rri Sankaracharya.

    The spirit of the text and of the interpretation has throughout been faithfully adhered to and, perhaps; in some instances, even to the detriment of elegance in diction.

    If the earnest stndent finfls any the least help from this work, the publication will be amply justified.

    My heart,~r thanks are due to Mr. V. S\vaminatha Iyer, Distriot Mnnsiff, for thn' cnrt: with which he went through tht>: translation anrl fm his many va.luah]e suggestions:

    MADRAS. 1 Ji'A li r ?ldf,'f y 1 fl-98. I

    V. C. ~gNHAOHARRI.

  • ' ~~.

  • Sri Sankara's Introduction.


    Adorntion to the Bmhn1nn. 'The mnntrns b0ginuing with Isnvnsynm, etc., lmve not been utilized in rituals, lwcnuse they serv1.:1 the purpose of enlightening us on the true nntnre of the Atmnn who is not an wn[Ja.~ of, ,;. ei' not connected '\Yith, Karma. The trne nature cif the Atnum consists, a~:) vdll be c1escribec1, in its 1)urity~ being untouched by sin, oneness, being eternal, having no bocly, omnipresence, etc., nnd as that conflicts with Knrma, it is only rensonable that these mttntras should not be utilized in rituals ; nor is the true nnture of the .A.tman thus defined, a product, a moc1ifieation~ a thing to be atta.inecl or a thing to be refined; nor is it of t,he nttture of a cloer or enjoyer so that it may be connected with Karmtt. All the Upanishacls exhaust themselves in c1escribing the true nature of the .At.man; anc1 the Gitn. ancl the 11okshac1lw.rma nre bent on the same enc1. ':J.lherefore all Karm.a has been enjoined

  • in necorcl::mce with wor1tlly understanding, whic:h at~ t,rilmh~ to the Atman diver: .. ;ity, ng(,mey, enjoyuwnt, impurity, sinfulness, etc. 1.'hose that knmv who at'Lr ~~ompetent to ]X'rform Karma a.nd who a.ro not., (A< lhilmrnvicbh) t~llns that lw who Rt:PkH tlw ftuitH of

    Karm[t-Vi~ib1e such ns tlw inlwrenb Kph'lHlrntt' of a. Bt::dnnin mHl invil:lihlo suelt as Heavm1, t't(:.,-:md thillln..; J am n;. twiet~-l>cnu frvl\ from any cld't~di ~-~rm~h aH htdng nJw-Pyej(~eli mnttm of which, the relevancy of which (Smnbaudhn.) awt tlw fl'nits of which, have benn thus declared.

    -~ C' ~ C' (' ..... ~til{_~: 1\H..,~ ~l(c~I~~T..~Q l ~olt

  • 'W:I'J'H S1U S.i.\NKARA~S COJ\1:\!ENTAHY.

    whole (Brahman) the whole alone (Brahman) remains. Om. Peace! Peace!! Peace!!!


    doer, enjoyer, etc., '\Yill be abandoned by the contem~ plation of the true .A.tnum. One who thus contemplates on the self as the Parmnatman is 1Jounc1 to renounce the three-folcl desire of son, etc., ancl not to perform Karma. ' 'Penn :l'ya)denr:r,' means ' by such renunciation.' It is well known that one's son or ser\ant, abancloued or den.


    which Karma will not cling to yon. Omnmenia?'!f.-rrlms the drift of the Vec1ic text is

    that he vdw kno\vs the Atman should renounce the three-fold desire of son, etc., and save his Atman by

    bt~iug ceni;recl in the knowledge of the Atman (({nann-n'ishthn). ~f.1he :Mantras now proccucl to incnlt'ato the following for the benefit of him who doe:::: not know t;he Atman ancl is not competent to cogni.;~,e the Atman as above in(1ieate


    noii remember it was pointed out that the ant.itJH:~sis between Knowledge anc1 Karma is a fact unshalmhle Eke a mountain ? Here also it has been said that he who 1/JO'Iililli.~:e to Ut:e must perform Karma ancl that thiH universe must be ttbandoned as unreal in the ccmtem-;plation of the T-.1ord. as all, l.Jy


    (:' "' "' "' ~;qr c:rr~ a (5fCfiT 131~;:r ~ffis~:



    "' "' "' '"' "' "' "' nT ~"' ttr mr.ITTWR9Fa ;q en :crrc+-T~c:rr ~r: 11 ~ Ill ~Phose birbhs partake of the liatunl' of the Asuras

    awl are t.mvelnpml in blin


    ri. e., the knmdedge of its unc1ecaying mul immortal nature is Yeilec1 as if the 1~tman \\'Lre killed. J3y thiH fault of sl:.tying the Atmau they get into 8wrnsalrn.

    "' "'' "' ""' ~"' ('


    its unconditioned state. That the mind travels fastest is well-known to all, seeing t;hat the 1nincl encased within the body and characterised by volition and uoubt is able at one volition to travel to such distant places as the Brahmaloka, etc. ; and travelling so fast as it does, it pe1ceives on landing (at its destination) thai:i the intelligent Atman has, as it were, gone there before it; therefore, the .A.tman is saicl to be fleeter than n1ind. Do7JCbS, from the root which 111eans 'enlighten,' signifies the senses such as the eye, etc. Etcd means the entity of the Atman which is now being treated of. rrhese

    ~:~enses coulclnot overtake it. The mincl is faster than these because these are distanced by the activity of the mind. Not even the semblance of the Atman is within the perception of the senses ; for it hacl gone even before the mind which is fleeter than they, being all-pervading, like the All-cbs. The entity of the Atman, all-pervading, devoid of any attributes of Samsara, ani!. in its unconditioned state subject to no modification, appears to undergo all the changes of Sa.msara super-posed upon it, and though one, appears, in the eyes of ignorant men, diverse and enclosed in every bocly. It semns to travel beyond the reach of others' mind, speech, the senses, &c., which are dissimilar to the .A.tman, though they rlln fast. r.J.1he sense of' S6e?11Al' lS sug-gested by the mantra using 'lrishllu~l (sitting). 'Silti?~'J,


  • 10 !S.A. V .A.8YOP.ANISH.A.D.

    means being itself inactive.' 'Tasmin' means 'while the entity of the .A.tman endures.' ':Matarisva' means ' air ', so called, because it moves (Svayati) in space (Matari-Antarikshe). Air (Matarisva) is that whose activity sustains all life, on which all causes and effects depend, anc1 in \Vhich all t.hcse inhere, which is called 81.dra (thread, as it~ were) supporting all the vmrlds through \Vhich it runs. ~I.'he WOl'd '.Apah ' means all Karma-the nu1nifestcd rtctivit;y of all living things. (rl'his air) allots to fire, sun, clouds, &c., their several fnnctions of flaming, burning, shin-ing, raining, &c. Or it may be said that it supports these, from the Srutis, such as " From fear of this, the wind blows, &c. " The meaning is that all these modi-fications of effects ancl causes take place only while the eternally intelligent entity of the .Atman, the source of all, endures.

    "' " '">'\ " "' " "' a-~(f q-~ ~~ (f[Pacn 1 c\

    (' ('



    means' moves.' 'Naijati' 1neans 'does not moYe of itself.' The meaning is that though motionless in itself, it seems to move. Besides, it is distant, i.e., it seems to be far removed, becn.usc it is not nttuinable l1y the ignorant, even in the course of hundreds of millions of ages. 'J7c6dvc6ntik6 is split into tacl, u, and antilt:G. It is very near to the knowing ; for it is their At man. It is not merely distanti and near; it is within everything accord-ing to .the Sruti " 'l'he Atman which is wit11in every-thing." All means 'all the worlcl of names ancl form.s and aetivity.' Ibis without all this, being all-pervading like the Alms; and within everything, being extremely

    t~ubtle. Ib is indivisible according to the Sruti " It is clense with knowledge."

    ~Q; \rcfTftTr ~2:fm:t;:~crT~ q~21rft' I \1~~~. =crrmFi nffi ;:r M 'U.'U, 'tl a: ll ~ tl

    vVho sees everything in his .Atman and his Atmau in everything, by that he feels uo revulsion.

    Oommumta?y.-vVho, i.e., the Sa.nyasin, who wish-es for emancipation. All Bhutas, i.e., from the Avyakta down to the immoveable creation. 'Seeing them all in his m:vn Atman ' means ' seeing that they arE) not distinct from his owu self.' 'Seeing his Atman in them all' means. 'seeh1g his Atman as the Atmn,n of


    all.' .Just n.s he fin(ls his Atmn.n the \vituess of all his perceptions, the thinking principle, pure and uncondi-t~ioned, the soul of his body, which is a bundle of et:.. fect~s and causes, he finds his Atman in the same un-ponditioned state, the life prineiple of all the nniver::m, from the Avyo.kta down to the immoveable. 1-fe who t.hus views does not turn with revulsion by rea~-:~on of such view. This statement is only n. Jedara.tiun of a t.rnth already known. All revulsion arises only when mw sees anything bad distinct ftom one's Atnu:m. rpo mw who sees his ptue Atman alone cont~innous, there is no other object which conl


    not him who sees the one~1ess, pure and like the sky. 1'he negation of perplexity and grief-the effect of ignorance-being shown by the form of a question, the total uprooting of all Samsara with its seed has been indicated.

    ~ q~n-e~~911

  • ISAVASYOI'.t.\SI~liAD.

    no ranee, it is shown that it has no kctra ncL sarirri or cn.usal body. 'Apn.paviddham' means ' untouched by Karma, good or bad.' ' S 11kram ' and the following epithets are to be read as masculine, because of the beginning and. the encl being in t1w m:1sculine, as ScdL, J(cLvih, etc. J(a,vih means far-seeing, i.e., all-see-ing; for, says the Sruti "'l'hcro is no ~:~e.~.:u oiiher than the .Atmn.n, etc., ' l\!Ianishi ' means ' prompt.ing the mind,' hence 'omniscient, omnipotent.' Paribhuh means

    'being_above all.' 8oC6!fCtn~bhuh moans 'himsdfbeing all above ancl all tJolow becomes all.' He, the evc1 free, and omnipotent, being omniscient, allotted their respective functions, i.e., objects to be created to. the various and eternal Prajn.patis, known popularly as 'years' as aids to the enjoyment of the fruits of Karma.

