001 Def.ofterms

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DEFINITION OF TERMSOil & Gas Measurement1. Flowrate : Flowrate = Pa = = = = Volume Time Pg + Patm = Q t

2. Absolute Pressure : 3. Absolute Temp. :

R K Conversion of Temp: F



F + 460 C + 273 9 (C) + 32 5 5 (F - 32) 9

DEFINITION OF TERMSOil & Gas Measurement (Contd)4. Standard Press.& Temp : 5. Standard Condition : 14.7 psia & 60F Standard P & T

6. VacuumWhen P < atmospheric pressure, vacuum is expressed in inches of mercury.

DEFINITION OF TERMSOil & Gas Measurement (Contd)7. Fluid Level8. Static Head

: Fluid Level: Static Head(ft)

= height of liquid=

P . = P . 0.433 x S.G Static Head(feet) = P x 2.31 S.G 9. Fluid Gradient: Pressure Gradient = Pressure (psi) Head (ft) Water Gradient = 0.433 psi/ft Pressure Gradient for any Fluid = 0.433 x S.G Pressure = Head x Pressure Gradient

DEFINITION OF TERMSOil & Gas Measurement (Contd)10. Flowmeter (or Meter)A device used to measure flowrates. Types:- Positive-Displacement Meters - Turbine Meters - Orifice Meters 11. Meter Calibration (Proving)

Monitoring the accuracy of the meter.

DEFINITION OF TERMSOil & Gas Measurement (Contd)12. Meter Factor MF is determined by proving MF = Prover Reading Meter Reading 13. Stock Tank Barrel (STB)A barrel at 14.7 psia & 60F 14. Standard Cubic Foot (SCF)

A cubic foot at 14.7 psia & 60F.

DEFINITION OF TERMSCORROSION1. Corrosion RateRate of metal loss in MPY: One Mil = 0.01 inch 2. Corrosion Prevention Protection of equipment and facilities against corrosion : painting, coating, use of inhibitors, cathodic protection etc.

DEFINITION OF TERMSCORROSION (Contd)3. Corrosion InhibitorA chemical that forms a thin film to isolate equipment and pipeline surfaces from the corrosive medium 4. Cathodic Protection Installation of DC circuit with sacrificial anodes or DC transformer to prevent metal loss.

DEFINITION OF TERMSCHEMICAL ADDITIVES1. Corrosion Inhibitor A chemical used to prevent corrosion

2. BiocideA chemical additive used to kill bacteria. 3. Filtration Aid Causes coalescence of very fine solids so that they can be removed by filters.

DEFINITION OF TERMSCHEMICAL ADDITIVES (Contd)4. Oxygen Scavenger - Used to remove oxygen from liquids or solutions.

- Commonly used in water injection systems.5. Demulsifier Used to break water-oil emulsion

DEFINITION OF TERMSPIPELINES1. Expansion Joint Used in pipelines to compensate for line expansion/contraction.

2. PiggingRunning a pig in a pipeline to clean its internal surface. 3. Pig

A device used to clean internal pipeline surfaces by pumping it through the line.4. Intelligent Pig

A pig that can monitor pipeline geometry such as ID, wall thickness, bends, deformations etc.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPIPELINES (Contd)5. Pig Launcher A piping assembly used to pump pigs in the line safely. 6. Pig Receiver Same like launcher but it receives pigs.

7. Hydrate FormationFormation of ice-like solid material in pipelines.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES1. Specific Gravity Liquids : Sp. Gr = Density of Liquid Density of Water Gases : Sp. Gr = MW of Gas

MW of AirW = 62.4 lb/ft3

MW of air = 28.966 ~ 29

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Contd)2. API Gravity API Gravity = 141.5 Sp.Gr. 131.5

Crude Oils API Gravity < 20 : Heavy Crude : Medium Crude : Light Crude

API from 20 to 30 API > 30

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Contd)3. Viscosity The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its internal friction tending to resist flow. Units:

Absolute viscosityKinematic Viscosity

Kinematic Viscosity

: poise (dyne.sec / cm2) pound.sec/ft2 : stoke (cm2/sec.) : ft2/sec. : Absolute Viscosity Density


Viscosimeters- Devices used in viscosity measurement. - The most commonly used viscosimeter for oils is the Saybolt viscosimeter. - It measures the viscosity in seconds for 60 CC through the universal orifice. Units : Saybolt Universal Seconds (S.S.U. or S.U.S.).

