10/18/2013 MARIJUANA & ADOLESCENTS FALL ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE SUMMIT SPONSORED BY THE...
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10/18/2013MARIJUANA & ADOLESCENTSFALL ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE SUMMITSPONSORED BY THE KENTUCKY ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE CONSORTIUM
Cabinet for Health and Family Services
The Morton Center1028 Barret AvenueLouisville, KY 40204502-451-1221
MICHAEL GOSSER, LCSW, CADCCLINICAL MANAGER OF ADOLESCENT SERVICESMGOSSER@THEMORTONCENTER.ORG
Cabinet for Health and Family Services
Parents feel there is little they can do about their childs substance use.1 IN 5
Research consistently shows that parents are central to preventing teen drug use. In fact, kids themselves say that losing their parents trust and respect are the most important reasons to not use drugs.
Kids who learn a lot about the risks of drugs and alcohol from their parents are up to 50% less likely to use than those who do notwww.timetotalk.org
Facts about MarijuanaThe Brain and the endocannabinoid systemCannabinoid therapeuticsMarijuana associated risksResourcesQuestions??
(special thanks to Janice Gabe for the information she provided me for this presentation)
Marijuana use among teens rose in 2011 for the fifth straight year. Daily marijuana use among high school seniors is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors.
MARIJUANA USE CONTINUES TO RISE AMONG U.S. TEENSSource: Monitoring the Future
Of perhaps greater importance is the rise in daily or near daily marijuana use, defined as use on 20 or more occasions in the prior 30 days. The rates of current daily marijuana use rose significantly in all three grades last year, and they rose slightly higher in all three grades again this year (the increases since 2007 are highly significant at every grade level).
Current daily prevalence levels in 2011 are 1.3%, 3.6%, and 6.6% in grades 8, 10, and 12.
"Put another way, one in every fifteen high school seniors today is smoking pot on a daily or near daily basis," said Lloyd Johnston, the principal investigator of the study, "And that's the highest rate that we have seen over the past thirty yearssince 1981."
MARIJUANA USE AMONG TEENS
CURRENT TREND PATTERNS
The mean age of first use of marijuana in 1966 was 20, in 1976 it was 18.5, in 1987 it was 17.9, and in 1996 it was 16.4.Variables which most strangely correlate to marijuana use include:-Peer attitudes about marijuana use-Drug use by peers-Frequency of offers to use-Previous drug use-Belief about social consequences-Individual attitudes about use-Belief about psychological consequences of use
Marijuana use is now ahead of cigarette smoking on some measures (due to decreases in smoking and recent increases in marijuana use). In 2010, 21.4 percent of high school seniors used marijuana in the past 30 days, while 19.2 percent smoked cigarettes.
Steady declines in cigarette smoking appear to have stalled in all three grades after several years of improvement on most measures.
MARIJUANA VS. CIGARETTES
STRATEGIES COMBATING MYTHS HELDBY PARENTS AND ADULTSI. The only problem with marijuana is it is a gateway drugComplete lack of accurate information regarding impact of marijuana on developing brainConfusion about medical marijuana. See it as an endorsement of its harmlessness.Misconception about prevalence.
Lack of understanding regarding overlap between marijuana and mental health issues.Dont know what to do if they wanted to.Fear of being seen by children as hypocritical.Belief by professionals that parents will not set limits if they themselves use.Dont know what to say except its illegal.Combat I did it when I was young.Strategies Combating Myths Held By Parents and Adults
Non-addiction professionals need more information about teen marijuana use.Believe that marijuana use is something kids grow out of.Believe that occasional use wont harm them.Misinformation about drug laws in other countries.Strategies Combating Myths Held By Parents and Adults
Many people, as well as organizations, have widely differing opinions on the benefits and harms of marijuanaONDCP v. NORMLAnti-Drug Organization v. Marijuana Dispensary Websites, marijuana user, educator, drug dealerPeople often refer to their own (+ or -) experience with marijuana rather than what scientific research has found (and that research has also widely varied)There is a lot of correct information and a lot of incorrect information out there
What is the Truth?