    ""'"'" ' ~r


    explained, for the benefit of the ignorant who are not capable of Gnananishtha, in the second 1nantra begin-I?-ing with 'Kurvanneveha Karmani.' This bifurcation, 'i.e., Knowledge and Karma here pointed out by these texts has also been clearly indicatec1 in tl1e :Bri-hadaranya U pa.nishacl, by the text " he wished, let me have a wife, etc." .And :f:i01n the texts ' Karma for the ignorant and men having desires' and'The mind is his A.tman and speech, his \vife, etc.,' it is clear that ig-norance and desires are the characteristics of one en-gaged in the }Jerform::mce of Karma. Thus, the result of Karma is the creation of the seven kinds of food and of an identification of self with them considered as the .Atman. It has also been shown that concentration in the self, i.e., the Atman (as opposed to the perform-ance of Karma) by the renunciation of the three-fold desire of wife, etc., is the only necessary condition for those who know the Atman. Indirectly by condemn-ing the ignorant, the true nature of the .P.~...tman has been disclosed to those Sanyasins bent on the acquisi ... 'tion of knowledge by the text beginning with 'Asurya ... nama' and ending with ' Saparyagat )' etc., so as to show that they alone and not those who have desire:s are qualified to acquire knowledge. To the same effect says the Svetasvatara Upanishad " In the midst of a. crowd of seers he taught the greatest and the holiest


    truth to those who belong~cl to the kighesl ordei' of life." ':rhis t,ext "Andhamtamah," etc., is acldressecl to those who desire to live here continually performing Karma .. How is it inferred that this text is addressed to such only and not to all alike? Because, he who has no de-sires has got over the false distinction between means and ends, according to the mantra "Yasmin Sarvani Bhutani, etc. "; for it is easy to perceive that nonn who is not a fool will like to associate i!hc knowledge of unity of tilw .A.tman with Kmma or with any other piece of knowledge. But here, in view to combining two elements, the ignorant are ridiculed. ':Chat which can possibly combine with another, either from logic or from the Sastras, is here pointed out. It is ti1e know ledge of the deities that is here represented as fit to combine with Karma, not the knowledge of the Para-lnatman ; for a distinct result is predicated of the kno\Yleclge of the deities by the text 'By such know-ledge, the Devaloka is attained.' Either of such know-ledge and Karma separately pursued is here denounced, not reall1f to condemn but 'in view to the desirability of thei'i cmnbination; for distinct fruits are said to result from either iuclividually, by the texts "By such know .. ledge, they clilnb up to it," "By such knowledge is Devaloka attained," " 1'here they do not go who go south " and "By Karma is the abode of the manes


    attained." It is also well-known that nothing ordained by t,he Sastras can ever 1Jeeome unwort.hy of perform-ance.

    H.erP. rrht".Y entc:r into Llind darkness. vVlw ? They who fo1low A.vidya. .A.vicly~t is Homething other than V.idya or knowleclgl', hmwe Karma; for Karma is oppmwcl to knowledgt~. ~Pho drift js that those who are continually performing .Agunwtl'a ete. alone, fi.tll into dat'kuess. Anrl t]wy Gdl even into greater dark-ness. vVho? T1lwse who having given up Karma ftre ahvays bent npon acquiring the kumvledge of tilw dei-ties. Heason is given few combining KnmvleClge and Karma eadt of which separnt,ely heal's different fruits. If oue of the t1vo alone bore fiuit and the other not, then !Jy a "\\'ell-recognised law thnt which bore no fruit by itself would become a mere appencl~tge t.o the other.

    ~lf~rn-ms~~~ 1 '.::l '-0

    ~m ~~~ ~RroTI tr creTftcRrr~): II ~ o ll One result is predicated of Viclya ancl another of

    A.viclya. We have so heard from wise 1nen who taught us both Viclya and A vidya.

    Oommenia.iry.-' Anyat' means 'something distinct.' ~rhey say that by Vidya, some distinct result is produced according to the Srutis, ",By knowledge is Devaloka attained" and " By kno...,vledge they climb up



    to it." 'J.111ey say that other results are produced by Avidya (Karma) according to the text ''By Karma is the abode of the n1anes attained." vVe lu~ve heard this statecl to u8 by wise men, i.e., Hwso preceptors who taught us both Knowlcclge mHl ](arma. r.I.'he purport, is that this is tiheir view as hn.ndod down from prt~et.~ptor to disciple.

    He who simulkmeously knows both Vidya ancl Avi-dya gets over decdh by A. vicly11 ancl attains inwnoria,Uty by Vicly11.

    Cmwmentwry.-This being so, the follmving results. Vidya is the knowledge of tho deities; Avidya is Karm11. vVho knows that both these shoulcl simulta-neously be followed by the same person, he alone, so combining the two, grrulJually secures the one desirable end. 'By .A.viclya' means 'by Karma such as Agnihotra, eiic.' 'Death' means 'action and knowledge.~ inclucecl by Prakriti (n.at~re).' 'Tirtva' means 'l;aving got over.' 'By Viclya' means 'by the knowlec1go of the deities.' 'Asnute' means 'attains.' To becon1e one with the deities is what is called immort~lity (A.mritam.)


    . """"'" "" \WCT ~: rrrcNfTrq trsx:n:rmBqmq 1 ~ '.::1

    ~ ~~ f1 Zt d1TI ~ ~ ~~ w.__mr: II Z ~II ~ ~;\,

    They fall into blincl darkness who worship the un-born Prakrit,i. ~J.llwy full into gr

  • 2() LSA \'ASYOI'XXISll.\.lJ. the two individual worships is pointed out in vww to their combination. They ha~re said that fl'om the worship of Sambhuti or Karya l3rahnum or Hiranya-garbha results the attainment of Anima aml ot~her Rid. Sh11ilal'ly, they lutvt\ sai
  • WITH ::ilU SAKKAIU'::; CU.:\1:.\lE:\'l'AitY. :21

    tains ani.ma and other shldh'is whieh are the result of the worship of Hirauyagurbha. l:Iaving thus ovetcome a.naisl'Cl?'J!rt?n, death, etc., he, hy the worship of Prakriti, ati;u.ins immortality, i. e., a1Jsolption into :Prakriti. It shnnlcl ho tlOtf'cl that tilw ,,orcl J')'nmlilnc.ti is an aphcresis for .Atm:m!dt?t.li ngJt~nahly t,o tlw I'< ~Hnltt-1 ]nor1ient.Gcl, i. e., absorption into :Prn.kriti.

    mtni~ trr5ror ~~~rfrt~ [email protected]~ I

    The c\ni-.ra11ee of the Trne is con1'ed us if by a golden veRsel. HemoV


    with the elucidation of the latter purport of the Vedas-renunciation. N mY, by '\Yhat roac1 he, 1vho has heen performing ]\:anna as e11joined fl'om conception to the grave ancl along with it the worship of tho lmnr ]iralmum in accordance with verHe 1], attains irnmcn'iin.-lit.y, will he e:~xp1ainec1. Ho who has 1)eou worshippi11g t.he mm1ifestml 13rahnum 1efi. \rrocl to in t.lw r>n.sRngo "'l'lmt is the ~rrne, tho Aclitya, the Pmuslm in this or'IJ; anc1 tho 1\Hnsha in the left. cyt-; bot.h t.ll


    0 Sun, sole traveller of the Heayens, controller of a1l, Surya, son of Prajapati, remove thy rays and gather up thy burning light. ~ behold thy glorious form ; I am he, the Pnrnsha within thee.

    Cmnnumta,ry.-' Pushan,' vocative case meaning '0 Snu.' Tlw Sun is called Pnshrtlro bec[tnRe he feeds Uw world. 'll~km~::d1.i' menn::; 'ono 1vlw t,J'avds alone.' ~rhe Snn is eallecl Ymna, because he controls all. He is cmllecl Snrya because he imbibes Prana, rays and liquitls. 'Prajapatya' men.ns 'son of Prajapati.' 'Vyuha' means 'remove t,o a distance tl1y rays.' 'Samuhn., means 'gather up, i.e., contract.' 'Tejah' means, 'burning light.' I 1vish to beholcl by thy grace thy most glorious form. :ll:foreover I do not entreat thee like a servant. I am he the Purusha within the solar orb, composed of Vyahritis as limbs or parts. 'Purusha' because he has the figure of a man or because he pervade:1 the whole in the form of Prana and intelli-gence or because he occupies the city (of the Soul) i.e., body.

    (Let my) Prana melt into the all-pervading Air, the eternal Sutratman ; and let this body be burnt by fire to ashes ; Om. 0 mind, ren1ember, remember my deeds ; 0 mind, remember, remember my deeds.

  • 2t I :SA VASY 0 P A.N li::.\HAD.

    OOJmnrmtn'i'!J.-Nmv, as I am dying, let my Frana len.ve its confinement within this body and join the all-pervnd to nshPs. Om, ac:eording t,o the ii:wm;:; of WOl'Hhip 1Jniug u rrraUkn (snllst,itntc~) of Hw naiiurtl of the ~rl'ue and called Agui is mentinnoclas the same as Drmnhau. ' Krato,' voeative case, mean-ing ' 0 mind whose elw,racteri::;t.ie it::J volition, ' ' He-member ' L c., the time has como for me to remcm ber wh::tb I should. Remember all that I have till now though-t of '0 Agni, remember what I have dono' i.e., remem her all Karma whieh I have done from childhoocl. The repetition of the same words 'I(rito Smara' &c.

    . '

    expresses solicitu 1e.

    0 Agni, lead us by the good path ijo the enjoyment of the fruits of our deed~;;, knowing 0 God, all onr deeds. Remove the sin of deceit, from within us. vV e offer thee many prostrations hy 'vorc1 of mont.l1.


    Oormnenla~y.-He requests passage again by another mantra. Ncuyct; means ' lead. ' ' Supatha' means 'by gooc1 path.' 'l'he attribute in Supatha is used for the purpose of avoiding the southern route. The suppliant soems to say " I have been affiictec1 by going to and fro by the southern route by which one goes only to return. I therefore entreat you to take nw by the good road through which there is no going and returning." 'Raye' means "to wealth; i. e .. , to the enjoyment of tl1o fruits of our Karma." ' Asman ' means ' us,' possessed of the fruits of the virtue nforesaid. 'Visvani' n1e11ns 'all.' 0 God, 'Vayunani' 1neans' deeds or knowledge, 'Vidvan ' menus ' Knowing. ' Besides do this : 'Yuyo-dhi ' men,ns ' destroy.' ' Asmat ' means ' from us. ' ' J uhuranam' means ' consisting in deceit. ' 'Enah ' 1neans 'sin.' The meaning is :-Thus purified they' could attain what they wish for. "But we are now unable to do you active service. We have to content ourselves by offering you many prostrations."

