10. epidemics dks 10

download 10.  epidemics dks 10

of 26

  • date post

    14-May-2015
  • Category

    Education

  • view

    405
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 10. epidemics dks 10

  • 1.dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff1

2. k|sf]k1fgdfnf!) dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iffn]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]k|sfzsklx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 2 3. s[ltM dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iffn]vsM /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]k|sfzsM jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yfg]kfn (ECO-Nepal);jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$;VofM @,))) k|ltcfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfnd'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$]d"NoM ?= %) ISBN: 978-99946-927-9-8k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtfclej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k1fgdfnf k|sfzgdfcf+lzs kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfxk|lt Osf]g]kfnxflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 MPS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnkf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfnkmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^kmofS;M (&&!$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&!%%@#!(&j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff3 4. k|sfzssf] egfO /f]ulgjf/0fsf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk;Fu} o;sf] k|sf]k klg lj:tfl/t x'b} F uO/x]sf] 5 . cf}nf] pGd'ngsf nflu ljZjn] w]/} 7"nf] vr{ u/] klg lgoGq0f x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . clxn] t sfnfhf/ / 8]Fu' gfdsf dxfdf/LhGo /f]u;d]t pTkGg eO;s]sf 5g . ljZjnfO{ a8{kmn', P8;h:tf dxfdf/Ln] klg cfqmd0f ul/;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] dfgj ;dfh dxfdf/LhGo /f]uaf6 ;'/lIft x'g] k|oTg ubf{ ub}{ klg c;'/lIft g} /x]sf] 5 . dxfdf/LnfO{ k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]ksf] ?kdf klg lng ;lsG5 . ljz]ifu/L af9L, klx/f], e'Orfnf]kl5 ;/;kmfO tyf z'4 lkpg] kfgL, z'4 vfgfF tyf :jR5 jftfj/0fsf] cefj x'g] sf/0fn] ljleGg k|sf/sf dxfdf/Ln] cfqmd0f ug{ ;S5g . o; cj:yfdf Ps k|sf]ksf] kL8faf6 d'lQm gkfpFb} csf]{ k|sf]ksf] l;sf/ x'gkg]{ afWotf dflg;df cfOk5{ .' k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; b;f}F z[vnfdf dxfdf/Lsf ljleGg kIfdf ;fdfGo hfgsf/L lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . o; k':tsdf ePsf hfgsf/Ln] k|sf]kl5 jf cGo k|sf]ksf 36gf geOsg pTkGg x'g;Sg] dxfdf/Lsf] hf]lvd lgoGq0f ug{ ;fdflhs ;xhstf{, lzIfs, ljBfyL{ tyf ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf cGo z[vnfh:t} o;nfO{ klg ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg] ;lxt o;sf] k|sfzgsf nflu k|/0ff k|bfg] ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k|;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]g]kfnECO-Nepal ] 4klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 5. ljifo;"rLdxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff %!# ljifok|jz ] % dxfdf/Lsf] cy{^ dxfdf/L km}lng] sf/0f& dxfdf/Lsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / Iflt * cfsl:ds jf cfkTsfnLg cj:yf( k|sf]khGo hf]lvd / dxfdf/L !!dxfdf/Lsf k|sf/ / lgoGq0fsf pkfo !