лекция 5 диссоциац

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Theory of electrolytic dissociation - Lection 4 Konstantin GERMAN Konstantin GERMAN Chair Head of Natural and Biomedical Chair Head of Natural and Biomedical Sciences, Sciences, Medical Institute REAVIZ Medical Institute REAVIZ www.slideshare.net www.slideshare.net

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  • 1. Theory of electrolytic dissociation - Lection 4 Konstantin GERMAN Chair Head of Natural and Biomedical Sciences, Medical Institute REAVIZwww.slideshare.net

2. 5: www.slideshare.net . 3. ( ) . . . . . -. . . . . -, - . . ( ). . . 4. - Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Jr. (30 August 1852 1 March 1911) . , , , Svante Arrhenius (19 Feb. 1859 2 Oct. 1927) , , . 1903 5. - 1887 , , : 6. : , (.. ), (), . . , , .. . , .. . , . Al(NO3)3 Al + + NO3 . - . , , . = n / N n- N- - 0 1, ( 0 7. : : , .. ( ) , . 8. .. .. - : , , , .. . . (, ) : () () . 9. : NaCl + X H2O Na + n H2O + Cl - n H2O , : NaCl Na+ + Cl , : () ( ) () . HCl + H2O H3O++ ClHCl H+ + Cl , H3O+. 10. . . . : HNO3 H+ + NO3- : 1. : HCl, HBr, HY, H2SO4, HNO3, HlO4, HMnO4 2. (): ( IA) ( IIA , Be(OH)2, Mg(OH)2). 3. (: Fe (SCN)3, Mg(CN)2, HgCI2, Hg(CN)2 .) , .. , : 3 3- + + : 1. : H2CO3, H2S, H3BO3, HCN, HNO2, H3PO4, H2SO3, H2SiO3 . 2. : Be(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, Fe(OH)2,Zn(OH)2, NH4OH, (CH3NH2 ) (H3N+CH2COO-) . 3. , = 2 10-9. 11. . , : , , . . . : , . 12. . Vilhelms Ostwalds .1853 , C 1871 1932 , . , . , , .. () . 13. : ( ) . : n , 14. - 1923 - , . . - , . . - . ( ) ( -). 15. 0.1 ! ! ! ! - , , .. ! 16. , . . ( ) , . , . . 154 / Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+. ~154 /, Cl-, HCO3-. 70 42 60% . 2/3 (, .), 1/3 ( , , ..). 17. , , . . ( ) ( ). , , . , 1 / 1 /. , , : Osm = *n*C , 0 ( ) 1 ( ), n , . , NaCl n=2, H2SO4 n=3, C . : ( , ), ( , ) . 18. () . ( 1 ) (), () / = / , . , , , , 1 1 , 1 . . , 1 . , 1 . , . 19. , , , , , , ( ), . (). , , . (, , .) * * , . 20. ( ) , . ( , 00, .) , (, -1,86 ). , , , ( ). , , : 140 /, 5 /, 5 / = 2 Na + (/) + (/) = 2 (140) + 5 + 5 = 290 / 2 21. , , , , ( ). = 2 Na + (/) = 2 (140) + 5 = 285 / 2 - . (. N) . , , , , . 22. , (, , , .). ( 10 / ). , . , . , (, , ) , , , . . , . 23. ( ; i ) . -. , . 1901 . : solut. , nel. solut. , Tbp , Tmp (). 24. , , , . n ( , ), N, , N Nn ), ((N N) + Nn). 25. !