    Now a doubt is raised by some about the construc-tion of the latter halves of mantras 11 and 14. We shall therefore enter into a brief discussion to solve the doubt. What the question is clue to shn.ll first be stated. It is, why not understand the term Vidya in those passages in its primary sense of 'the knowledge of the Paramatman,' ancl so Amritatvam? They argue


    thus: gra.nted that the kno\Yledge of the Parmnatm:::m and the performance of Karma are mutually antago-nistic anc1 cannot therefore co-exist, this antagonism is not perceivnble ; for agreement awl antagonism rest alike on the ::mthority of the Sastras. ~Just, as the per-fol'mrmce of Kmma and t.he acquisition of Knmvlodge ::ne matters exclusively based on the Sastras, so also must lle t.he question of their agreement or 011position. ~elms \Ve find that the prohibitory injunction 'Do noii kill any living thing' is overric1den 1)y another Sast,rnic injunction 'Kill a sheep in a sacrifice.' rl'he same may apply to Karma ancl Knowle

  • WITH SRI tL\NJC\.H.A's COl\ll\IKNTAHY. :37

    adheres. It is well known that when one knows that iire is hot ancl bright he cannot at the same tin1e think that fire is neither hot nor bright Ol' even entertain a clm:tbt as to whether fire is bright or hot; for according to the text " vVhen to the knower all living things l>eeome one with hiH own Atman, whel'e is gl'id' or pe1plcxity to one who sees this unity," gtiof or perplex-it,y is ou1i of the question. vV e luwe alreacly saicl that where ignorance ceases its result, Karma, also ceases. l'he 'iJm'mot'laUty in 'attains immortality' (in the passage mHler contmnp.lation) means relative imnwrtality ancl not absolute immortality. If the word Viclyn, in those texts meant the kuowlec1ge of the Paramn,tmau, then the entreaty to the Sun for n,llo\ving a passage woulcl. become inappropriate. vVe therefore conclude with observing that our interpretation, 'i.e., ijhat Uw combina-tion c1e:::irec1 is of Karma with the worship of the deities and not with the l(nmvlec1ge of the Pnrmnatnum is the purport of the mantras as commented upon hy us.

    :.Here em1s the Commentary of Sanlmrn. Blmga.vntpu

  • lcnopnnie l)nb Sri $ankara's Introduction~ ADOltA'l'ION '1'0 ~EHE BH.AHlvfAN.


    'l~his ninth chapter is begun for the purpose of pub_, lishi:ng the U panishacl beginning with Keneshitmn, etc/ anc1, treating of the Brahman. Before the beginning of the ninth chapter, all Karma has been explained ancl the different forms of worshipping Prana, the source of all activity, have been laid dmYn ancl all about the St1?nans (songs) preliminnry to the rituals have been given. Next the GaycLl?cL StZmct,n has been explainecl and the genealogical list of preceptors and discirJles has been given. .All this Karma ancl Knowledge (of the deities) properly observed, as enjoined, tencl to purify the mind of one who being free fiom desires, longs for emancipation. ln the case of one who cherishes de-sires ancl has no knowleClge, Karma by itself as laid down by the Srutis ancl the Smritis secures for him the southern route and return to Samsara. .Activity follow-ing natural impulses ancl repugnant to the Sastras


    entails c1egrat1n.tion into low births from lJt:asts clown to immovables. ':Che Srut,i says : "~Cr:.welling by neither of these two paths, these small creaturef:l are constantly returning, of whom it may be said: ' Be horn a.nd die. '

    ~rhis is the thircl course." ..:.'\.nother Srnti says " ~ehe tJnee kinc1;:; of living beings (going by neith

  • \'iTl'II 8RI SANKAHA'S COl\1:\IENTARY. ;]}

    qualified to hear, contemplate and acquire knmvledge of the inner self. By the knmvledge of the inner self: ignorance, which is the seed ofbondage, and the cause of Karma performed for the realisation of desires, is

    entirt.~ly removed. ~rhe Srutis say: " 1'here is no grief or delusion to one who sees this unity." "He '\Vho knows Uw Atman overcomes grief." "vVhen He, that is Loth high anc1low, is seen, the knot of the heart is cut, nll doubts are resolved and all :Karma is con ... sumec1."

    If it be nrgec1 that even by knowledge coupled with Karmn. tbis result is attn.inecl., we say no; for the Vf~jasaneyalm shows tlutt that combination produces differ-ent results. Beginning with "Let me have a wife," the texts go on to say, "By a son should this world be gained, not by any other means ; by Karma, the abode of the manes [Pitris J; and by knowledge, the world of the deities"; thus sho,ving how the three worlds clifierent from the .A.tman are reached. In the same place we find the follmvjng renson urged for one becoming a Sanyasin: "vVhat shall we, to 'vhom this world is not the .A.tman, do with offspring?'

    ~Che meaning is this: vVhat shall '\Ve do with off-spring, Karma, aml Knmvledge combined with Karma, whieh are the means to secure the world of the mortals the world of the manes, nncl the world of the Gods; ancl


    which do not help us in securing the world of the Atman? For, to us noneofthe three worlds, transitory and attainable by these means, is desirable. To us that world alone which is natural, unborn, unc1ecaying, immortal, fearless and neither augmented nor diminished by Karma, anc1 eternal, is covetable; and that being etmmtl cannot be socnred by any oiiher men.ns tlum the removal of ignorance. 'l'herefore t;he renunciation of all desires preceded by the knowledge of the Brahman who is tho inner Self should alone be practised 1Jy us. .A,n .... other reason is that the know ledge of the inner Self is. antagonistic to l{arma and cannot therefore co-exist with it. It is well known that the knowledge of thE> Self, the one Atman of all, which abhors all perception of difference cannot possibly co-exist with Karma whosE> basis is the pe~ception of the difference of agent, results, etc. .As kno\vledge relating to the reality, the know-ledge of the Brahman is independent of human efforts. Therefore. the desire of a person, who is disgusted with visible ancl invisible fruits achievable by external means, to know the Brahman which is. connected with thE> inner Self, is indicated by the Sruti beginning with Keneshitarn, etc. The elucidation of the Brahman in the form of_ a dialogue between the preceptor and the clisciple is, considering the subtle nature of the theme, for the easy understanding thereof.. It will also be


    clearly pointed ou:t that this knovdec1ge is not to be attained solely by logical discussion. !J.'he Srutis say "'I'his stateofmincl cannot lJe obtained by logical discus-sion." "lie knows who has stnc1iecl unc1er a precep-tor." "Such knowledge only as is acquired by study-ing under a 1neee11tor does good." rl'he 8n1riti lays down also "Learn ~L'hat by prostration." It should be inferred that some one duly approached a preceptor centred in Brahman anc1 :finding no refnge except in his inner Self ancl longing for that which is fearless, eternal, calm and unshakable, questioned the preceptm as expressed in 'l{eneshitcwn, etc.'


    Om Tat Sat.

    May (Brahman) protect us both. :May (Bra1umm) enjoy us both. May we work together. })!fay the self-luminous B~,ahman be studied by us. :Thfay we not hate each other.

    Om Peace l Peace ! ! Peace !!!

  • j . .f, 1\:ENOPAKI;.;H.AD.

    ,..., "' "' ,..., ,..., " ;a:rr:;l.:n;q~ +mr~TR crrCFmuT~PfJ: !5fJW=f:qf cr~r~rr=~;qrfOT C'('.. (' ~,..., "' (' "'

    =cf \1CflTOT ~;:r ~~ ;:r~ mH T~T +IT BT ~R-"' "' "' . "" ,....., ,....., "" ~~UcfiH.O l+!tc6l I i'U Cfi~Uf ~S~~ ~RBTc:f fc=f\q q i3'tf-

    ,....., C'"' ,....., "' ,....., T~ 'Cf+TRd ~F1 ~~ q-.~rq B--g ll :an ~II PG: I ?ITTRr: I ?ITTRr: I

    :May niy limbs, speech, Jm1.na,, eye, Pal', strrmgth and all my senses grow vigorous. All ( en~rything) is tlw Brn.lmmn of the U panislwc1s. lVIay I nevpr deny tho Brahman. May the Brahman nevf'r spurn me:~. lVJny there be no denial of t,he Bralnnan. 11:ay there be no spurning by the Brahman. Let n,ll tl1e virtues recited 1Jy the Upanishads repose in me delighting in the At-man ; may they in me repose.

    Om Peace! Peace!! Peace!!!

    """""' . " "'........ . "" ~,...... cw=rrqq 'RITd !IT'T\f ~c:r: 1 CfM' !TroT: w~: mer ~: \,::'1

    "'""" . "' . ,..., "". """" "' cwrfGI"ffi' crRrlWir ~Per ~

  • WI'l'H SIU HANK .. UtA '::; Go:LIE\IEN'l'.AHY.

    j ccts.' As the rooi; Lc;h cannot bP here taken in the sense of 'repent' or ' go, ' it must be unclerstood to be used in the sense of' wish.' '~11he It suffix in Islt.:ilam is a case of Vedic license. Tlw word Preshit(mn is dt~rivecl iimn the BHnlO root, ivithp?"rr, before it~ when iii means 'le awl dernnJ. "\Vere it otherwise, tlH' qnest.ion ih:r-lf, 8l'L'iug how not:odoul::l in the world


    is the fact that the body directs by means of will~ act or wo~rc1, would be meaningless. If it be ol)ject .. ed that even on this view there is nothing gained in the sense; by the use of the word Preshitmn, we say no. The wor(1 Prreslbi'lcmr, adds to the sense when we think that a questioner really entei'taius a donbt. ':J.1o t:ihow that the question is lH'omptec1 by a doubt in t;ho questioner's mind, as to ;,vhethel' as is notorionH, tho body-the collection of causes and eftbcts-clirl~ets the miucl etc., or v::hether the minc1 etc. is directed by i;he mere will of anything other than these comlJina ... tions of causes and effects anc1 acting independently, the use of both the words Isldtam and Freshitam is justifiable. If, however, it be urged that the mind it-self, ns every bocly knmvs, inclepenclently lights on its own object, and that the question is itself irrelevant, the argument is untenable. If the mincl vvere independ-ent in the purst1it of its objects or in c1esisting fiom pursuit, then it is not possible for any one to contetnp-late evil; but man, conscious of evil results, wills evil, ancl the mincl though clissuacled, attempts deeds of serious evil consequences. 'l,herefore the question ]{eneshitcwn etc. is certainly appropriate.

    By ;,vhom directed c1oes Pn1.ncfJ go, i.e., about its own business? Pratlumu& is an appropriate acljective of Pnlnc~, as the activity of all the oensory organs pre"'


    snppm3es it. By whom prompted is the speech wl1ich men in the worlclmake use of? Ancl what Intelligence directs the eye anc1 the ear towards their respective objects?