#@# a8{kmn' !# dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg !^ dxfdf/Lcl3sf] k"jtof/Lsf] of]hgf{ !^ k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ug'kg]{ p4f/ / Joj:yfkg{ !( cfkTsfnLg p4f/ @) bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkg @) pk;+xf/ @#dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff5 6. dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f /;'/Iff ljifok|j]z hg;Vof j[l4, jftfj/0f k|b"if0f, :jR5 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] cefjsf sf/0f ljZjdf x/]s lbg xhf/f}F dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . kf]lifnf] vfBfGgsf] cefj, ul/aL / ljsf;sf gfddf eO/x]sf] ljgfzsf] tLj|tfn] d[To'sf] ;Vof j[l4 ug{ yk of]ubfg lbFb} cfPsf] oyfy{nfO{ klg c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . afFRgsf nflu geO gx'g] jfo' / kfgLsf ;|ftdf } ] eO/x]sf] k|bif0fn] ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sdf hg:jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:of tLj|" aGb} uPsf] 5 . Pslt/ cfly{s ;d'Gglttkm{ ljZj bf}l8/x]sf] 5 eg] csf]tkm{ ul/aLdf afFRg ljjz ;d'bfo ljleGg k|sf/sf dxfdf/LhGo { /f]usf] lzsf/ alg/x]sf 5g . ljZjdf dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k kfgLhGo /f]uaf6 w]/} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . x'g t jt{dfg ;dodf PrcfOeL P8; / a8{n'n] klg dxfdf/Lsf] k lnO;s]sf] 5 . To;}u/L cf}nf], 8]u' Hj/f], x}hf, emf8fkvfnfh:tf Hofb} l56f] ;g]{F /f]un] klg dxfdf/Lsf] k lng] u/]sf 5g . dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k ljz]ifu/L k|sf]kf/f l;lh{t k|sf]ksf kdf pTkGg x'g] eP klg ;dfhdf ;fdfGo cj:yfdf ;d]t o;sf] k|efj b]lvg] u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf dxfdf/Laf6 x'g] hgwgsf] Ifltsf] cfFsng ug]{ ljZj:t ;+oGqsf] ljsf; gePsfn] o;af6 x'g] dfgjLo Iflt cg'dfgdf dfq ;Lldt /x]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Ifltsf] tYofs g]kfn ;/sf/sf] u[x dGqfnoaf6 dfq cflwsfl/s kdf pknAw x'g] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . dGqfnosf] tYofs cg';f/ ;g !(*# b]lv @))# ;Dddf dxfdf/Laf6 !! xhf/ cf7 ;o Ps hgfsf] lgwg ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/ d'nssf b'ud ufpFdf PsfPs b]vf kg]{ c1ft /f]usf]'{ l;sf/ ePsfxsf] tYofs pknAw x'g g;s]sf] oyfy{nfO{ ;/sf/n] klg :jLsfg]{ u/]sf] 5 . cgf}krfl/s tYofscg';f/ d'nsdf dxfdf/Laf6 ' jif]gL sl/a Ps xhf/ Ps;oeGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . { 6klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 7. sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yf ePsf u|fdL0f ;d'bfo dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t x'g] u/]sf 5g . ul/aLsf sf/0f pgLx kf}li6s vfgf, ;kmf sk8f, pko'Qm cfjf;, :j:Yo jftfj/0faf6 al~rt /x]sf 5g eg] /fd|f] lzIff / lgoldt :jf:Yok/LIf0fdf rflxg] Go"gtd vr{ h'6fpg c;dy{ 5g . kf]if0fo'Qm vfgf, z'4 vfg] kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] cefjdf To:tf ul/a ;d'bfoleq /f]usf hLjf0f'sf lgldQ cg'sn jftfj/0f tof/ x'g] ePsfn] " ;fdfGo /f]un] klg dxfdf/Lsf] k wf/0f u5{ . g]kfnsf ljleGg 7fpF / cGo b]zdf pTkGg dxfdf/Lsf] cWoogaf6 klg clwsf+z ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L lgDg:t/sf] af;:yfg /x]sf ul/a tyf lk5l8Psf ;d'bfodf