WHAT IS MARIJUANA?A plant more correctly called Cannabis SativaTHC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary psychoactive substance in marijuanaTHC directly affects a massive range of neurotransmittersThe Central Nervous System is stimulated when THC activates specific neuroreceptors in the brain
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEMLocated in central and peripheral nervous systemRegulates brain areas involved in physiological, psychomotor, and cognitive effectsInvolved in motor behavior, perception, cognition, appetite, pain sensation, mood, memory, immune function, and learningThe only substances that can activate neurotransmitters in the brain are substances that mimic chemicals that the brain produces naturallyMarijuana will stimulate the cannabinoid receptors up to 20x more actively than any of the bodys natural neurotransmitters could
ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM RESPONSETolerance: the need to raise the amount of marijuana one smokes or the need to intensify from low grade (Reggie) to high grade (Dro) is known clinically as tolerance
The Brain is efficient. As it recognizes that neuroreceptors are being stimulated without the natural neurotransmitters emitting those chemical signals, the brain resourcefully lowers its chemical output so the total levels are back to normal.
Eventually, the brain can cease to produce the chemical altogether, entirely relying on the use of external supplies
CANNABIS/THC AND CANNABINOIDSThe terms are not interchangeableSmoked cannabis (marijuana/weed) contains more than 460 active chemicals and more than 60 unique cannabinoidsMany cannabinoids have dose-dependent effectsCannabis (including medical marijuana in dispensaries) is not standardized in dose, potency, or chemical constituencySmoked marijuana has no FDA indicationsSpecific issues with smoked marijuanaNon-standardized dosingVarying ingredientsSmoked delivery
We are aware of the delicate balance between risk and benefit, even among FDA-approved medicationsHowever, individuals may struggle with these nuances, especially in light of the term Medical MarijuanaMany assume that medical implies beneficialMany equate marijuana with natural, which they may in turn equate with harmlessPerception is critically importantWHAT ABOUT MEDICAL MARIJUANA?
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANAMarijuana is AddictiveMarijuana Hurts Bodies and MindMarijuana Affects Learning, Academic Achievement, Athletic Performance, and Impairs DrivingMarijuana Today is Stronger Than Ever
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANAMarijuana is AddictiveAs the body stops producing its own natural chemicals, it now need the marijuana user to continue smoking in order to continue the functioning of the brain without interruption.The body is now ordering the ingestion of the THC, making it extremely difficult to quitStudies show that marijuana dependency is more powerful than seemingly harder drugs like cocaine (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004)
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANAMarijuana Affects Bodies and MindsCannabinoids stimulate the brains nucleus accumbens, affecting the brains natural reward centersCannabinoids affect the amygdala, which controls emotions and fearsAnger is a defense mechanism used to guard against emotional consequences of adversity fueled by fear. Fear is a primary function controlled by the amygdala, which is heavily stimulated by marijuana use
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES INDICATE A CORRELATION BETWEEN YOUNG ADULT MARIJUANA USE AND ---Schizophrenia: 2 X more likely to experience schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms.In absence of family history2 years earlier onset
There is now sufficient evidence to warn young people that using cannabis could increase their risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life (Moore et al., 2007)
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES INDICATE A CORRELATION BETWEEN YOUNG ADULT MARIJUANA USE AND --Depression 2 to 3 X more likely Anxiety panic attacks suicidal thoughtsIf not depressed when they start 4 X more likely to become depressedDepressed young adults more likely to become addicted
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANAMarijuana Affects Learning, Academic Achievement, Athletic Performance, and Impairs Driving
MARIJUANAS EFFECTSLearning Issues: Significantly impact the ability to process and learn new information, especially higher level concepts.Poorer performance on thinking tasks, slower psychomotor speed, poorer complex attention, verbal memory and planning ability.Residual effects can last for up to 24 hours, such as with complex divided attention tasksRegular marijuana users show an impact for three or more days after use, particularly affecting motor coordination, memory, and learning
Performance Issues: Slowed reaction time and impaired motor coordinationaltered judgement and decision making impairment of hand/eye coordinationdistortion of time and distanceSide-note: persons experiencing the influence of cannabis can often pull themselves together to concentrate on simple tasks for brief periods of time, but have more difficulty sustaining this focus for long periods or with complex decisions