    - ~ ~ +r.TI ~it ~ crrcr ~ i3" !:flUW.:r mu-r.-

    2. It is t.he f\al' of thr. t'ar, 1nind of the mind, tongue of the ton gno, mulalso lifo of the life nnclPye of the eye. Being etecl thnt while the l'eply ought to rnn. in the form, ' So-anc1-so, with stwh-ancl-such at-tributes, c1ircets the ear ete.' the reply in the form ' He is the ear of tlw ear etc.' is inarpropriate ? This is no objection; for he (tJw director) cannot otherwise be particulnrizetl. If the di1ector of tl1e ear etc., can be


    kno\vn by any activity of his mvn, inclepE'nc1ent of the activity of the en,r etc., as a person who directs another to give, then indeed wonlc1 this form of answer lJecome inappropriate. But we clo not here unc1erstam1 a di-rector of the ea1 etc. having :wy activity of hil::l ow11, like a mower. 'I'he clirPctur is iu:1(:~nec1 l>y logi( aliw-cessit,y from UlO[l,etiviilynmnifl'Hl"cd lJythn L'al' niH1 u1h~rH eom1Jinut1, srwh as deliherntiou, Yolitioll, dd,tnnilJa-tion, E'mtriup; for t,Jw lJt'lH:fit uf Honwthing

  • 'WITII Sin SANKAH,\.'f~ l:Ol\Il\IEN'i'ARY. !Ji)

    ness." "By his light is all this Universe illumined." ' By that light illumined does the sun shine, etc." anc1 so on. ~rhe Bhagavad Gita says "As the light in th


    should be converted into t.he nominative case; for we next read 'Prr.&nctsyap?c~nnh.' It may be said that con-formably to the expression 'VcZchuha~clduf./m' the follow-ing 'Trdnasyap?ctncth' may as well be read as 'Prcl.nct-syaprr.~nam.' It cannot be, for conformitiy to th~ majority is desirable. So 'vctclfcwn' should he reacl as 'VdJ/ in conformity to '8a.h' ancl 'l,rr.1.nah' in '8r6 'lt 1n1.l.?ut .. 'I!Jn Jm'nah,' because it then con:f01'111S wii;h two words and conformity to the majority is prefenecl. Besides, tlw substance askecl about ca.n be best denoted by a 1101.111 in the nomi11ative case. The substance askecl about by you is the prl'inc6 of JlrcZnct, i.e., it is that substance which enclo'ivs z:m:tnc6 with the capacity to discharge its functions, i.e. to infuse activity; for there can possibly be no activity where the Atman cloes not preside. "Who could live and breathe if there 'vere not the self:. luminous Bralun::m ; n ancl " lie leads Prwna up ancl Apcmcb clown " say the Sruties. It "\Vill also be said in this Upanishad, "You know That to be the Brahman which infuses activity into Prana." It may be said that in a context speaking of the ear and other senses the mention of Breath would be more appropriate than that of Prana. Truly so; but in the use of the word J?'rnna, breath is meant to be included.

    The Sruti thinks thus :-the gist of this por!iion is that that is Brahman for whose use the aggregation of the


    senses exerts its combined activity. Similarly it is the eye of the eye, &c. The capacity of the eye to perceive form is founcl only where the intelligence of the Atman directs it. Therefore it is the eye of the eye. After this expression in the text, the expression 'having un-derstood the Brahman as above defined, i.e., as the ear of the ear &c.,' m .. ust be supplied by the reader, as the questioner should be supposed to be anxious to know what he askec1 about. Another reason "\vhy the expres-sion should be supplied is the enunciation of the result 'they become immortal ;' for it is only by wisdom that imnwrtality is attained and it is only by knowledge one can attain en1ancipation. liaving gimn~J 'Uj) all the sen-sory orgcbns; (It is by confounding the ear and other sensory organs with the Atman that man is born subject to these conditions, dies and thus rotates) means' having learnt that the Atman is the Brahman defined as the ear of the ear &c.' Atimuchya means 'having given up the false notion that the ear, &c. is the .A.tn1an' ; for, with-out the aid of the highest intelligence, it is impossible for one to give up the notion that the ear, &c., is the .A.tman. ' Prctya ' means ' luwing turned away. ' 'AsmalltJkut ' means ' frmn this worlcl, where the talk is always of 'my son, ' ' my 'vife, ' ' my kith and kin.' ':J.1he drift is 'having renounced all desires.' 'Become immortal' means 'enjoy immunity from.


    death.' The Srutis {tlso say "Not by deeds, not hr offspring, not by \Yealth, but by renunciation dlu some attain immortality"; " The senses were made to per-ceive only external objects;" " IIaving turned his senses inwards for desire of immortality;" " When all desires me driven forth, here they attain the Brahman" &e. Oi., seeing that the worc1 Ah~m?.t,chwr, necessarily implit:~s 'renunciation of all desires,' i;he expression 'A.'lnuUltl'h:rU pretya' may be interpretocl as ' having left this mortal body.'

  • 'WI'l'II SRI oANKAHA's COl\11\IENT ..clRY. .t8

    Atman of that w01d and of the organ that utters it is' tlw Brahman. So the word does not go there. Just as fire that burns and enlightens things does not either enlighteu or burn itself, so the mind, which wills and determines in respect of external objects, cannot will or determine in respect of its self~ because its .Atman is 11lso the Brah-man: A thing is cognised by the senses mHl the mind. We do not therefore know the Bmhm11u, be


    oth~r modes of proof; hut it is possible to make him believe by the aid of Aocwnns (Scriptures). Therefore the preceptor recites Agamcts for the purpose of teach-ing about the Brahman and says : 'It is something dis-tinct fi.om the known anc1 something beyond the un-known, etc.' 'Anyc~t,' 'something c1istinct'; '11at,' 'the present theme>; i.e., that which has been defined to be the ear of the ea.r, etc., and beyond their (ear, eye, ete.,) reach. rrhat is certainly distinct fl.om the known. 'rl'he known,' mea.ns 'wha.tever is the object of special know-ledge'; and as all such objects can be known somewhere, to some extent and by some one and so forth, the whole (manifested universe) is meant by the term 'the known'; the drift is, that the Brahman is distinct from this. But lest the Brahman shoulc1 be confounded with the unknown, the text says: 'It is beyond the Unknown.' 'Aviditat' 1neans 'something opposed to the known ; ' hence, unmanifested illusion (avidya) the seed of all manifestation.' Aclhi' literally means 'above' but is here used in the de1~ivative sense of' something different from'; for, it is well known that one thing placed above another is something distinct fion1 that other.

    Whatever is known is little, mortal and full of misery ancl therefore :fit to be abandoned. ':J.lherefore when it is said that Brahman is c1istinct fiom the Known it is clear that it is not to . be abandoned. Simi-


    larly, when the Brahman is said to he distinct fron1 the Unknown it is ineffect saic1 that the Brahman is not fit to be taken. It is to produce an effect that one seeks for a cause. ~eherefore there can be nothing distinct from the knO'wer, which t.he kn01ver conlcl seek for, '\Yith any benefit. ':J.lhns, by saying tl1at the Braln11an is dis-tinct from both the Known auc1 the Unknown ancl thus disproving its iituess to be abandoned or to ue taken, the desire of i;he c1iscipletoknow anything distinctfron1 Self (.Atman) is checked. Jror, it is clear that none other than one's .Atman can be distinct fiom both the I{nown anc1 the U nknmvn ; the purport of the text is that tl1e .Atman is Brahmau. ':J.lhe Srutis also say : "'l1his ..A.tman is Brahman"; "this Atman who is untouched by sin". ''This is the known and the nnkmvn Brahman;" "11his .A.tman is within all ;" etc. '11he prece1~tor next says how this meaning of the text, that the Atman of all, mark-eel by no distinguishing attributes, bright anr1 intelli .. gent, is the Brahman, has been traditionally handed down from preceptor to disciple. And Bralunan can be knatvn only by instruction fron1 preceptors and not by logical disquisitions, nor by expositions, intelligence, great learning, penance or sacrifices etc. We have l1earc1 this saying rof. the preceptors who clearly taught us the Brahman.

  • J.L6 KENOP ..lNit;li.A.D.

    "" . ,.....,..... "" . ,..... "" ~ ~ cq- TCfT:fX ~ ;qld:C{~ q Ria ll ?S II 4. What speech does not enlighten, but what en ..

    lightens speech, know that alone to be the Brahman, not this which (people) here worship.

    Oom.-When by the text " n is something distinct from both the known ancl the unknown," the preceptor conveyed that the A.tman is Brahman, the disciple doubted l1ow the A.tman could be Brahman. 'l'he Atman> as is well known, being entitled to perform kwrma, and worship (of the gods) and being subject to births and re-births seeks to attain Brahma or other Devas, or heaven, by means of Karma or worship. 'l1herefore, somebody other than the Atman, such as Vishnu, Iswara, Indra or Prana, entitled to be worshipped, may well be Brahman; but the Atman can ne\rer be; for, it is contrary to popular belief. J-ust as logicians con-tend that the Atman is distinct i.om Iswara, so the vo-taries of Karma worship Devas, other than the Atman, saying : 'Propitiate this Deva by sacrifice' and ':Pro-pitiate that Deva by sacrifice.' Therefore it iB only reasonable that what is known ancl entitled to worship is Brahman and that the worshiper is other than that. The preceptor inferred this doubt running in the dis .. ciple's mind either fiom his looks or ii:om his worc1s


    ::mel saicl : 'Do not doubt thus.' Yat means 'that 'vhicl1 is intelligence itself." l"(ik is the organ presided over by Agni (J?ire) occupying eight localities in the body, such as the root of the tongue, &c. Tho letters are intended to express the n1eaning to he conveyed and are suqjec.t to laws as to their number ancl order. The worcl which is pror1ucecl by them is callecl Vak (speech). The Srut,i says "1'he letter CIJ is all speech, which being proclucecl by the use of letters, diviclec1 into spatsn, am,-tnsiha, ancl1~shnuo becomes diverse ancl assumes many forms." rrhe Rik, Y fl:jur, Sama ::mel truth and falsehood are its modifications. By such speech enclosed in words and conditioned by the organ of speech, Brahman is not illumined or explained. 'Yena', 'by the Brahman.' Brahman by its brightness illmnines speech and its or-gan. It has been said here that, That (Bral1man) is the speech of speech. 1'he Vitjasaneyaka says 'Brah-nlan is \vithin the speech and directs it.' Having said 'Speech in man is the same as that in the letters and that some Brtthmin knows it,' the Upanishad, in an-swer to a. question anticipated, says "Tha.t is speech, by which one spea.ks in dreams." r:l'he speaker's power of speech is eternal, and is by nature of the same essence as Intelligence. The power of speech of the speaker knows no deca.y. So sa.ys the Sruti. Know this At-nla.n to be the Brahman, unsurpnssable, known as Bhu-


    nu1. B1cr.JwncLn, because it is big, all-pervading ; know this through its conditions of speech, etc. The follo\v-ing expressions 'speech of speech,' 'eye of the eye,' 'ear of the ear,' 'mind of the mind,' 'doer,' 'enjoyer,' 'kno'\v-er,' 'controller,' 'governor,' 'Brahman is knowledge and bliss,' etc., are used in popular language of the un-speakable Brahman, devoid of attributes, highest of all, unchangeable. Disregarding these., know the Atman itself to be the unconditioned Brahman. ~J.1his is the meaning. Brahman is not what people here worship, such as Iswa.ra., which is not the Atman, ancl which is conditioned and referred to as 'this'. ':J.llwugh it had been said: 'know 11hat to be Brahman' ; still it is again said : "and not this, etc." thus repeating the idea that, what is not .A.tman is not Brahman. rrhis is either to lay down a Niycwna (a. rule restricting the choice to a stated alternative when several others are possible) or for Parisankhyana (exclusion.)