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Contd)4. Boiling Point (BP)The point at which the vapour pressure is equal to the ambient pressure. For hydrocarbon mixtures there are two boiling points : IBP & FBP. 5. Dew Point The point at which the first condensate droplet starts to form. 6. Flash Point The minimum temperature at which the liquid vapors can be ignited by an ignition source (vapors are enough to be ignited).

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Contd)7. Pour Point The minimum temperature at which a liquid can be poured. 8. pH Value The pH value is used to express the degree of acidity or alkalinity of solutions. pH pH pH < 7 = 7 > 7 for acidic solutions (corrosive solutions) for neutral solutions for alkaline solutions (tendency to form scales).

DEFINITION OF TERMSPHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Contd)9. SalinitySalt content of seawater and formation water is called Salinity. Units of salinity : PPM (Parts per million parts)

10. Salt ContentUsed for crude oils Units : pounds per thousand barrels (ptb)

11. ExplosivityThe possibility of causing an explosion. Hydrocarbon vapours and air mixtures can cause explosions at a certain ratio, which lies between two limits : Low Explosive Limit and High Explosive Limit.






DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS1. Hydrocarbons Sabstances composed of carbon and hydrogen such as crude oil, natural gas and petroleum products. 2. Natural Gas A naturally occurring complex mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon constituents. It can be either associated gas or non-associated gas.

3. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)Liquefied propane, butane and pentane plus.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)4. Oils The heavier hydrocarbon fractions that are generally liquid at atmospheric conditions. 5. Condensate The gas that condenses during production. 6. Formation A rock layer or bed. 7. Formation Water The underground water that is produced with oil & gas.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)8. Basic Sediments & Water (BS&W) Sediments and water that are produced with crude oils. BS&W = Volume of Sediments & Water Total Volume Produced

9. Water Cut= Volume of Water Produced Total Volume Produced 10. Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) GOR = Volume of Gas SCF/STB Volume of Net Oil Water Cut

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)11. Gas-Liquid Ratio (GLR) GLR 12. Oil Reservoir = Volume of Gas . Volume of Liquid (Oil&Water)

Any formation that contains crude oil in commercial amounts.13. Gas Reservoir Any formation that contains natural gas with no existence of crude oil.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)14. Condensate Reservoir A formation that contains gas but this gas condenses during production. 15. Flowline

Flowlines transmit fluids produced from wells to the gas-oil separation plant.16. Manifold

A piping assembly that gathers a number of flowlins in one larger size line in order to divert the commingled production to the gas-oil separator.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)17. Header Each manifold includes two headers: One for production and the other for testing. 18. Multistage Separation Separation of oil and gas in more than one stage. 19. Free Water Formation water that separates in less than 5 minutes. 20. Emulsion A water and oil mixture that cannot be separated easily. It normally needs heating, chemicals and fresh water in order to be separated.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)21. Emulsifier A chemical used to break water and oil emulsions. 22. Heater Treater A vessel used in treatment of water and oil emulsions by the use of heat, fresh water and demulsifiers. 23. Electrostatic Treater A heater treater in which electric grids are installed. 24. Treating Tank A tank used in crude oil dehydration and desalting.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)25. Storage Tank A tank used in crude oil storage 26. Dry Crude A crude oil that is free of formation water.

27. Wet CrudeA crude oil containing formation water. 28. Sweet Crude No sulphur compounds

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)29. Sour Crude Contains sulphur compounds 30. Sour Gas Contains sulphur compounds or acid gases such as H2S & CO2.

31. Sweet GasNo sulphur compounds or acid gases 32. Wet Gas Condensates (C5+) > 0.1 USG/MMSCF

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)33. Dry Gas Condensates (C5 +) 34. Lean Gas (C3 +) < 0.7 USG/MMSCF < 0.1 USG/MMSCF

35. Rich Gas(C3 +) 36. Condensate A hydrocarbon liquid consisting of C5+. > 0.7 USG/MMSCF

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)37. Dehydration Removal of formation water from crude oil or gas. 38. Desalting Removal of salt or salt water 39. Crude Oil Stabilization Removal of the volatile components to minimize vapour losses during storage. 40. Crude Oil Sweetening Removal of sulphur compounds.

DEFINITION OF TERMSPRODUCTION / PROCESS (Contd)41. Gas Sweetening Removal of sulphur compounds or acid gases (H2S & CO2). 42. Single-Phase Flow

Only liquid or gas43. Two-Phase Flow Flow of liquid and gas in a mixture.

44. Two-Phase SeparatorSeparates gas and liquid


Separates gas, oil and water.46. Tank Battery A number of tanks installed in the same location in a certain arrangement. 47. Tank Farm Includes a number of tank batteries.