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1 A Performance Approach to Second/Third Language Teaching and Learning Ochanomizu University [email protected] Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for Languages of the Wider World SOAS, University of London 16-17 April 2009 Meili Fang Slide 2 2 This talk introduction types of language teaching and learning comparing teaching of second/third foreign/heritage languages key points of Performance Approach (PA): a methodology adapted from foreign language teaching for second/third foreign and heritage/minority language teaching PA and performance video examples and discussion Slide 3 3 Introduction conventional teaching and learning contrasts: national/mother language foreign languages actually first language (often but not always national language) first foreign language second or third foreign language heritage/minority/immigrant language the community is voluntarily or forcefully dominated or out of their country Slide 4 4 Large and small languages I taught or was part of teaching team for: Japanese (in Taiwan) Mandarin (Japan, UK) Hokkien (Japan, UK) Karaim (Lithuania) less commonly taught Slide 5 5 Courses are very diverse JapaneseFL taught as a major (12 hrs) Mandarin2 nd FL (after English) (3 hrs)...as curiosity to high school students (1 hr) Hokkienas 3 rd FL (after E, M), students with personal motives (3 hrs) KaraimHeritage language as 3 rd or 4 th language in intensive summer school Slide 6 6... but methodologies arent more useful to identify similarities and differences between learners in classes in institutional and community settings the trends are opposite teaching settings structure and resources PA methods were effective for smaller languages... even more effective! Slide 7 7 age ability learning goals motivation mother/heritage language background institutional settings endangered languages community settings similarity Learners in language settings Slide 8 8 Teaching settings less institutional commitment options rather than compulsory learner motivations tend to be personal and less instrumental learner backgrounds may be very different less design and input to teaching resources less teaching hours very easy for big mismatch between goals, materials and learners could mainstream FL methodologies be appropriate? yes, but only if effective Slide 9 9 Performance approach (PA) main issues are course design and classroom dynamics... and how these serve the learning goals (and wider goals) Slide 10 10 PA key points clear teaching goal and process rapid, measurable learning students continually perform what they learned (spiral of learning) effective materials, activities, assessment include language functions e.g. emotion, culture drama creation and performance involve language speakers generate further language learning resources Slide 11 11 Spiral of learning Typical teaching -bank savings Performance Approach -spiral Slide 12 12 Planning: constraints and goals constraints time available calendar, hours materials teachers infrastructure goals researched, realistic and concrete e.g. to master 450 vocabulary items; reach pre-intermediate level; speech functions; cultural (e.g. songs) Slide 13 13 PA design course design hours, classes, teachers driven by learners motivations, learning styles, learning goals teaching materials design textbook other materials (worksheets, songs, games etc) Slide 14 14 PA design activity design listening, Q & A, conversation, find out... drama (see later) feedback and evaluation design evaluation / assessment - continuous and varied drama (self/group/teacher feedback) create concrete resources that feed back to future learners Slide 15 15 Textbook learnable sequence each lesson builds on next controlled vocabulary and structures topics and dialogues relevant and useful predictable learning give mileposts and confidence to learners Slide 16 16 Elementary Spoken Hokkien Introduction 1 Vowels 2 Consonants 3 Tones 4 Tone change 5 Whats your name? L ki s? 6 Greetings: Chih-p be 7 What is it? Che s sm-mh? Chapter topics Slide 17 17 Elementary Spoken Hokkien 8 What would you like to drink? L i lim sm- mh? 9 What day is today? Kin--jit chhe-ki ? 10 When is your birthday? L si-jt tang- s ? 11 What number are you calling? L phah ki h ? 12 How much is this? Che i ga-che ch ? 13 Do you know where the toilet is? L km chai-i t-i pin-s ? Chapter topics Slide 18 18 Elementary Spoken Hokkien 14 What are you doing? L teh chhng- si ? 15 Inviting a friend: Iok-png-i 16 How long have you been learning Taiwanese? L Ti-g h ga k a ? 17 Can I try it on? Che -si chh-chheng b ? 18 Making a booking: Tng png-keng 19 Whats wrong with you? L s n-cha 20 Introducing friends: Ki-siu png-i Chapter topics Slide 19 19 Lesson 10: L si-jt tang-s? 1. Ti-e / Dialogue A:L si-jt tang-s? B:Ga si-jt s ji-geh chhe-peh. L leh? A:Ga si-jt si chia-geh chp-it. B:S tng-k-geh h. A:H. B:L km chai-i ln lu-su n cha-b-ki se-jt s tang-s? A:Gan lu-su n cha-b -ki?! L mg che beh chhng-si? Example chapter dialogue Slide 20 20 PA and theatricality classroom is a theatre setting that makes interactions more authentic performances are respected as language events, and as records of the language development or revitalization process Slide 21 21 Drama group based groups create own characters and story connects with culture or daily life, emotions performances matter: what learners do is valued performances are new resources Slide 22 22 Drama steps establish parameters set up story topics formulate and present story script writing, presentation, correction record voices prepare for performance performance; video distribute useful resource Slide 23 23 2006 Hokkien :.. : Jonny Moses & Rui Niu : 2006 05 03 : Ming : Sister Yang : Lee : Old Wong : Record Producer A: Be king-chio, be king-chio! Tai-oan e king-chio siok koh ho chiah! Kin lai be a!, ! ! ! Get your bananas, get your bananas! Taiwan bananas are cheap and delicious! Come and get them before theyre gone! B: Thau-ke gau-cha, king-chio chit-kin goa-che chi n ?, ? Good morning, how much for half a kilo? A: Iu n Siu n -lu gau-cha! Sa-chap kho, ho chiah koh siok o!, !, ! Good morning Sister Yang! 30NT, theyre cheap and delicious! Students drama script Slide 24 24 2006 Hokkien contd B: Chit-kin sa-chap kho oh4?! chiah1-ni kui a! Na goa be khah-che e3, li e-sai sng khah-siok e be? ?! !, ? 30NT for half a kilo?! So expensive! Can you do them any cheaper if I buy a bit more? A: E-sai, e-sai.. Ok, sure. B: M-ko, goa ai seng chhi chiah khoa n li e king-chio u-ia n u ho-chiah bo., But first Ive got to see whether your bananas are sweet or not A: Bo bun-teh, ia bo, li chiah khoa n mai..,,.. No problem. Here, have a little taste. Students drama script Slide 25 25 An endangered language situation Karaim - Turkic language spoken in Trakai, Lithuania summer courses 2005 - 2007 goals: to support learners to effectively take part in basic everyday conversation. Designed for a class of different ages incl children, teenagers, and young and old adults. Focus how to teach a language in a short time. course: 2-week intensive, 2 classes/day, each class 70 min, total of 20 hours; also informal afternoon activities Slide 26 26 Conclusions PA is effective for rapid, predictable, measurable, accountable, usable language learning clear, integrated course design and materials continuous language production, feedback group-based drama resource creation we have to bring the best methodology to teaching and learning LCTL, minority, and endangered languages! Slide 27 27 End Thank you References To appear. Meili Fang & David Nathan. Language Documentation and Pedagogy for Endangered Languages: a Mutual Revitalisation.. In P. Austin (ed) Language Documentation and Description. London: SOAS 2006. Taiwanese language teaching and development in the United Kingdom. Invited paper at conference Taiwan Studies: British Perspectives, Academia Sinica, Taipei, December 2006. [http://www.dnathan.com/mnd/docs/Taiwanese_UK_MeiliFang.pdf]