    ...... ...... c- ..... ~~T ;:r ~ ;q~l~+l~l ~I

    ~ ~ ccr fcrf%: ~ ~tm=rff II ~ II 5 What one can think with :the mind, but by

    which they say the mind is thought out, know ':Chat alone to be the Brahman, not this which (people) here worship.


    Oom.-']fanc~h,' 'mind.' By the 'vorcl 'Manah' here, both mind and intelligence are meant. '][c6nah' means 'that by which one thinks.' ':f.lhe mind is equally con-nected with all the sensory organs, because its sphere includes all external objects. l,he Sruti says: 'Desire, volition, deliberation, faith, negligence, boldness, timi-dity, shame, intelligence, fear, all iihese are 1nin


    6. What,. none sees hy the eye, but by which see-ing is seen, That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this which (people) here ''~orship.

    Omn.-' See' means 'perceive as an object.' By the light of the Atman, connected with the activities of the mind, man perceives the activii1y of the eye, varying with the activity of the mind.

    7. What none hears with the ear, but by which hearing is heard, That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this vvhich (people) here worship.

    Omn.-'What none hears with the ear' means 'what the world cloes not perceive as an object with the organ of hearing, presided over by Digdevata, produced in Alms and connected with the activity of the mind.' 'By which this hearing is heard,' it is well known that it is perceived as an object by the intelligence of the Atman. The rest has beep. already explained.


    8. vVhat none breathes with the breath, but by which breath is in-breathed, That alone know thou to be the Brahman; not this which (people) here worship.

    Oom.-' What none breathes with the l)reath' means 'whatnoneperceives,likeoc1our, '\Yith the earthly breath filling the nostrils and connectecl with the activity of the mind and life.' ' But by which, etc.' means ' by the enlightening intelligence of t;he Atman, breath is made to move towarcls its objects.' All tho rest' tadevt.L, etc,' has already been explained.

    Here ends the :first part.


  • 1\cnop a nisi) a~. --0--



    " .... "'"'" .... Q,. :rrre: w~~ Wf~T(f


    ject of sense-perception then it is possible to know it well, just as an inflammable substance can be consumed by the consuming fire. But the essence of fire cannot itself be so consumed. The well-ascertained drift of all Vedanta is that the self ( Atman) of every knower is the Brahman. The same has 1;>een here explained in the form of question ancl answer by the text 'It is the ear of the ear etc'. The same has been stillmore clearly c1e ..... terminec1 by the text: "vVhat is not enlightened by speech, etc". rrhe traditional theory of those who know the Brahman has also been declared by the text : "It is something different from both the known and the unknown". This Upanishad will also conclude by say-ing "It is unknown to those who know, ancl known to those who c1o not know". It is therefore certainly pro-per that the notion of the disciple, 'I know, Brahman well' should be dispelled. It is evident that the know-er cannot be known by the knovver, just as fire cannot be consumed by fire. There is no knower other than the Brahman, to whom the Brahman can be a knowable, distinct from himself. By the Sruti : "There is no knower other than that," the existence of another know-er is c1eniecl. The belief therefore 'I know Blahman well' is an illusion. Therefore well c1ic1 the preceptor say ' Yculi, etc'. ' YctcU ' means ' if perchance'. 'Ehweda/ 111eans 'I know Brahman well'. Because some one whose


    sins have been purged and "\vho is really intelligent may properly understand what is taught and others not, the preceptor begins with a doubt' Yculi' etc'. Such cases have also been found to occur. vVhen he was in-formed 'This p'nr~tshcb who is seen in the eye, this is the Atman; this is the immortal, fearless self,' Viro-chana, the son of Prajapati and the lord of the Asuras, though intelligent, misinterpreted this instruction on account of his natural defects ancl understood that the body was the Atman. Similarly, Indra, lorcl ofthe De-vas, not being able to comprehend the Bralunan, at the first, second and third instructions, did, at the fourth~ his natural faults having been re1noved, comprehend the very Brahman that he was first taught. It has been found in the world also, that, of disciples receiving in-struction fro1n the same preceptor, some understand him properly, smne misinterpret his teaching, some inter-pret it into the exact contrary of the teacher's view and some do not understand it at all. What more neea we say of the knowledge of the Atman which is beyond the reach of the senses. On t~1is point, all logicians, with their theories of Bat and A sed, are in conflict. The doubt therefore expressed in 'Yadi ?ncbnya:Je' etc., with which the preceptor begins his discourse is certainly appropriate, considering that the disciples, in spite of the instruction that the Brahman is unknGwalJle, might


    have misunderstood him. 'Da]ut?a/ means 'little';' Vettha' n1eans ' know est' ; i.e., thou know est surely little of Brahman's form. Has Brahman then many forms, great ancl little, that it is said 'clcdtmct?n etc.' ? Quite so ; many indeed are the forms of BrD.hman produced by conditions of name and form, but none in reality. By nature, as the Sruti says, it is without sonncl, touch, form, destruction ; likewise tasteless, oc1ourless, a.nd eternal. Thus with souncl, etc., form is denied. But it may be said that, as that by which a thing is defined, is its rt~pct or form, the peculiar atttibute of Brahman by which it is defined, may be said to be its form. "\V e thus answer. Intelligence cannot be the quality of the earth, etc., either of one or all of them together, or un-der any modifications. Similarly, it cannot be the qua.-lity of the sensory organs, like the ear, etc., or of th.e mind. 'Brahmmw rtlpam~ ', Brahman is definec1 by its intelli-gence. Hence it is said : "Brahman is knowledge a.ncl bliss'; 'Braluna.n is dense~ with knmvledge '; 'Brah-man is existence, knowledge and infinity '; thus the form of Brahman has been defined. 1'ruly so ; but even there, the Brahman is defined by the words 'knowledge, etc'., only with reference to the limitations of mind, body and senses, because of its apparent adaptations to the expansion, contraction, extinction etc., of the body etc., ttndnot,on account of its own essence. .A.ccording


    to its essence it will be concluded in the subsequent portion of this U panishn.cl that it is unknown to those 'vho lmow) and knO'ivn to those who c1o not know. IJ.'he ex1wession 'YaclcbS7flb brcLhnutno qz1pmn' should be read along with what precec1es it. Not only dost thou know little of tho form of Bra.hman, when thou know est it n.s conc1itionec1 in man, but tt1so 'vlwn thou knowest it as conditionecl in tho Dovas ; so I think. Bven tll{l form of'Brnhn1an as it exists in the Devas is little, be-cause it is limited by condition. The gist is that the Brahmanlimitecl by no conc1itions or attributes, passive, infinite, one without a second, known as Bhun1a, eternal, cannot be known well. rl'his being so, I think tJutb you have yet to know Bralunan by enquiry. ' Atlw ml,' 'therefore.' 'JJJ.imltmsycmL,' '\Yorthy of enquiry.' Thus rtL1c1ressed by the preceptor, the c1isciple sat in solitude all c01i1posed, discussed within himself the n1eaning of the Agama as pointed out by his. Guru (preceptor), arrived at a conclusion by his reasoning) realised it in himself, approached the preceptor :mel excbimecl " I think I now know Brahman."

    ~ +r=~ tt'Ci=e.m- ~ ~ ~~ ~ :q 1 "' "' "' ...... "'""" ""


    as also '\vhat is n1eant by 'I know too; not that I do not know.'

    Oorn.-On being asked how, the disciple says:" Listen. I do not think I know Brahman well." " Then is the Brahman not known by thee?" Thus questioned, the disciple says "Not that I c1o not know, I know. too;" the word too in '1 know too' means 'I clo noti know too'. Is it not contradictory: 'I think I know not Brahman well etc'? If than dost not think thou knowest well, how thou clast thou think thou knowest also? If again Uwu think ... est thou certainly knowcst, then how clast thou think thou knmvest not well? To say that a thing is not known well by the man who knows it is a contradiction, the cases of doubt and false knowledge being left out of consideration. Nor is it possible to lay down a restrict-ive rule that the knowledge of Brahman should be doubtful or false. It is well known that under any cir-cumstances, doubtful or false knowledge works great evil. Though thus attempted to be shaken in his con-viction by the preceptor the disciple was not shaken. From the tradition 1:vhich his master had explained to him, i.e., that the self is something other than both the known anc1 the unknown, front the reasonableness of the doctrine and from the strength of his own experience the disciple loudly exclaimed, showing the firmness of his knowledge of the Brahman. How he exclaimed is


    thus stated. ' He of us,' i.e., my co-disciple, who cor.:. rectly understands what I have saicl knows Th11t (Brah-man). The words he referred to 11re 'not that I do not know. I know too'. Wl1at was defined by the expres-sion 'that is something other than both the known and the unknown', the disciple discussed ancl decided frmn inference and from experience; ancl in order to see whether the preceptor's views agreed with his own and to counteract any false conclusion, which dull persons n1ay have arrived at, he expressed the same in different words: 'not that I do not know; I know too'. 1'he con-fident exclmnation of the disciple ' He of us, etc.,' is accordingly appropriate .