g} w]/} b]lvPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfndf klg ;x/sf em'k8L / t/fO{sf ljkGg a:tL tyf kxf8sf lk5l8Psf ;d'bfodf dxfdf/Ln] k|sf]ksf] k lng] u/sf] / To:tf ;d'bfodf g} d[To'b/ klg a9L /x]sf] kfOG5 . dfxfdf/Lsf] cy{ ;dfhsf] s'g} Ps If]qdf b]vf k/]sf] /f]u 5f]6f] ;dod} km}lnP/ cgk]lIft ' kdf w]/} dflg; ;qmldt x'g] / dg]{ cj:yfnfO{ ;fdfGotof dxfdf/L elgG5 . To; cj:yfdf :yfgLo txdf ePsf lrlsT;s, cf}iflw, :jf:Yo s]Gb|sf] Ifdtf / pknAw cGo ;|ft tyf ;fwg ckof{Kt eP/ k|sf]ksf] ] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . crfgs b]vf k/]/ Jofks kdf km}lnO{ hg:jf:Yodf ;d:of pTkGg ug]{ /f]usf] k|sf]knfO{ g} :jf:Yo;DaGwL lj1fgn] dxfdf/Lsf] kdf kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . /f]u nfu]/ dfq ;dfhdf dxfdf/L pTkGg x'bg . k|fs[lts / dfgjLo F} sf/0faf6 x'g] ck|Tofl;t 36gfn] k|sf]ksf] k lnP/ hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] cj:yfnfO{ klg dxfdf/L eGg ;lsG5 . t/ klg o; k':tsdf /f]uhGo dxfdf/LnfO{ g} k|sf]ksf] kdf lnP/ To;sf] Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf rrf{ ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . dxfdf/LnfO{ ljleGg If]qaf6 ljleGg k|sf/n] JofVof ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ;fdflhs tyf k|ltsf/fTds :jf:Yo lj1fgsf cg';f/ g;g]{ k|sl[ tsf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] kdf km}lnFbgg . dxfdf/Lsf] k lng] /f]usf hLjf0f' Ps} JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf ;5{g . o; lsl;dsf /f]usf hLjf0f' km}lngsfdxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff7 8. nflu pko'Qm jftfj/0f tyf cGo tjxsf] ;+of]hg x'gf;fy dxfdf/Lsf] kdf km}lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hf8f] ;dodf Zjf;k|Zjf;hGo /f]u, jiff{ofddf af9L tyf klx/f]kl5 k|bif0fdf x'g] j[l4sf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] emf8fkvfnf, " x}hf, Dofb]Hj/f], cf}nf], OG;]kmnfOl6;, sfnfhf/ sdnlkQ, bfb'/f, OGkmnPGhf,' 8]u' Hj/f]h:tf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] kdf km}lng] u/]sf 5g . To;}u/L a8{n', F PrcfOeLP8; klg ljZjJofkL ?kdf dxfdf/L ag]/ km}lng] qmddf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . /f]uhGo lhjf0f' jf ljiff0f', /f]u nfUg cg'sn zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] JolQm / " /f]u ;g{] k|lqmofsf nflu hLjf0f'sf] j[l4 / cfqmds Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ jftfj/0fh:tf tjn] ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L pTkGg ug{ cx+ e"ldsf v]N5 . /f]usf hLjf0f' jf ljiff0f' 5}gg eg] /f]u pTkGg x'g ;Sb}g . sdhf]/ zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] JolQmnfO{ /f]un] t'?Gt} ks85 / ;qmd0fsf/L k wf/0f u5{ . /f]usf hLjf0f' k|jz u/]sf] dflg;sf] k|lt/IffTds Ifdtf ] sdhf]/ ePdf /f]u tLj| ultdf a95 . o:tf] hLjf0f' ;?jf k|sf/sf] ePdf :j:y JolQmdf klg k|jz u5{ / lj:tf/} km}lnP/ dxfdf/Lsf] k lnG5 . ] o;k|sf/ :ki6 x'G5 PsJolQmaf6 Zjf;k|Zjf;, vfgf jf cGo ;+;u{sf] dfWodaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf / ToxL dfWodaf6 ljleGg JolQmdf ;/]/ dflg;sf] hLjg g} ;s6do agfpg] s'g} klg /f]unfO{ dxfdf/L eGg ;lsG5 . dxfdf/L km}lng] sf/0f /f]u pTkGg ug]{ hLjf0f' / ;Defljt /f]uLsf] ;+of]unfO{ k|bl" ift jftfj/0fn] k|a4{g u/]sf] v08df /f]usf] km}nfj6 Jofks aGg ;S5 . o;/L km}lnPsf] /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] k wf/0f u5{ . ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, k|sf]ksf cGo 36gfsf] pkl:ylt, ;'4 vfg] kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] l:ylt, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] Joj:yfkgh:tf ljifon] /f]usf] pTklQ / km}nfj6sf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f u5{ . Vff;u/L, JolQmut, 3/fo;L / ;fd'bflos txdf k|of]u x'g] vfBfGg, xfjf / kfgLdfkm{t /f]u km}lng] u5{ . JolQmut ;/;kmfOsf] cefjdf km}lng] dxfdf/L ;/;kmfOk|lt k|lta4 JolQmdf klg lj:tf/} ;g{ ;S5 . s'g} klg ;?jf /f]usf] Joj:yfkg kmf]xf]/d}nf, zf}rfno, JolQmut jf 3/fo;L ;/;kmfO, :jf:Yo;DaGwL r]tgfdf lge{/ /xG5 . dflg;n] k|of]u ug]{ kfgL k|bl" ift 5 eg] emf8fkvfnf, 6fOkmfO8, hlG8; / 5fnfsf ljleGg /f]u8klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 9. nfUg] / dxfdf/Lsf] kdf km}ng] ;Defjgf /xG5 . hyfefjL kmf]x/d}nf u/]df jf v'nf 7fpFdf lb;flk;fa u/]df xfjfkfgL b"lift eP/ ljleGg k|sf/sf ;?jf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] kdf km}lng] jftfj/0f tof/ aG5 . s]xL k|sf]ksf 36gfkl5 dxfdf/Lsf kdf /f]u km}lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;/L km}lnPsf] dxfdf/LnfO{ k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]ksf kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . t}klg s'g} Ps k|sf]ksf sf/0f dxfdf/Lsf] pTklQ x'G5 eg]/ k"0f{ kdf ljZjf; ug'{ klg unt x'g ;S5 . s'g} klg k|sf]kkl5 dxfdf/L cfpF5 g} eGg ;lsGg . oBlk af9L, klx/f], e'Orfnf], ;'Vvf tyf nfdf] F v8]/Lsf sf/0f ;?jf /f]usf] pTklQ x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f klg ljZjdf ljleGg /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] k lng yfn]sf] 5 . dxfdf/Lsf] pTklQ, j[l4 / lj:tf/sf] sf/0fnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M k|bl" ift vfg] kfgL c;'/lIft vfBkbfy{ ;/;kmfOsf] cefj jftfj/0f k|bif0f" hnjfo' kl/jt{g dxfdf/Lsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / Iflt g]kfn ;fdflhs, cfly{s / z}lIfs kdf lk5l8Psf] d'ns xf] . ef}uf]lns' jftfj/0fsf lx;fan] tLg efudf ljeflht g]kfndf /f]uhGo jftfj/0f / o;sf cGo tjx klg ef}uf]lns :j?ks} cfwf/df pTkGg eP/ dxfdf/Lsf kdf km}lnG5g . ljif]zu/L, afnaflnsf, j[4, czQm / dlxnf ;?jf /f]uxaf6 a9L k|efljt x'G5g . g]kfndf ljleGg ;dodf emf8fkvfnf, 7]pnf, dn]l/of, lgdf]lgof, bfb'/fh:tf /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] kdf af/Daf/ dflg;nfO{ k|efljt ug{] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljut tLg bzsotf o:tf /f]usf] dxfdf/L k6sk6s bf]xf]l/P/ cTolws hg;Vof k|efljt ePsf] / To;n] b"/ufdL c;/ ;d]t 5f]8sf] kfOG5 .] cGo k|sf]ksf] t'ngfdf dxfdf/Laf6 w]/} dflg; k|ToIf kdf k|efljt x'g] / dfgjLo Iflt;d]t a9L x'g]u/]sf] 5 . ljZja}ssf] jftfj/0fLodxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff9 10. :jf:Yo;DaGwL Ps cWoogcg';f/ g]kfn, ef/t, aunfb]z, e'6fgnufot ljZjsf ul/a tyf sd ljsl;t b]z /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] l;sf/ aGg] k|dv :yfgsf kdf /x]sf 5g . oL b]zdf jftfj/0fLo k|bif0f / c;'/lIft '" kfgLsf sf/0f emf8fkvfnf, Dofb]Hj/f], x}hf, sdnlkQ, Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL /f]uaf6 jif]gL b;f}F nfv afnaflnsf kLl8t x'G5g . ljZja}ssf cg';f/ { ul/a d'nssf nueu #) nfv afnaflnsf b"lift kfgLs} sf/0f x'g] ' /f]uhGo k|sf]kaf6 k|To]s jif{ db{5g . ul/aL, k5f}6]kg / ljkGg