    .,.....,'4E4 ............. 1+t-rd ~ m=f m:f ~~ c:r ~ ~: I ~ ~r;:mt mKll11'Cl~ lvotcti II Z Z II

    3. It is Known to him to whom it is Unknown; he knows it not to whom it is Known. (It is) Unknown to those who know, and l{nown to those \Vho do not know.

    Oo?n.-Turning iom the concurring vimvs of the pre-ceptor and the disciple, the Sruti speaking for itself con-veys .in this text the view about which there is no dis-agreement. The purport is that to the knower of the Brahman whose firm conviction is tl1at the Brahman is unknow&ble, the Brah:man is well .known. But he,


    whose conviction is that the Brahm::m is knmvn by him, certainly knows not the Brahman. The latter half of the text, only states those two distinct conclusions of the wise and ignorn.nt man mo~:e emphatically. To those who know well, the Brahman is certainly (a thing) un-known; but to those who do not see well, i.e., who con-found the Atman with the sensory organs, the n1incl ancl the conditioned intelligence [Buc1dhi], Brahman is cer-tainly not known, but not to those who are extremely ig-norant; for, in the case of these, the thought 'Brahman is known by us' never arises. In the case of those who find the Atrnan in the conditioned organs of sense, mincl and intelligence, the false notion ' I know Brah-man ' is quite possible, because they cannot discriminate between Brahman and these conditions and because the conditions of intelligence etc. are known to them. It is to show that such knowledge of the Brahman is fallacious that the latter half of the text is introduced. Or, the latter half' Avignatmn, etc.', may be construed as furnishing a reason for the view propounded in the former.

    4. (The Brahman) is 1nwwn well, \vhen it is known tts the witness of every state of consciousness ; for (by


    such knowledge) one attains hnmortality. By his self he attains strength and by knowledge, immortality.

    Oom.-lt has been settled that it is unknown to those who know. If Brahman be not known at all, it will then come to this, that there is no difference between the worldly-minded and those who 1\:now the Bralunan. r:ro say that It is unknmvn to those who know is also a contra-diction. IIow then could that Brahman be well-known.? 11his is explained in this text. 'Frcti'ibOc.lhcwirlita,m' means 'known in respect of every state of consciousness.' By the worcl 'bocllw,' is meant ' 1nental perception'. 'J.lhat by which all states of consciousness are perceived like objects is the Atman. He kno\vs ancl sees all states of consciousness, being by nature nothing but intelligence and is indicated by these states of consciousness, as blended with every one of them. There is no other way by 'vhich the inner Atman could be known. Therefore when the Brahman is known as the witness of all states of consciousness, then it is known well. Being the witness of all: states of consciousness, it will be clear that it is intelligence in its essence, subject to neither birth nor death, eternal, pure, unconditionec11 and one in all things, because there is no difference in its essence, just as in the essence of the Alt:(ts, in a vessel or mountain cave, etc. rrhe drift of the passage from the A[Jamas [traditions] is that the Brahman is other than


    both the known and the unknown. It is this pure .A.tman that will be described at the close of the U panishacl. Another Sruti says " He is the seer of the eye, the hearer of the ear, the thinker of thought, and the knower of knowledge." But some explain the expres-sion ' PrJJtibOcllwv'iclitcwn' in the text as meaning 'known by its defining attribute of knowledge,' on the view that Brahman is the author of the act of knowing anc1 that Brahman as such author is known by its activity in knowing,' just as the wind is known as that which sha.kes the branches of the trees. In this view the .A.tu1an is an unintelligent substa.nce having the power to know and not intelligence itself. Consciousness is produced and is c1estroyec1. When consciousness is produced, then the .A.tman is associated with it ; but when it is destroyed, the .A.tman, dissociated from consciousness, becomes a mere unintelligent substance. Such being the case, it is not possible to get over the objection that the .Atman is rendered changeable in its nature, composed of parts, transient, impure, etc . .Again according to the followers of Kanuda conscious-ness is said to be produced by the combination of t.he .Atman and the mind and to adhere to the .Atman. Therefore the .Atman possesses the attribute of know-ledge but is not subject to modifications. It simply becomes a substance just like a pot ma.de red. Even on


    this theory the Brahm~n is reduced to an unintelligent substance and therefore the Srutis ' Brahman is know-ledge and bliss, etc.' would be set at naught. More-over the A.tman having no parts ancl being on1nipresent and therefore ever connected (with the n1incl), the impossibility of laying down a law regulating the origin of recollection is an insurmountable objection.

    Again that the 1\.tman can be connected with any thing is itself repugnant to the Srutis, Smritis ancl logic. '1.1he .A.tman is not connected \vith anything else'; '1.1he Atman unconnected \vith anybhing sup-ports everything'; so say both tbe Srutiand the Smriti. According to logic too, a thing having attributes may be connected with another having attributes and not with one dissimilar in class. To say therefore, that a thing having no attribute, unclifferentiatecl and having no-thing in common 'iVith anything else combines with another unequal in class is illogical. ':f.1herefore the meaning that the .A.tman is, by nature, kno'i:vleclge and light, eternal n.nd undecaying, can be arrived at only if the ..A.tman be the witness of all states of consciousness, and not otherwise. Hence the n1eaning of the expres-sion ' PratibOdhavidita?n rnatanu' is just what '\Ye explained it to be. Some, however, explain that the

    drif~ of this portion of the text is that the ..Atn1an is knowable by itself. 11here the .A.tman is thought of as


    conditioned and people talk of knowing the Atman by the .A.tman, distinguishing as it were, the unconditioned Atman from the .Atman conditioned by intelligence, etc. Thus it has been said " He sees iihe Atman by the .A.tnum," and "0 Best of men! know the .A.tman by the At.man, thyself." It is clear that the uncon-ditioned .Atman, being one, is not capable of being known either by itself or by others. Being itself the knowing principle, it ca.nnot stand in neecl of another knmving principle; just as one light cannot possibly re .. quire another light. So here. On tho theory of the follow-ers of Buddha that the .A.tman is known by itself, know-ledge becomes momentary ancl no .A.tma.n a.s its knower is possible. It is well known tha.t the knowlec1ge of th~ knower knows no destruction, being indestructible. Aga.in the Srutis: "Him who is eterna.l omnipresent a.nd all-pervading", 'This is He, great, unborn, A.tma.n, unde-caying, deathless, immortal a.ncl fea.rless,' etc., would be set at naught. Some, however, construe the word ' J>rc~tivodha ' to mean ' ca.useless perception ' as that of one "\:Yho sleeps. Others yet say that the '\Yorcl 'Frc6ti-ld3dhn' means 'knowledge of the moment'. (Vif e ans~;rer) whether it has or has not a cause, whether it occurs once or is often repeated, it is still P1ct,Ub0dha itself or knowledge itself. The drift is that the Brahma.n known as the witness of all states of consciousness is well-


    known, because by such knowledge, one attainS. in1:-mortality, i.e., being centred in one's self, 'i.e., emanci-pation. 'B1e knowledge that the Atman is the witness of all states of consciousness is the reason for immortal-ity. Immortality cannot possibly be the fact of the .Atman becoming something other than itself. 'l,he immortality of the Atman, consisting in being A.tman, is causeless; thus the mortality of the Atman consists in the mistaken belief of 'no .Atman' induced by ignorance. liow again, it may be asked, cloes one attain immortality by the knowledge of the Atman as already explained? It is therefore said as follows: 'AtmcLna/ means 'by one's own nature'; 'Vindr.tte' means 'attains'; 'Tfitryam' means 'strength or capacity.' 'l1he strength gained by wealth, retinue, mantras, medicinal herbs, devotion and ']IO[JCL cannot overcome mortality, because that is produced by things themselves mortal. The strength gained by the kno\Ylec1ge of the .Atman can be acquired by the Atman alone and not by any other means. Because the strength produced b:y the knowledge of the Atman does not require any other aiel, that strength alone can overcome death. And because one acquires by his Atman alone the strength proclucec1 by the knowledge of the.Atman, therefore he attains immortality hytheknow-leclge of the Atman. 11he .Atharvana Upanishad says "'J.lhis .Atman cannot be attained by one devoid of strengiih.le


    "' "'1 ,...., "'"' "'" " " " ~ t:p~,CIG_


    man in all, become immortal, i.e., become Brahman itself; for the Sruti says "He who kno'\vs that highest Brahman becomes Brahman itself."

    Here ends the fSecond l'art.


  • --o~-


    ~ ~ ~ ~~ (W1 ~~orr ~ ~ a,+~~r;q .. a t ~ Q:~o:qiB1f~cH~ ~s~F#rcrrti +rAAfu ll ~ g ll

    ~1he Brahman "von .a victory for the Devas and in that victory of the Brahman the Devas attainec1 glory. They thought 'the victory is ours and this glory is ours alone '.

    Oom.-l;.,roln tihe passage that 'It is not kno\\'TI to those ''rho know,' some fools may argue that whatever is, can be known hy proofs, aud whatever is not cannot be so known and is therefore non-existent, as the horns of a hare, and Brahman, being unknown, cloes not exist. In order that they may not fall into that error this par-able is introclucecl; for, the subsequent passages clearly show the folly of thinking that that Brahman who is controller of all in every way, Deva, even superior to all Devas, Lord over lords, not easily known, the cause of the victory of the Devas and of the defeat of the Asuras, does not exist." Or (it is related) for eulogising

  • 70 KENOP.ANif:lH~\.D.

    the knowledge of Brahman. How ? By showing that it was indeed by the knowledge of the Brahman that Fire, etc., attained pre-eminence among the De vas ; and Indra specially more than the rest. Or, it shows how difficult it is to know Brahman, because even Fire. etc, with all their great powers, nnc1 even Inllrn, lorcl of U1e Devas knew the Brahman only with consiclernl>le clifH-culty. It may bs that the whole U pauishad to follow is intended to lay down an injunction (to know the Brahman) or the story may have been intended to show the fallacious nature of the notion of doer, etc., found in all living beings, by contrasting it with the know-ledge of the Brahman-fallacious like the notion of the De vas that the victory was theirs. The Brahman already defined won a victory for the benefit of the Devas ; i.e., the Brahman in a battle bet\~~een the Devas and the .A..snras defeated the Asuras, the enemies of the world and the violaters of the limitations imposed by the Lord and gave the benefit of the victory to the Devas for the preservation of the world. In this victory of Brahman the Devas, Fire, etc., attained glory, and not knowing that the victory and glory belonged iio thB ParamU.tman, seated in their own .A..tman, the witness of all perceptimis, Lord of the universe, omniscient, the dispenser of the fruits of all Karma, omnipotent, and desirous of securing the safety of the world, looked


    upon the victory and the glory, as achieved by them-selves-the .A.tman enclosed within the limitations of their own forms, Fire, etc. ; that the glory-their being :B.,ire, Air, Indra and the like, resulting fr01n the victory -was theirs and that neither the victory nor the glory belonged to the Lord, over all the Atman within them. So they cherished this false notion.

    q~f firif~f ~~ ~ ~tT~~~q q~ 0~\Sfl'id ~ ~~ ~~~~~~

    2. He knew this notion of theirs ancl appeared be-fore them. What that Great Spirit was they dicl not know.

    Oom.-The Brahman evidently knew this false notion of theirs. Brahman being omniscient and-director of the senses of all living beings knew of the false idea of the Devas and in order that the Devas n1ight not be dis-graced like the Asuras by this false notion, out of pity for them ancl intending to bless them by dispelling, their false notion, appearecl before them for their bene-fit in a form assumed at \Yill, in virtue of its power-a form unprecedenteclly glorious and astonishing and capable of being perceived by the senses. The Deyas did not at all know the Brahman that appearecl before them. "\Vho is this Ynlalhain?J, i.e., this venerable Great Spirit.


    3. They addressed the Fire thus "0 Jittavecla! ]1inc1 out what this Great Spirit is." He said" yes."

    4. He ran to That. That said to him " who art thou"? He replied" I am A.gni or I am Jatavecla."

    5. That said " what power, in thee so named, is lodged." He replied " I can burn even all this, on the earth."

    6. That placed a straw before him and said : ' Burn this.' He approached it with all haste but was not able . to burn it. He immediately returned from thence to the Devas and said " I was not able to learn what this Great Spirit is."

    Oom.-J1he Devas not knowing what that Spirit was, being afraid of it, and desirous to know what it was, thus addressed A.gni who went before them anc1 who was little less than omniscient. '" 0 J'ataveda, learn well what this Great Spirit now in our view is. You are


    the brightest of us all." " Be it so" said Agni and ran towards the Spirit. Seeing him approach near, with a desire to ask questions of it, but overawed into silence in its presence, the Spirit asked him: " who art thou?" Thus questioned by Brahman, Agni replied: "I atn Agni well known also as Jataveda"; as if in self-complafsance at being so well known by two names, Brahman said to Agni who had thus replied: " what power is in thee who ownest such we~l-known and significant names?." He replied: "I could reduce to ashes all this universe and all ilmnoveables, etc., on this earth." The word 'earth' is illust1~tively used; for, even what is in the air is burnt by Agni [Fire]. The Brahman placed a straw before Agni wl1o was so vain-glorious, and said : " Burn but this straw in my presence. If thou art not able to burn this, give up thy vanity as the consumer of all." Thus addressed, Agni approached the straw with all the speed of over-ween-ing confidence but was not able to burn it. So he, Jt1tavec1a, being unable to burn it, covered with shame and baffled in his resolution, returned in silence from the presence of the Spirit and told the Devas : " I was not able to learn more, concerning this Spirit."

    "" ('. ",..... ,..... "' . ~ -.'"':+A ~ etl~~a011_ Cll'4et11[\ll'RIT~ rcn+r~~~~+tl\1


    err i31~+~t+fH~ ll ( ll (ffB;r '~crrq fcfi ~f~R-:fl:frG: \V"' ~~~r~ ~~ ~o!1ff!Rl ll ~ ll ({~ q:of ~CfT~T-

    7. rrhe Devns then snid to Air : ' 1 l.;e:.trn 0 Vayu! whnt Uris Grent, 8pirit is" He said : "yes."

    8. He mn to 'J.lhat. ~J.lhnt said : " who art thou" ? He re.plied : " I am Air or :M.atarisva."

    9. That said "what po\ver is in thee; so '\Vell known?" He replied: " I can blow away all the universe and all that is on the earth."

    10. That placecltt straw before him and said "Blow it away." He approached it '\Yith all speed but '\vas not able to blow it. Jie returned immediately from there and told the Devas " I \vas not able to learn who this Great Spirit is."

    Oom.-They next addressed Air thus: 'know this, etic.' ~rhe rest bears the same meaning as in the last passage. Vayu [Air] is so named from the root which means '1;o go' or 'to smell'. Air is also called '11fcUalrisva,' because it travels [8v((,ya.ti] in space [MtUcwi]. 'Adculiyctm' means 'can take'. ':rl1e rest is explained as in the previous passage.


    ~;~Bactr41Cl"Cf~~~ ~cr~


    context-as if adorned in gold. ' Ifirru~Jvc(;tim ' may mean 'the daughter of Himalaya', and being ever associated with the Lord (Siva) the omniscient, and having approached her, asked: "Who is this Spirit that showed itself and vanished ? "

    Here encls the ~rhird Part.


  • Jl\tnop ani11) a i). --o--


    ~T ~ mcrRr Sij&JOJI41 Qf\'~~ ~~f?IR1 ~ ~ fctc:J~Cfil< ~tHffi II ~ ll

    She said "It is Brahman indeed. Attain glory in the victory of Brahman." From her words only, he learned that it was Brahman.

    Oom.-The particle 'Ha' means 'verily'. Glory in the victory of the omnipotent Lord (for the Asnras were defeated only by Brahman). Efat modifies the predicate. Your notion that the victory and the glory are yours is false. From her words alone Indra learned that it was Brahman. The force of' only' is that Indra did not know of himself.

    '"''"' -....f'-~'"' ,....(',... ~ ~f[T ~ ({CIT ~laa\ll+ti:il ... tJI ... C!\CII;;;qC!Js:\C!I9)1< ... i{~a ~ ..._~. '"'' '"'("-. ~ CO{'if f! q~'l'{l~d &r-1~ ICIC!\I~Cfil{ ~&iiQ II ~ II

    2. These Devas, Agni, Vayu and Indra therefore much excel others, because they touched the Brahman nearest. They. it was who first knew the Spirit to be Brahman.


    Oo'n?J.-Because these Devas, Agni, Vayu and Inch'a approached the Brahman nearest by conversing with and seeing IJ.'hat, they surpass the others considerably in. the matter of power, quality and affluence. 'l'he particle 'Iva' either has no meaning or has d1e force of' certainly'. Because these Devas, Agni, Vayu and Inclra approached nearest the most desirable Brahman, by such means as the conversation afor0saicl, and because they were the first who knew the Brahman, they are foremost.

    ,~,..... " """". (' (fBlf[T ~:t\TSm\l\n+r:U .. '41 .. ~9Ri ~?fl~ 'Wro B'

    ~~~~~~~~11 3. Therefore also does Inc1ra considerably excel

    other Devas because he approached Brahmn,n nearest and because he first knew the Spirit to be Brahman.

    Oom.-Because even Agni and Vilyu knew Brahman from the worrls of Incha and because Indra first heard of the Brahman from the words of Uma, tJ1erefore does Indra so excel the other Devas. He approached Brah-lnan nearest because he was the first who knew the Brahman.


    4. Thus is That inculcated by illustration-that it flashed like lightning-that it appeared and vanished as the eye winketh. This is the illustration of the Brahman used in respect to the Devas.

    Oom.-Of the Brahman the snl1ject discussed, this is the Aclt!sctJ. Adesa is instruction by means of mustra-tions. 'l1he illustration by which the Brahman, the like of which cloes not exist, is explained is said to be its AtUsn. What is It? 1'hat which is well-known in the vwrlcl as the flash of lightning. 'l'o add 'k?ita'Vctl' is ineonsistent. rrherefore 've understand it to lnean. 'the flash of lightning'. The l)article 'A ' means 'like'. 'l'he meaning is' like the flash of lightning'. We find another Srnti saying 'As if a lightning}iashed '. It just showed itself to the Devas like lightning and vanished from their view-or the worcl ' 'Teja.s' [bright J should be supplied after ' V.idyuta}L' [of lightning]. 'l'he meaning then is that It shone for a moment like a daz%ling flash of lightning. The word 'iti' shows that it is an illustration. 'l1he word 'rith' is used in the sense of 'and' or 'else'. This is another illustration of it. What is it? It winked as the eye winks. The wich suffix has no distinct meaning from the meaning of the root. The particle ' ctJ ' means ' like '. The mean-ing is that it was like the eye opening ancl closing to see and to turn fiom its objects. '11his illustration of


    the Brahman is taken from the activity of the deities. ..... " .......... ~ C' i3i:?.:l"T'aficij '4~a~~~alct =cr +R~s.,.,-a~ q~{(?.fm&:1Jf

    ~q: ll ~ II 5. Next illustration, from the Atman within the

    body-as speedily as the mind goes iio Brahman-as speedily as one thinks of Brahman by the mind, and as speedily as the mind wills.

    Oom.-' Atha' means' next'. We offer illustrations from the .A.tman within the body. 'Goes to' means 'perceives as an object'. As speedily as one (worship-per) thinks of the Brahman as near. 'Abhilcshltbam' means 'very much'. 'Wills', i.e., about the Brahman. By the volition, recollection of the mind, the Brahman as bounded by the mind is perceived as an object. Therefore this is an illustration of the Brahman taken from within the body, as lightning and winking from the activity of the powers. And as those illustrations show that Brahman flashes instantaneously, so these illustrations show that Brahman's appearance and dis-appearance are as quick as the perceptions of the mind. ~rhese illustratiol:ls of the Brahman are given because it can be understood by dull persons only if so illustrated. It is well known that the unconditioned Brahman can be known by persons of inferior intellect.


    ~ ~ c:rr+r ~~qn~ao4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m ~ ~ql~l~ II \ II

    6. The Brahman should be worshipped by all and is hence called Ta,dvana. As Tadvana, It must be wor-shipped. Who thus knows Brahman, is loved by all living beings.

    Oom.-' Tat' means ' Brahman'. ' Ha' means 'as is well-known'. 'Tadvanarn' is a con1pound of tat and vanam. It means ' which deserves to be worshipped as the one Atman of all living things'. The Brahman is well known as Tadvanam and should therefore be worshipped as Tadvana, a word denoting its virtue. 'Worshipped' means' contemplated'. The Sruti next declares the fruit attained by one who contemplates the Brahman by this name. He who contemplates the Brahman already defined as possessed of this virtue, him (this worshipper) all living things love, i.e., pray to him as they would to Brahman.

    Thus instructed, the disciple addressed the preceptor in the following manner.

    ~qfij~ .U \~c$fil o ~qf;(bf#\1~ errer o e q Mbfd\~~ ~ II \9 II

    7. (The disciple). "( 0 Preceptor!) Teach me the Upanishad". (The preceptor). "We have told thee the


    Upanishad." " We have certainly told thee the U pani-shad about Brahman."

    Corn.-When the disciple said " 0 holy one! Teach me the secret that should be thought of", the preceptor replied "the Upanishad has been taught thee." "What is that Upanishad?'~. ':flhe preceptor replied '' The U pani .. shad treating of Brahman, the supreme Self, has been taught thee who excel in knowledge". The latter half is introduced for decisively asserting that the know-ledge of the supreme Paramatman, the Brahman already explained, is the Upanishad. Now what is the real significance of the disciple, who has already heard explained to him the knowledge of the Brahman, asking the preceptor to tell him the Upanishad ? . If the _question was about what was already explained, then the question itself becomes redundant and meaningless like Pishtct,peshana. If however the Upanishad had been only partially explained then the concluding it by reciting its fruits : " Having turned away from this world they become immortal," is not reasonable. Therefore the question, if asked about the unexplained portion of the Upanishad is also unsound, because there was no portion yet to be explained. What then is the meaning of the questioner?. We answer thus: The disciple meant to say : " Does the Upanishad already explained stand in need of anything else which should


    combine with it to secure the desired end, or does it not stand in need of any such thing ?. If it does, teach n1e the Upanishad about what is so required. If it does not; assert emphatically like Pippaluda in the words -There is nothing beyond this-." The preceptor's mn~ phatical assertion, "The Upanishad has been to~d thee'' is but proper. It may be said that this cannot be con-strued as an emphatic asserti01~, as already explained, for something yet had to be said by the preceptor. It is true that the preceptor adds' Ta,syi', etc., but that is not added as a portion combining with the Upanishad already explained, in accomplishing the desired end, nor as a distinct aid for achieving the end with the Upanishad, but as something intended as a means to the acquisition of the knowledge of the Brahman; for tctpc~;s, etc., are apparently of the same in1portance with the Vedas and their supplements, being mentioned along with them. It is well known that neither the Vedas nor the sup-plements are the direct complements of the knowledge of the Brahman or concomitant helps to it. It is urged that it is only reasonable to assign different offices ac-cording to merit, even to n1any mentioned in the same breath. Just as the mantras for invoking the gods, where more than one is named, are used to perform the function of different deities according as the god to be invoked is this or that; it is urged it is to be inferred


    that tapc~s, peace, karmc~; truth, etc., are either comple-ments or concomitant helps to the knowledge of Brah-man, and that the Vedas and their supplements, elu-cidating meanings, are only helps to the knowledge of kar?na and Atma. They urge that this distribution is only reasonable from the reasonableness of the appli-cability of their purport to this distribution. This can-not be, for it is illogical. This distinction is impossible to bring about. It is unreasonable to think that the knowledge of the Brahman, before which all notions of distinctions of deed, doer, fruit, etc., vanish, can pos.-sibly require any extraneous thing as its complement . or concomitant aid in accomplishing it. Nor can its fruit, emancipation, require any such. It is said : "One desirous of emancipation should always renounce lear-mr" and all its aids. It is only by one that so renounces . that the highest place (can be reached).

    Therefore knowledge cannot consistently with itself require karma as its concomitant help or its comple-ment. Therefore the distribution on the analogy of the invocation in Suktavd]ca is certainly unsound. Therefore it is sound to say that the question and answer were intended only to make sure. The meaning is "what was explained is all the Upanishad, which does not require any thing else for ensuring emancipa-tion."


    ~ ~ ({+r: enlfffi' !.Tffim ~: (iCJ f~u?t ~~~~ (U

    B.-Devotion, self-control and Karma are its pedes-tal, as also the Vedas and their supplements. 1,ruth is its abode.

    Oom.-Of the Upanishad about Brahman which has been already taught, devotion, etc., are helps to the acquisition. ' Tcbpas' means ' control of the body, the sensory organs and the mind'. ' Damcb' means ' freedom from passions.' 'Karma' is Agnihotra, etc. It has. been seen that knowledge of the Brahman arises indi-rectly through the purification of the mind in the person who has been refined by these. Even when Brahman is explained, those who have not been purged of their faults, either disbelieve or misbelieve in it as in the cases of Indra, Virochana, etc. Therefore know ledge as inculcated arises only in him who has, by tapas, etc.,. performed either in this birth or in many previous ones,. purified his mind. The Sruti says: "To that high-souled man whose devotion to the Lord is great and whose devo-tion to his preceptor is as great as that to the Lord, these secrets explained become illuminated." The Smriti says: "knowledge arises in men by annihilation of sinful deeds." The word 'iii' is used to show that the men.:..


    tion of tc~;pas, etc., is only by way of illustration; for it will show that there are other aids than those men-tioned to the acquisition of knowledge, as freedom from pride, hatred of pomp, etc. ' Pratish ta ' means ' legs. ' For, when they exist, knowledge is firmly seated just as a person goes about with his legs, the four Vedas, all the six supplements, i.e., Sil.:sha, etc. The Vedas being the enlighteners of the knowledge of karma and the supplementary scriptures being intended for their protection are called 'legs' of the knowledge of Brahman. Or the word ' Pratishta' having been construed as legs, the Vedas must be understood as all other parts of the body than the legs, such as the head, etc. ln this case it should be understood that in the mention of Vedas the Angds, siksha, etc., are in effect mentioned. When the trunk [ angi] is mentioned, the limbs [cLn~tds J are included; because the limbs live in the trunk. The place where the Upanishad rests is Truth. ''Satyam' (Truth) means ' freedom from deceit and fraud in speech, mind or deed'; for, knowledge seeks those who are good-natured and free from deceit and not men of the nature of the Asuras and the deceit-ful; for, the Sruti says : ' Not in whom there is fraud, falsehood or deciet '. Therefore it is said that Truth is the resting place of knowledge. The mention again of Truth as the resting place of.knowledge, notwithstand-


    ing its implied n1ention as 'the leg on which knowledge stands' along with devotion, etc., is to indicate that Truth excEJls others as a help to knowledge; for, the Sntriti says : '' If a thousand Aswamedha sacrifies and 'l'ruth were weighed in the balance, one truth spoken will outweigh the thousand sa01ifies."

    ~ ~~ ct({14~ qrqn;;~~ m ~~ ~ IT-rem BRI ~fu II Q.. II

    9. He who knows this thus, having shaken off all sin, lives firmly seated in the endless, blissful and highest Brahman. He lives firmly seated.

    Com.~' p.rhis ' means ' the knowledge of Brahman as explained in 'keneshitam ', etc., and highly eulogised in the text ' Brahmahc6 Devebhyo ', etc., and the source of all knowledge. Although it has been already said that by such know ledge one attains immortality, the fruit of the knowledge of Brahman is again stated at the end. ' Sin ' means ' the seed of samsctra ' whose nature is ignorance, desire and kar?na '. 'Anante' means ' boundless '. ' Svcwge lolc.e ' means ' in the Brahman who is all bliss ' and not 'in heaven ' because of the adjunct 'boundless'. It may be said that the word ' boundless ' is used in its secondary sense. There-fore the Sruti adds : 'J yeye.', 'highest of all'. 'l1he pur-


    port is that he is firmly seated in the unconditioned Brahman, i.e., does not again revert to samsara [world-ly existence].

    Thus ends the Commentary of Sri Sankara Oharya.


    Thus ends the Upanishad.


  • munbakop an is~ ai). --o--

    Sri Sankara's Introduction. --o--


    --a--Adoration to the Brahman. The mantra beginning

    with "Brahma Devan:am" is one of the Atharvana Upa-nishads. The Upanishad at its very commencement says how the knowledge therein contained was trans-mitted from preceptor to disciple and does this for the purpose of praising it. By showing how and with what great labor this knowledge w~s acquired by great sages as a means to secure the highest consummation, it extols knowledge to create a taste for it in the minds of the hearers; for, it is only when a taste for knowledge :is created by praising it, they would eagerly seek to acquire it. How this knowledge is related to emanci-pation, as a means to its end, will be subsequently explained in the passages commencing with 'Bhidycbte etc.' Having first stated here that the knowledge, de-noted by the word "Apara Vidya", such as Rig Veda etc., and consisting merely of mandatory and prohi-

  • 90 MU:N'DAKOP .ANlSHA.D.

    bitory injunctions, cannot remove faults like ignorance etc., which are the cause of ScGmsara i.e., embodied existence and having, by the passages beginning with "Avidyaydm antar vartamdna" etc., shown a (marked) division of Vidycr- into: Para, and Apa.rcL, it explains in the passages beginning with 'Pa'tilt~shya.~ liJlt~an etc./the know-ledge of Brahman (B?ahmat,iclya) which is a means to the attainment of the highest (Parr6) and which can be attained only by the grace of the preceptor, after a renunciation of the desire for all objects whether as means or ends. It also declares often the fru.its of this knowledge in the passages " He who knows Brahman t-ecomes Brahman itself" and " Having become Brah-man while yet alive, all are freed." Although knowledge is permitted to all in any order of life, it is the know-

    " ledge of Brahman in a Sanytisln that becomes the means ,of emancipation; not the knowledge combined with karma. This is shmvn by such passages as " Living the life of a mendicant" and " Being in the order of the Sc"wyasin" etc. This also follows from the anta gonism between knowledge and ka"fma; it is well known to be impossible that the knowledge of the identity of self with Brahman can be made to co-exist, even in a dream with karmc~ (i. e., action). Knowledge being independent of time and not being the effect of defi .. nite causes cannot be limited by tin1e.


    If it be suggested that knowledge and karma can possibly co-exist as indicated by the fact that sages in the house-holder's order have handed down knowledge, we say that this mere indication (linga.~) cannot over-ride an obvious fc~Jot; for the co-existence of light and darkness cannot be brought l;l.bout even by a hundred rules, much less by mere indications (linga) like these . .A. short commentary is now con1menced of the Upani-shad, whose relation to the end desired and whose result have been thus pointed out. This is named Upali1i~hctd; it may be either because it lessens the numerous evils of conception, birth, old age, disease etc., in persons who take kindly to this knowledge of Brahman ancl approach. it with faith and devotion; or, because it makes thetn reach Brahman; or, because it totally destroys the cause of samsdra, such as ignorance etc.; thus from th~ se~eral meanings of the root shad preceded by upani.

    * , ~ ~ w.Fr: ~~er Fct~cnar ~ rrrm 1 \1 sst~fclfiti ~~~Fi -J~g~j'3il


    freedom from desires and power. The word Devtintim means Indra and others, literally, those possessing " enlightenment." The word' Prathama' means " pre-eminent by a.ttributes" or " at first." Sambabh~~va me